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Cooperative extension

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420141/coordinated-actions-of-micrornas-with-other-epigenetic-factors-regulate-skeletal-muscle-development-and-adaptation
#1
REVIEW
Marzia Bianchi, Alessandra Renzini, Sergio Adamo, Viviana Moresi
Epigenetics plays a pivotal role in regulating gene expression in development, in response to cellular stress or in disease states, in virtually all cell types. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, non-coding RNA molecules that mediate RNA silencing and regulate gene expression. miRNAs were discovered in 1993 and have been extensively studied ever since. They can be expressed in a tissue-specific manner and play a crucial role in tissue development and many biological processes. miRNAs are responsible for changes in the cell epigenome because of their ability to modulate gene expression post-transcriptionally...
April 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419592/catalyst-optimisation-for-asymmetric-synthesis-by-ligand-chirality-element-addition-a-perspective-on-stereochemical-cooperativity
#2
Christopher John Richards, Ross Arthurs
The concept of matched and mismatched stereochemical pairings has been utilised extensively in organic synthesis, with the cooperativity resulting from the former enabling many reactions to proceed with high stereoselectivity. This approach was first developed to improve the diastereoselectivity of a reaction by matching the configuration of an enantiopure reagent or catalyst with the configuration of an enantiopure substrate. It has been extended to the asymmetric transformation of prochiral substrates controlled by reagents and catalysts containing two or more stereogenic centres...
April 18, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419082/diffuse-optical-tomography-to-investigate-the-newborn-brain
#3
REVIEW
Chuen Wai Lee, Robert J Cooper, Topun Austin
Over the past 15 years, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has emerged as a powerful technology for studying the developing brain. Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT) is an extension of fNIRS that combines hemodynamic information from dense optical sensor arrays over a wide field of view. Using image reconstruction techniques, DOT can provide images of the hemodynamic correlates to neural function that are comparable to those produced by functional MRI (fMRI). This review article explains the principles of DOT, and highlights the growing literature on the use of DOT in the study of healthy development of the infant brain, and the study of novel pathophysiology in infants with brain injury...
April 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406290/cooperative-catalysis-at-metal-sulfur-bonds
#4
Lukas Omann, C David F Königs, Hendrik F T Klare, Martin Oestreich
Cooperative catalysis has attracted tremendous attention in recent years, emerging as a key strategy for the development of novel atom-economic and environmentally more benign catalytic processes. In particular, Noyori-type complexes with metal-nitrogen bonds have been extensively studied and evolved as privileged catalysts in hydrogenation chemistry. In contrast, catalysts containing metal-sulfur bonds as the reactive site are out of the ordinary, despite their abundance in living systems, where they are assumed to play a key role in biologically relevant processes...
April 13, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389750/the-role-of-heat-shock-factors-in-mammalian-spermatogenesis
#5
Wieslawa Widlak, Natalia Vydra
Heat shock transcription factors (HSFs), as regulators of heat shock proteins (HSPs) expression, are well known for their cytoprotective functions during cellular stress. They also play important yet less recognized roles in gametogenesis. All HSF family members are expressed during mammalian spermatogenesis, mainly in spermatocytes and round spermatids which are characterized by extensive chromatin remodeling. Different HSFs could cooperate to maintain proper spermatogenesis. Cooperation of HSF1 and HSF2 is especially well established since their double knockout results in meiosis arrest, spermatocyte apoptosis, and male infertility...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385599/intramyocellular-lipid-content-and-lipogenic-gene-expression-responses-following-a-single-bout-of-resistance-type-exercise-differ-between-young-and-older-men
#6
Kostas Tsintzas, Francis B Stephens, Tim Snijders, Benjamin T Wall, Scott Cooper, Joanne Mallinson, Lex B Verdijk, Luc J C van Loon
The aim of this study was to examine the temporal relationship between intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) content and the expression of genes associated with IMCL turnover, fat metabolism, and inflammation during recovery from an acute bout of resistance type exercise in old versus young men. Seven healthy young (23±2years, 77.2±2.9kg) and seven healthy older (72±1years, 79.3±4.9kg) males performed a single bout of resistance exercise involving 6 sets of 10 repetitions of leg press and 6 sets of 10 repetitions of leg extension at 75% one-repetition maximum (1-RM)...
April 3, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381576/dna-binding-properties-of-the-african-swine-fever-virus-pa104r-a-histone-like-protein-involved-in-viral-replication-and-transcription
#7
Gonçalo Frouco, Ferdinando B Freitas, João Coelho, Alexandre Leitão, Carlos Martins, Fernando Ferreira
African swine fever virus (ASFV) codes for a putative histone-like protein (pA104R) with extensive sequence homology to bacterial proteins that are implicated in genome replication and packaging. Functional characterization of purified recombinant pA104R revealed that it binds to ssDNA and dsDNA over a wide range of temperatures, pH values, salt concentrations and in an ATP-independent manner, with an estimated binding site size of about 14-16 nucleotides. Using site-directed mutagenesis, the arginine located in pA104R's DNA-binding domain, at position 69, was found to be relevant for an efficient DNA-binding activity...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365483/structural-transitions-in-torsionally-constrained-dna-and-their-dependence-on-solution-electrostatics
#8
Jaspreet Singh, Prashant K Purohit
Experimental studies on single molecules of DNA have reported a rich variety of structural transitions, including coexistence of three phases, in a torsionally constrained molecule. A comprehensive knowledge of these structural transitions is useful for unraveling the in vivo and in vitro behavior of DNA. Our objective is to understand the structural transitions in a torsionally constrained DNA molecule when it is pulled using optical or magnetic tweezers. We use foundational concepts from the Zimm-Bragg helix-coil transition theory and merge them with ideas from the theory of fluctuating elastic rods to model the mechanics of DNA...
March 29, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365470/coping-as-a-mediator-of-stress-and-psychotic-like-experiences
#9
A Ered, L E Gibson, S D Maxwell, S Cooper, L M Ellman
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that individuals along the whole psychosis continuum have increased responsiveness to stress; however, coping responses to stressors have not been extensively explored in subthreshold psychotic symptoms. METHODS: In 454 undergraduates, psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) were evaluated using the positive items of the Prodromal Questionnaire. Perceived stress and traumatic life events were assessed using the Life Events Checklist and Perceived Stress Scale, and coping was measured using the Brief COPE...
February 9, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363818/ancient-dna-analysis-of-the-extinct-north-american-flat-headed-peccary-platygonus-compressus
#10
Tahlia Perry, Ayla L van Loenen, Holly Heiniger, Carol Lee, Jaime Gongora, Alan Cooper, Kieren J Mitchell
The geographical range of extant peccaries extends from the southwestern United States through Central America and into northern Argentina. However, from the Miocene until the Pleistocene now-extinct peccary species inhabited the entirety of North America. Relationships among the living and extinct species have long been contentious. Similarly, how and when peccaries moved from North to South America is unclear. The North American flat-headed peccary (Platygonus compressus) became extinct at the end of the Pleistocene and is one of the most abundant subfossil taxa found in North America, yet despite this extensive fossil record its phylogenetic position has not been resolved...
March 28, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362338/tracking-a-non-cooperative-target-using-real-time-stereovision-based-control-an-experimental-study
#11
Tomer Shtark, Pini Gurfil
Tracking a non-cooperative target is a challenge, because in unfamiliar environments most targets are unknown and unspecified. Stereovision is suited to deal with this issue, because it allows to passively scan large areas and estimate the relative position, velocity and shape of objects. This research is an experimental effort aimed at developing, implementing and evaluating a real-time non-cooperative target tracking methods using stereovision measurements only. A computer-vision feature detection and matching algorithm was developed in order to identify and locate the target in the captured images...
March 31, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353501/cooperative-extension-as-a-framework-for-health-extension-the-michigan-state-university-model
#12
Jeffrey W Dwyer, Dawn Contreras, Cheryl L Eschbach, Holly Tiret, Cathy Newkirk, Erin Carter, Linda Cronk
PROBLEM: The Affordable Care Act charged the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality to create the Primary Care Extension Program, but did not fund this effort. The idea to work through health extension agents to support health care delivery systems was based on the nationally known Cooperative Extension System (CES). Instead of creating new infrastructure in health care, the CES is an ideal vehicle for increasing health-related research and primary care delivery. APPROACH: The CES, a long-standing component of the land-grant university system, features a sustained infrastructure for providing education to communities...
March 28, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353483/ebola-preparedness-in-the-netherlands-the-need-for-coordination-between-the-public-health-and-the-curative-sector
#13
Corien M Swaan, Alexander V Öry, Lianne G C Schol, André Jacobi, Jan Hendrik Richardus, Aura Timen
CONTEXT: During the Ebola outbreak in West Africa in 2014-2015, close cooperation between the curative sector and the public health sector in the Netherlands was necessary for timely identification, referral, and investigation of patients with suspected Ebola virus disease (EVD). OBJECTIVE: In this study, we evaluated experiences in preparedness among stakeholders of both curative and public health sectors to formulate recommendations for optimizing preparedness protocols...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346438/basolateral-protrusion-and-apical-contraction-cooperatively-drive-drosophila-germ-band-extension
#14
Zijun Sun, Christopher Amourda, Murat Shagirov, Yusuke Hara, Timothy E Saunders, Yusuke Toyama
Throughout development, tissues undergo complex morphological changes, resulting from cellular mechanics that evolve over time and in three-dimensional space. During Drosophila germ-band extension (GBE), cell intercalation is the key mechanism for tissue extension, and the associated apical junction remodelling is driven by polarized myosin-II-dependent contraction. However, the contribution of the basolateral cellular mechanics to GBE remains poorly understood. Here, we characterize how cells coordinate their shape from the apical to the basal side during rosette formation, a hallmark of cell intercalation...
March 27, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343976/prophylactic-cranial-irradiation-versus-observation-in-patients-with-extensive-disease-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-multicentre-randomised-open-label-phase-3-trial
#15
Toshiaki Takahashi, Takeharu Yamanaka, Takashi Seto, Hideyuki Harada, Hiroshi Nokihara, Hideo Saka, Makoto Nishio, Hiroyasu Kaneda, Koichi Takayama, Osamu Ishimoto, Koji Takeda, Hiroshige Yoshioka, Motoko Tachihara, Hiroshi Sakai, Koichi Goto, Nobuyuki Yamamoto
BACKGROUND: Results from a previous phase 3 study suggested that prophylactic cranial irradiation reduces the incidence of symptomatic brain metastases and prolongs overall survival compared with no prophylactic cranial irradiation in patients with extensive-disease small-cell lung cancer. However, because of the absence of brain imaging before enrolment and variations in chemotherapeutic regimens and irradiation doses, concerns have been raised about these findings. We did a phase 3 trial to reassess the efficacy of prophylactic cranial irradiation in the treatment of extensive-disease small-cell lung cancer...
March 23, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343220/hemorrhagic-transformations-after-thrombectomy-risk-factors-and-clinical-relevance
#16
Johannes Kaesmacher, Mirjam Kaesmacher, Christian Maegerlein, Claus Zimmer, Alexandra S Gersing, Silke Wunderlich, Benjamin Friedrich, Tobias Boeckh-Behrens, Justus F Kleine
BACKGROUND: Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is a major complication of acute ischemic stroke, potentially associated with clinical deterioration. We attempted to identify risk factors and evaluated clinical relevance of minor and major HTs following endovascular thrombectomy (ET) in isolated middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusions. METHODS: This is a retrospective single-center analysis of 409 patients with isolated MCA occlusion treated with ET. Patients' and procedural characteristics, severity of HT according to the European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study criteria, and clinical outcomes were analyzed...
March 25, 2017: Cerebrovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335494/cooperative-opportunistic-pressure-based-routing-for-underwater-wireless-sensor-networks
#17
Nadeem Javaid, Muhammad, Arshad Sher, Wadood Abdul, Iftikhar Azim Niaz, Ahmad Almogren, Atif Alamri
In this paper, three opportunistic pressure based routing techniques for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) are proposed. The first one is the cooperative opportunistic pressure based routing protocol (Co-Hydrocast), second technique is the improved Hydrocast (improved-Hydrocast), and third one is the cooperative improved Hydrocast (Co-improved Hydrocast). In order to minimize lengthy routing paths between the source and the destination and to avoid void holes at the sparse networks, sensor nodes are deployed at different strategic locations...
March 19, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327517/combined-pre-distortion-and-censoring-for-bandwidth-efficient-and-energy-efficient-fusion-of-spectrum-sensing-information
#18
Guilherme Pedro Aquino, Dayan Adionel Guimarães, Luciano Leonel Mendes, Tales Cleber Pimenta
This paper describes a novel scheme for the fusion of spectrum sensing information in cooperative spectrum sensing for cognitive radio applications. The scheme combines a spectrum-efficient, pre-distortion-based fusion strategy with an energy-efficient censoring-based fusion strategy to achieve the combined effect of reduction in bandwidth and power consumption during the transmissions of the local decisions to the fusion center. Expressions for computing the key performance metrics of the spectrum sensing of the proposed scheme are derived and validated by means of computer simulations...
March 22, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322168/pediatric-off-label-and-unlicensed-drug-use-and-its-implications
#19
Rajeshwari Gore, Preeta Kaur Chugh, Chakra Dhar Tripathi, Yangshen Lhamo, Sandhya Gautam
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, in the absence of standard pediatric prescribing information, clinicians often use medicines in children in a dosage form or for an indication that has not been approved for use. Inadequate clinical trials increase exposure to drugs that lack safety-efficacy data in pediatric population. Hence, off-label and unlicensed drug use must be regarded as a patient safety-issue that is known to be associated with increased risks of adverse drug reactions apart from under- or over-dosing due to lack of pharmacokinetic data...
March 17, 2017: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316511/binary-classifier-calibration-using-an-ensemble-of-near-isotonic-regression-models
#20
Mahdi Pakdaman Naeini, Gregory F Cooper
Learning accurate probabilistic models from data is crucial in many practical tasks in data mining. In this paper we present a new non-parametric calibration method called ensemble of near isotonic regression (ENIR). The method can be considered as an extension of BBQ [20], a recently proposed calibration method, as well as the commonly used calibration method based on isotonic regression (IsoRegC) [27]. ENIR is designed to address the key limitation of IsoRegC which is the monotonicity assumption of the predictions...
December 2016: Proceedings
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