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Tao Li, Jauhar Ali, Manuel Marcaida, Olivyn Angeles, Neil Johann Franje, Jastin Edrian Revilleza, Emmali Manalo, Edilberto Redoña, Jianlong Xu, Zhikang Li
Multi-Environment Trials (MET) are conventionally used to evaluate varietal performance prior to national yield trials, but the accuracy of MET is constrained by the number of test environments. A modeling approach was innovated to evaluate varietal performance in a large number of environments using the rice model ORYZA (v3). Modeled yields representing genotype by environment interactions were used to classify the target population of environments (TPE) and analyze varietal yield and yield stability. Eight Green Super Rice (GSR) and three check varieties were evaluated across 3796 environments and 14 seasons in Southern Asia...
2016: PloS One
Xiuwei Liu, Hongyong Sun, Til Feike, Xiying Zhang, Liwei Shao, Suying Chen
The major wheat production region of China the North China Plain (NCP) is seriously affected by air pollution. In this study, yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was analyzed with respect to the potential impact of air pollution index under conditions of optimal crop management in the NCP from 2001 to 2012. Results showed that air pollution was especially serious at the early phase of winter wheat growth significantly influencing various weather factors. However, no significant correlations were found between final grain yield and the weather factors during the early growth phase...
2016: PloS One
Pierre-Yves Bernard, Marc Benoît, Jean Roger-Estrade, Sylvain Plantureux
The objectives of this comparison of two biophysical models of nitrogen losses were to evaluate first whether results were similar and second whether both were equally practical for use by non-scientist users. Results were obtained with the crop model STICS and the environmental model AGRIFLUX based on nitrogen loss simulations across a small groundwater catchment area (<1 km(2)) located in the Lorraine region in France. Both models simulate the influences of leaching and cropping systems on nitrogen losses in a relevant manner...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Brett Ford, Weiwei Deng, Jenni Clausen, Sandra Oliver, Scott Boden, Megan Hemming, Ben Trevaskis
An increase in global temperatures will impact future crop yields. In the cereal crops wheat and barley, high temperatures accelerate reproductive development, reducing the number of grains per plant and final grain yield. Despite this relationship between temperature and cereal yield, it is not clear what genes and molecular pathways mediate the developmental response to increased temperatures. The plant circadian clock can respond to changes in temperature and is important for photoperiod-dependent flowering, and so is a potential mechanism controlling temperature responses in cereal crops...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Tony Carr, Haishun Yang, Chittaranjan Ray
Water Productivity (WP) of a crop defines the relationship between the economic or physical yield of the crop and its water use. With this concept it is possible to identify disproportionate water use or water-limited yield gaps and thereby support improvements in agricultural water management. However, too often important qualitative and quantitative environmental factors are not part of a WP analysis and therefore neglect the aspect of maintaining a sustainable agricultural system. In this study, we examine both the physical and economic WP in perspective with temporally changing environmental conditions...
2016: PloS One
Fay Newbery, Aiming Qi, Bruce Dl Fitt
Combining climate change, crop growth and crop disease models to predict impacts of climate change on crop diseases can guide planning of climate change adaptation strategies to ensure future food security. This review summarises recent developments in modelling climate change impacts on crop diseases, emphasises some major challenges and highlights recent trends. The use of multi-model ensembles in climate change modelling and crop modelling is contributing towards measures of uncertainty in climate change impact projections but other aspects of uncertainty remain largely unexplored...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
S V Krishna Jagadish, Rajeev N Bahuguna, Maduraimuthu Djanaguiraman, Rico Gamuyao, P V Vara Prasad, Peter Q Craufurd
Flowering is a crucial determinant for plant reproductive success and seed-set. Increasing temperature and elevated carbon-dioxide (e[CO2]) are key climate change factors that could affect plant fitness and flowering related events. Addressing the effect of these environmental factors on flowering events such as time of day of anthesis (TOA) and flowering time (duration from germination till flowering) is critical to understand the adaptation of plants/crops to changing climate and is the major aim of this review...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Emilie J Millet, Claude Welcker, Willem Kruijer, Sandra Negro, Aude Coupel-Ledru, Stéphane D Nicolas, Jacques Laborde, Cyril Bauland, Sebastien Praud, Nicolas Ranc, Thomas Presterl, Roberto Tuberosa, Zoltan Bedo, Xavier Draye, Björn Usadel, Alain Charcosset, Fred Van Eeuwijk, François Tardieu
Assessing the genetic variability of plant performance under heat and drought scenarios can contribute to reduce the negative effects of climate change. We propose here an approach that consisted of (1) clustering time courses of environmental variables simulated by a crop model in current (35 years × 55 sites) and future conditions into six scenarios of temperature and water deficit as experienced by maize (Zea mays L.) plants; (2) performing 29 field experiments in contrasting conditions across Europe with 244 maize hybrids; (3) assigning individual experiments to scenarios based on environmental conditions as measured in each field experiment; frequencies of temperature scenarios in our experiments corresponded to future heat scenarios (+5°C); (4) analyzing the genetic variation of plant performance for each environmental scenario...
October 2016: Plant Physiology
Christian Folberth, Rastislav Skalský, Elena Moltchanova, Juraj Balkovič, Ligia B Azevedo, Michael Obersteiner, Marijn van der Velde
Global gridded crop models (GGCMs) are increasingly used for agro-environmental assessments and estimates of climate change impacts on food production. Recently, the influence of climate data and weather variability on GGCM outcomes has come under detailed scrutiny, unlike the influence of soil data. Here we compare yield variability caused by the soil type selected for GGCM simulations to weather-induced yield variability. Without fertilizer application, soil-type-related yield variability generally outweighs the simulated inter-annual variability in yield due to weather...
2016: Nature Communications
Tianyi Zhang, Tao Li, Xiaoguang Yang, Elisabeth Simelton
Climate-induced crop yields model projections are constrained by the accuracy of the phenology simulation in crop models. Here, we use phenology observations from 775 trials with 19 rice cultivars in 5 Asian countries to compare the performance of four rice phenology models (growing-degree-day (GDD), exponential, beta and bilinear models) when applied to warmer climates. For a given cultivar, the difference in growing season temperature (GST) varied between 2.2 and 8.2 °C in different trials, which allowed us to calibrate the models for lower GST and validate under higher GST, with three calibration experiments...
2016: Scientific Reports
H Fraga, I García de Cortázar Atauri, A C Malheiro, J A Santos
Viticulture is a key socioeconomic sector in Europe. Owing to the strong sensitivity of grapevines to atmospheric factors, climate change may represent an important challenge for this sector. The present study analyses viticultural suitability, yield, phenology, and water and nitrogen stress indices in Europe, for present climates (1980-2005) and future (2041-2070) climate change scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). The STICS crop model is coupled with climate, soil and terrain databases, also taking into account CO2 physiological effects, and simulations are validated against observational datasets...
June 2, 2016: Global Change Biology
Rose A Graves, Scott M Pearson, Monica G Turner
Rural landscapes face changing climate, shifting development pressure, and loss of agricultural land. Perennial bioenergy crops grown on existing agricultural land may provide an opportunity to conserve rural landscapes while addressing increased demand for biofuels. However, increased bioenergy production and changing land use raise concerns for tradeoffs within the food-energy-environment trilemma. Heterogeneity of climate, soils, and land use complicate assessment of bioenergy potential in complex landscapes, creating challenges to evaluating future tradeoffs...
March 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Sabine-Karen Lammoglia, Julien Moeys, Enrique Barriuso, Mats Larsbo, Jesús-María Marín-Benito, Eric Justes, Lionel Alletto, Marjorie Ubertosi, Bernard Nicolardot, Nicolas Munier-Jolain, Laure Mamy
The current challenge in sustainable agriculture is to introduce new cropping systems to reduce pesticides use in order to reduce ground and surface water contamination. However, it is difficult to carry out in situ experiments to assess the environmental impacts of pesticide use for all possible combinations of climate, crop, and soils; therefore, in silico tools are necessary. The objective of this work was to assess pesticides leaching in cropping systems coupling the performances of a crop model (STICS) and of a pesticide fate model (MACRO)...
May 18, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Weilong Ding, Lifeng Xu, Yang Wei, Fuli Wu, Defeng Zhu, Yuping Zhang, Nelson Max
How to select and combine good traits of rice to get high-production individuals is one of the key points in developing crop ideotype cultivation technologies. Existing cultivation methods for producing ideal plants, such as field trials and crop modeling, have some limits. In this paper, we propose a method based on a genetic algorithm (GA) and a functional-structural plant model (FSPM) to optimize plant types of virtual rice by dynamically adjusting phenotypical traits. In this algorithm, phenotypical traits such as leaf angles, plant heights, the maximum number of tiller, and the angle of tiller are considered as input parameters of our virtual rice model...
August 21, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Maria Celeste Dias, José Moutinho-Pereira, Carlos Correia, Cristina Monteiro, Márcia Araújo, Wolfgang Brüggemann, Conceição Santos
This research aims at identifying the main deleterious effects of Cr(VI) on the photosynthetic apparatus and at selecting the most sensitive endpoints related to photosynthesis. To achieve this goal, we used lettuce (Lactuca sativa), a sensible ecotoxicological crop model. Three-week-old plants were exposed to 0, 50, 150 and 200 mg L(-1) of Cr(VI). These concentrations ranged from levels admitted in irrigation waters to values found in several Cr industry effluents and heavily contaminated environments. After 30 days of exposure, plants accumulated Cr preferably in roots and showed nutritional impairment, with decreases of K, Mg, Fe and Zn in both roots and leaves...
August 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Tianduowa Zhu, M W Ertsen, N C van der Giesen
The Hohokam, an irrigation-based society in the American South West, used the river valleys of the Salt and Gila Rivers between 500 and 1500 AD to grow their crops. Such irrigated crops are linking human agency, water sources and the general natural environment. In order to grow crops, water available through rain and river flows needs to be diverted to land where the plants are grown. With a focus on the Gila River, this paper uses the potential harvest of maize (a main Hohokam crop) as a proxy for evaluating the influence of natural water availability and climatic changes on irrigation options for maize...
2015: Water history
Holger Hoffmann, Gang Zhao, Senthold Asseng, Marco Bindi, Christian Biernath, Julie Constantin, Elsa Coucheney, Rene Dechow, Luca Doro, Henrik Eckersten, Thomas Gaiser, Balázs Grosz, Florian Heinlein, Belay T Kassie, Kurt-Christian Kersebaum, Christian Klein, Matthias Kuhnert, Elisabet Lewan, Marco Moriondo, Claas Nendel, Eckart Priesack, Helene Raynal, Pier P Roggero, Reimund P Rötter, Stefan Siebert, Xenia Specka, Fulu Tao, Edmar Teixeira, Giacomo Trombi, Daniel Wallach, Lutz Weihermüller, Jagadeesh Yeluripati, Frank Ewert
We show the error in water-limited yields simulated by crop models which is associated with spatially aggregated soil and climate input data. Crop simulations at large scales (regional, national, continental) frequently use input data of low resolution. Therefore, climate and soil data are often generated via averaging and sampling by area majority. This may bias simulated yields at large scales, varying largely across models. Thus, we evaluated the error associated with spatially aggregated soil and climate data for 14 crop models...
2016: PloS One
Christian Siderius, Hester Biemans, Paul E V van Walsum, Ekko C van Ierland, Pavel Kabat, Petra J G J Hellegers
One of the main manifestations of climate change will be increased rainfall variability. How to deal with this in agriculture will be a major societal challenge. In this paper we explore flexibility in land use, through deliberate seasonal adjustments in cropped area, as a specific strategy for coping with rainfall variability. Such adjustments are not incorporated in hydro-meteorological crop models commonly used for food security analyses. Our paper contributes to the literature by making a comprehensive model assessment of inter-annual variability in crop production, including both variations in crop yield and cropped area...
2016: PloS One
Yunbi Xu
Global climate change imposes increasing impacts on our environments and crop production. To decipher environmental impacts on crop plants, the concept "envirotyping" is proposed, as a third "typing" technology, complementing with genotyping and phenotyping. Environmental factors can be collected through multiple environmental trials, geographic and soil information systems, measurement of soil and canopy properties, and evaluation of companion organisms. Envirotyping contributes to crop modeling and phenotype prediction through its functional components, including genotype-by-environment interaction (GEI), genes responsive to environmental signals, biotic and abiotic stresses, and integrative phenotyping...
April 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Anna Kisiel, Ewa Kępczyńska
The present study showed all the 16 strains isolated and identified from the alfalfa rhizosphere and nodules, and registered in GenBank, to be good candidates for targeted use in studies addressing the rather weak known mechanism of plant growth promotion, including that of Medicago truncatula, a molecular crop model. Based on physiological, biochemical and molecular analysis, the 16 isolates obtained were ascribed to the following five families: Bacillaceae, Rhizobiaceae, Xantomonadaceae, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae, within which 9 genera and 16 species were identified...
May 2016: Planta
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