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preeclampsia etiology

Arsenio Spinillo, Fausta Beneventi, Elena Locatelli, Vèronique Ramoni, Roberto Caporali, Claudia Alpini, Giulia Albonico, Chiara Cavagnoli, Carlomaurizio Montecucco
BACKGROUND: The burden of pregnancy complications associated with well defined, already established systemic rheumatic diseases preexisting pregnancy such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus or scleroderma is well known. Systemic rheumatic diseases are characterized by a long natural history with few symptoms, an undifferentiated picture or a remitting course making difficult a timely diagnosis. It has been suggested that screening measures for these diseases could be useful but the impact of unrecognized systemic rheumatic disorders on pregnancy outcome is unknown...
October 18, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Andrea G Edlow, Brian L Edlow, Jonathan A Edlow
Acute neurologic symptoms in pregnant and postpartum women may be caused by exacerbation of a preexisting neurologic condition, the initial presentation of a non-pregnancy-related problem, or a new neurologic problem. Pregnant and postpartum patients with headache and neurologic symptoms are often diagnosed with preeclampsia or eclampsia; however, other etiologies must also be considered. A team approach with close communication between emergency physicians, neurologists, maternal-fetal medicine specialists, and radiologists is the key to obtaining best outcomes...
November 2016: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
Kenna Degner, Ronald R Magness, Dinesh M Shah
The uterine vasculature undergoes marked changes during pregnancy in order to provide the necessary increase in blood flow to support growth and nutrition of the uterus, placenta, and developing fetus. Pregnancy-associated uterine vascular transformations are orchestrated by a complex array of endocrine and cellular mechanisms to bring about structural modifications at the maternal-fetal interface, which collectively lead to development of the uteroplacental circulation. Understanding intrinsic uterine vascular remodeling in pregnancy is essential for understanding the physiologic and pathophysiologic regulation of maternal uterine blood flow...
October 12, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
Francisca Caimari, Elena Valassi, Patricia Garbayo, Charlotte Steffensen, Alicia Santos, Rosa Corcoy, Susan M Webb
Pregnancy in Cushing's syndrome (CS) is extremely rare due to the influence of hypercortisolism on the reproductive axis. Purpose of this study is to investigate whether the etiology of CS in pregnancy determines a different impact on the fetal/newborn and maternal outcomes. We performed a systematic review of cases published in the literature from January 1952 to April 2015 including the words "Cushing AND pregnancy". We included 168 manuscripts containing 220 patients and 263 pregnancies with active CS during pregnancy and with a history of CS but treated and cured hypercortisolism at the time of gestation...
October 4, 2016: Endocrine
J Tay, L Foo, C McEniery, I Wilkinson, C Lees
INTRODUCTION: Studies in pre-eclampsia have demonstrated that central haemodynamic changes give more insight than peripheral measures into maternal cardiac and vascular physiology. This study aims to investigate augmentation index (AIX) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) in pregnancies affected by fetal growth restriction (FGR) and compare them to healthy women in the third trimester of pregnancy. Augmentation index (AIx) is a measure of systemic arterial stiffness derived from the ascending aortic pressure waveform...
August 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Melissa D Amosco, Van Anthony M Villar, Justin Michael A Naniong, Lara Marie G David-Bustamante, Pedro A Jose, Cynthia P Palmes-Saloma
The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family is important for establishing normal pregnancy, and related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are implicated in abnormal placentation and preeclampsia. We evaluated the association between preeclampsia and several VEGF SNPs among Filipinos, an ethnically distinct group with high prevalence of preeclampsia. The genotypes and allelic variants were determined in a case-control study (191 controls and 165 preeclampsia patients) through SNP analysis of VEGF-A (rs2010963, rs3025039) and VEGF-C (rs7664413) and their corresponding receptors VEGFR1 (rs722503, rs12584067, rs7335588) and VEGFR3 (rs307826) from venous blood DNA...
2016: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
Leidiane de Lucca, Fabiane Rodrigues, Letícia B Jantsch, Helena Kober, Walter S Neme, Francisco M P Gallarreta, Thissiane L Gonçalves
Preeclampsia is an important pregnancy-specific multisystem disorder characterized by the onset of hypertension and proteinuria. It is of unknown etiology and involves serious risks for the pregnant women and fetus. One of the main factors involved in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia is oxidative stress, where excess free radicals produce harmful effects, including damage to macromolecules such as lipids, proteins and DNA. In addition, the sulfhydryl delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase enzyme (δ-ALA-D) that is part of the heme biosynthetic pathway in pro-oxidant conditions can be inhibited, which may result in the accumulation of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), associated with the overproduction of free radicals, suggesting it to be an indirect marker of oxidative stress...
September 19, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
L L Nilsson, S Djurisic, A-M N Andersen, M Melbye, D Bjerre, L Ferrero-Miliani, R Hackmon, D E Geraghty, T V F Hviid
The etiological pathways and pathogenesis of preeclampsia have rendered difficult to disentangle. Accumulating evidence points toward a maladapted maternal immune system, which may involve aberrant placental expression of immunomodulatory human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class Ib molecules during pregnancy. Several studies have shown aberrant or reduced expression of HLA-G in the placenta and in maternal blood in cases of preeclampsia compared with controls. Unlike classical HLA class Ia loci, the nonclassical HLA-G has limited polymorphic variants...
October 2016: HLA
Sangeethapriya Duraiswamy, Jeanne S Sheffield, Donald Mcintire, Kenneth Leveno, Marlyn J Mayo
BACKGROUND: The most common cause of jaundice during pregnancy in the United States (US) is still attributed to viral hepatitis, despite the dramatic drop in incidence of viral hepatitis in the US. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that viral hepatitis is no longer a frequent etiology of jaundice among the pregnant population in the US and sought to identify the contemporary causes of elevated bilirubin during pregnancy as well as to quantify the associated risk to the mother and fetus...
September 1, 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Polina A Vishnyakova, Maria A Volodina, Nadezhda V Tarasova, Maria V Marey, Daria V Tsvirkun, Olga V Vavina, Zulfiya S Khodzhaeva, Natalya E Kan, Ramkumar Menon, Mikhail Yu Vysokikh, Gennady T Sukhikh
Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific syndrome, characterized in general by hypertension with proteinuria or other systemic disturbances. PE is the major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, the etiology of PE still remains unclear. Our study involved 38 patients: 14 with uncomplicated pregnancy; 13 with early-onset PE (eoPE); and 11 with late-onset PE (loPE). We characterized the immunophenotype of cells isolated from the placenta and all biopsy samples were stained positive for Cytokeratin 7, SOX2, Nestin, Vimentin, and CD44...
2016: Scientific Reports
Rekha Sachan, Munna Lal Patel, Soniya Dhiman, Pooja Gupta, Pushplata Sachan, Radhey Shyam
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia is a multisystem disorder of unknown etiology that affects 4-5% of all pregnancies. The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of serum soluble endoglin (sEng) in preeclampsia and eclampsia and also to evaluate its prognostic significance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective case-control study carried out over a period of 1 year in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, King George Medical University, Lucknow...
2016: Advanced Biomedical Research
S H Lin, J Y Yan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective effect of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) in the liver of preeclampsiapregnant rats and the potential etiology. METHODS: Fifty pregnant SD rats were equally divided into the normal pregnant (NP) group (n=10) and the preeclampsia (PE) group (n=40) randomly. The PE rats (n=40) were equally divided into four groups randomly, distilled water (DW) group, CoQ10 group, CoQ10 combined magnesium(CM) group and magnesium (Mg) group were established by treating the preeclampsia rats on day 15 to 21 of gestation with different measures...
August 25, 2016: Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke za Zhi
Hirohito Metoki, Noriyuki Iwama, Mami Ishikuro, Michihiro Satoh, Takahisa Murakami, Hidekazu Nishigori
Blood pressure (BP) is important to measure during pregnancy because it provides the basis for classifying hypertension, which has several etiologies. Similarly, monitoring home and ambulatory BP can provide useful information outside a medical setting for adults who are not pregnant. Office BP is higher during early pregnancy in primiparous women than in multiparous women, whereas out-of-office BP does not differ between them. White-coat hypertension might be benign compared with hypertension determined from ambulatory BP values that might be associated with a high risk for preeclampsia...
August 25, 2016: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
J Prakash, P Pant, S Prakash, M Sivasankar, R Vohra, P K Doley, L K Pandey, U Singh
The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in pregnancy is declining in developing countries but still remains a major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to analyze the changing trends in pregnancy related AKI (PR-AKI) over a period of thirty-three years. Clinical characteristics of PR-AKI with respect to incidence, etiology and fetal and maternal outcomes were compared in three study periods, namely 1982-1991,1992-2002 and 2003-2014. The incidence of PR-AKI decreased to 10...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Nephrology
Asher Ornoy, Liza Weinstein-Fudim, Zivanit Ergaz
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affecting about 1% of all children is associated, in addition to complex genetic factors, with a variety of prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal etiologies. In addition, ASD is often an important clinical presentation of some well-known genetic syndromes in human. We discuss these syndromes as well as the role of the more important prenatal factors affecting the fetus throughout pregnancy which may also be associated with ASD. Among the genetic disorders we find Fragile X, Rett syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, Timothy syndrome, Phelan-McDermid syndrome, Hamartoma tumor syndrome, Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes, and a few others...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
A O Onyegbule, C C Onah, B C Iheukwumere, J N Udo, C C Atuegbu, N O Nosakhare
BACKGROUND: The exact etiology of preeclampsia remains unknown even though several studies have been done. Some studies have shown that supplementation of zinc (Zn) and copper could ameliorate the effects of preeclampsia while other studies did not establish the beneficial role of these elements in preeclampsia. The objective of this study was to compare the Zn and copper levels in the serum of Nigerian women with or without preeclampsia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, serum Zn and copper levels were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry in 54 patients and 48 healthy normotensive pregnant women...
May 2016: Nigerian Medical Journal: Journal of the Nigeria Medical Association
Chizuko A Kamiya, Jun Yoshimatsu, Tomoaki Ikeda
Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a rare, but life-threatening condition that occurs during the peripartum period in previously healthy women. Although its etiology remains unknown, potential risk factors include hypertensive disorders during pregnancy, such as preeclampsia, advanced maternal age, multiparity, multiple gestation, and African descent. Several cohort studies of PPCM revealed that the prevalence of these risk factors was quite similar. Clinically, approximately 40% of PPCM patients are complicated with hypertensive disorders during pregnancy...
July 25, 2016: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
Samira A Brooks, Elizabeth Martin, Lisa Smeester, Matthew R Grace, Kim Boggess, Rebecca C Fry
Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy disorder characterized by high blood pressure and proteinuria that can cause adverse health effects in both mother and fetus. There is no current cure for PE other than delivery of the fetus. While the etiology is unknown, poor placentation of the placenta due to aberrant signaling of growth and angiogenic factors has been postulated as causal factors of PE. In addition, environmental contaminants, such as the metal cadmium (Cd), have been linked to placental toxicity and increased risk of developing PE...
June 29, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Mustafa Pehlivan, Pelin Ozün Ozbay, Muzaffer Temur, Ozgur Yılmaz, Fatma Ferda Verit, Nurten Aksoy, Engin Korkmazer, Emin Üstünyurt
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a relationship between preeclampsia and prolidase enzyme activity. METHODS: Aprospective cohort study of 41 pregnant women diagnosed with preeclampsia and 31 healthy pregnant women as control group, was selected at Harran University Hospital Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. The prolidase enzyme activity was analysed in maternal and umblical cord plasma, amniotic fluid and plasental and umblical cord tissues by Chinard method in addition to maternal serum levels of LDH, SGPT, SGOT...
June 22, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
P J Correa, Y Palmeiro, M J Soto, C Ugarte, S E Illanes
Hypertensive disorders are a major cause of maternal death. Preeclampsia (PE) affects about 5% of pregnancies and is associated to high cardiovascular death risk. Understanding of its origin and cause is difficult and many etiologies have been proposed. So far, little can be done for real prevention and the only treatment is pregnancy interruption, increasing the child's risk for prematurity complications. Early markers of disease are a promising path for understanding the pathogenesis and developing new strategies for prediction and eventually disease prevention...
August 2016: Hypertension in Pregnancy
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