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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441151/recent-clinical-trials-in-valvular-heart-disease
#1
Daniel Kiss, Saif Anwaruddin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With widespread adoption of transcatheter aortic valve replacement, there has been a change in the approach to management of valvular heart disease. New interest has taken hold in transcatheter therapies for valvular heart disease, as well as research into pathophysiology and progression of disease. Additionally, several key trials have further refined our understanding of surgical management of valvular heart disease. This review will elucidate recent clinical trial data leading to changes in practice...
April 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436922/the-feasibility-of-manual-parameter-tuning-for-deformable-breast-mr-image-registration-from-a-multi-objective-optimization-perspective
#2
Kleopatra Pirpinia, Peter Bosman, Claudette Loo, Gonneke Winter-Warnars, Natasja Janssen, Astrid Scholten, Jan-Jakob Sonke, Marcel van Herk, Tanja Alderliesten
Deformable image registration is typically formulated as an optimization problem involving a linearly weighted combination of terms that correspond to objectives of interest (e.g., similarity, deformation magnitude). The weights, along with multiple other parameters, need to be manually tuned for each application, a task currently mainly addressed via trial-and-error approaches. Such approaches can only be successful if there is a sensible interplay between parameters, objectives, and desired registration outcome...
April 24, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427989/egocentric-and-allocentric-visuospatial-working-memory-in-premotor-huntington-s-disease-a-double-dissociation-with-caudate-and-hippocampal-volumes
#3
Katherine L Possin, Hosung Kim, Michael D Geschwind, Tacie Moskowitz, Erica T Johnson, Sharon J Sha, Alexandra Apple, Duan Xu, Bruce L Miller, Steven Finkbeiner, Christopher P Hess, Joel H Kramer
Our brains represent spatial information in egocentric (self-based) or allocentric (landmark-based) coordinates. Rodent studies have demonstrated a critical role for the caudate in egocentric navigation and the hippocampus in allocentric navigation. We administered tests of egocentric and allocentric working memory to individuals with premotor Huntington's disease (pmHD), which is associated with early caudate nucleus atrophy, and controls. Each test had 80 trials during which subjects were asked to remember 2 locations over 1-sec delays...
April 17, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416280/progress-toward-gene-therapy-for-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#4
REVIEW
Joel R Chamberlain, Jeffrey S Chamberlain
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) has been a major target for gene therapy development for nearly 30 years. DMD is among the most common genetic diseases, and isolation of the defective gene (DMD, or dystrophin) was a landmark discovery, as it was the first time a human disease gene had been cloned without knowledge of the protein product. Despite tremendous obstacles, including the enormous size of the gene and the large volume of muscle tissue in the human body, efforts to devise a treatment based on gene replacement have advanced steadily through the combined efforts of dozens of labs and patient advocacy groups...
April 14, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406279/update-on-the-clinical-utility-of-coronary-computed-tomographic-angiography-in-stable-angina-pectoris
#5
Shaw H Kueh, Christopher Naoum
Over the last decade, coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) has emerged as a valuable non-invasive imaging modality with excellent diagnostic performance compared to invasive coronary angiography (ICA) for identifying patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Beyond the diagnosis of CAD, CCTA also provides valuable prognostic information. While patients with normal CCTA have excellent long-term prognosis, among those with CAD, increasing CAD extent and severity is associated with increased cardiovascular event risk over both medium- and long-term follow-up in both men and women...
June 2017: Minerva Cardioangiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401618/tailoring-mineralocorticoid-receptor-antagonist-therapy-in-heart-failure-patients-are-we-moving-towards-a-personalized-approach
#6
REVIEW
João Pedro Ferreira, Robert J Mentz, Anne Pizard, Bertram Pitt, Faiez Zannad
The aim of personalized medicine is to offer a tailored approach to each patient in order to provide the most effective therapy, while reducing risks and side effects. The use of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) has demonstrated major benefits in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), results with challenging inconsistencies in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), and 'neutral' preliminary results in acute heart failure. Data derived from landmark trials are generally applied in a 'one size fits all' manner and the development and implementation of more personalized MRA management would offer the potential to improve outcomes and reduce side effects...
April 12, 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401317/sexual-orientation-related-differences-in-virtual-spatial-navigation-and-spatial-search-strategies
#7
Qazi Rahman, Jonathan Sharp, Meadhbh McVeigh, Man-Ling Ho
Spatial abilities are generally hypothesized to differ between men and women, and people with different sexual orientations. According to the cross-sex shift hypothesis, gay men are hypothesized to perform in the direction of heterosexual women and lesbian women in the direction of heterosexual men on cognitive tests. This study investigated sexual orientation differences in spatial navigation and strategy during a virtual Morris water maze task (VMWM). Forty-four heterosexual men, 43 heterosexual women, 39 gay men, and 34 lesbian/bisexual women (aged 18-54 years) navigated a desktop VMWM and completed measures of intelligence, handedness, and childhood gender nonconformity (CGN)...
April 11, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395525/end-points-and-statistical-considerations-in-immuno-oncology-trials-impact-on-multiple-myeloma
#8
Antje Hoering, Brian Durie, Hongwei Wang, John Crowley
Unlike conventional cancer treatment, immuno-oncology therapies are commonly associated with delayed clinical benefit and durable responses, as seen with immuno-oncology therapies for multiple myeloma (MM). Therefore, a longer-term approach to immuno-oncology data assessment is required. Appropriate study designs, end points and statistical methods are essential for evaluating immuno-oncology therapies to assess treatment outcomes, and may better accommodate immuno-oncology clinical trial data. In addition to conventional end points including median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), end points such as hazard ratios for PFS and OS over time, PFS and OS landmark analyses beyond the median, and immune-response end points might provide better indications of the efficacy of immuno-oncology therapies...
April 11, 2017: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385454/local-therapy-improves-survival-in-metastatic-prostate-cancer
#9
Sami-Ramzi Leyh-Bannurah, Stéphanie Gazdovich, Lars Budäus, Emanuele Zaffuto, Alberto Briganti, Firas Abdollah, Francesco Montorsi, Jonas Schiffmann, Mani Menon, Shahrokh F Shariat, Margit Fisch, Felix Chun, Thomas Steuber, Hartwig Huland, Markus Graefen, Pierre I Karakiewicz
BACKGROUND: Treatment of the primary, termed local therapy (LT), may improve survival in metastatic prostate cancer (mPCa) versus no local therapy (NLT). OBJECTIVE: To assess cancer-specific mortality (CSM) after LT versus NLT in mPCa. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Within the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database (2004-2013), 13 692 mPCa patients were treated with LT (radical prostatectomy [RP] or radiation therapy [RT]) or NLT...
April 3, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384630/esophageal-cancer-new-insights-into-a-heterogenous-disease
#10
Sebastian Krug, Patrick Michl
BACKGROUND: Esophageal cancer represents a heterogeneous malignancy mostly diagnosed in advanced stages. Worldwide, squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) continue to be the most prevalent subtype; however, in the Western countries, the incidence of adenocarcinomas is increasing and will exceed that of SCC in the near future. During the last decade, several landmark trials contributed to a better understanding of the disease and emphasized the importance of multimodal treatment protocols. SUMMARY: With the introduction of perioperative or neoadjuvant approaches, the survival of both subtypes of esophageal cancer has significantly improved...
April 7, 2017: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381245/estimation-of-myocardial-deformation-using-correlation-image-velocimetry
#11
Athira Jacob, Ganapathy Krishnamurthi, Manikandan Mathur
BACKGROUND: Tagged Magnetic Resonance (tMR) imaging is a powerful technique for determining cardiovascular abnormalities. One of the reasons for tMR not being used in routine clinical practice is the lack of easy-to-use tools for image analysis and strain mapping. In this paper, we introduce a novel interdisciplinary method based on correlation image velocimetry (CIV) to estimate cardiac deformation and strain maps from tMR images. METHODS: CIV, a cross-correlation based pattern matching algorithm, analyses a pair of images to obtain the displacement field at sub-pixel accuracy with any desired spatial resolution...
April 5, 2017: BMC Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379421/impact-of-baseline-bmi-and-weight-change-in-cctg-adjuvant-breast-cancer-trials
#12
R Yerushalmi, B Dong, J W Chapman, P E Goss, M N Pollak, M J Burnell, M N Levine, V H C Bramwell, K I Pritchard, T J Whelan, J N Ingle, L E Shepherd, W R Parulekar, L Han, K Ding, K A Gelmon
Background: We hypothesized that increased baseline BMI and BMI change would negatively impact clinical outcomes with adjuvant breast cancer systemic therapy. Methods: Data from chemotherapy trials MA.5 and MA.21; endocrine therapy MA.12, MA.14 and MA.27; and trastuzumab HERA/MA.24 were analyzed. The primary objective was to examine the effect of BMI change on breast cancer-free interval (BCFI) landmarked at 5-years; secondary objectives included BMI changes at 1- and 3-years; BMI changes on disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS); and effects of baseline BMI...
March 31, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370061/implementation-of-facial-recognition-with-microsoft-kinect-v2-sensor-for-patient-verification
#13
Evan Silverstein, Michael Snyder
PURPOSE: To present a straightforward implementation of facial recognition using the Microsoft Kinect v2 sensor for the purpose of patient identification in a radiotherapy setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A facial recognition system was created with the Microsoft Kinect v2 using a facial mapping library distributed with the Kinect v2 SDK as a basis for the algorithm. The system extracts 31 fiducial points representing various facial landmarks which are used in both the creation of a reference data set and subsequent evaluations of real-time sensor data in the matching algorithm...
March 30, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368163/domain-general-biases-in-spatial-localization-evidence-against-a-distorted-body-model-hypothesis
#14
Jared Medina, Caitlin Duckett
A number of studies have proposed the existence of a distorted body model of the hand. Supporting this hypothesis, judgments of the location of hand landmarks without vision are characterized by consistent distortions-wider knuckle and shorter finger lengths. We examined an alternative hypothesis in which these biases are caused by domain-general mechanisms, in which participants overestimate the distance between consecutive localization judgments that are spatially close. To do so, we examined performance on a landmark localization task with the hand (Experiments 1-3) using a lag-1 analysis...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343558/simulator-based-obstetric-ultrasound-training-a-prospective-randomized-single-blinded-study
#15
Hadar Rosen, Rory Windrim, Yee Man Lee, Lara Gotha, Vsevolod Perelman, Stefania Ronzoni
OBJECTIVE: To compare the use of simulator-based and patient-based obstetric ultrasound training. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, single-blinded trial. Eighteen consenting obstetric trainees with minimal previous ultrasound exposure were recruited. Enrolled patients were also fully consenting. Mid-trimester fetal brain anatomy in the standard planes (i.e., biparietal diameter and head circumference, cavum septum pellucidum, posterior fossa, and lateral ventricle) was chosen as a surrogate for all fetal anatomy ultrasound training...
March 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340246/considerations-on-glycaemic-control-in-older-and-or-frail-individuals-with-diabetes-and-advanced-kidney-disease
#16
Nicolae Mircea Panduru, Ionut Nistor, Per-Henrik Groop, Wim Van Biesen, Ken Farrington, Adrian Covic
The increasing prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes over the last decade has resulted in increasing numbers of frail older patients with a combination of these conditions. Current treatment guidelines may not necessarily be relevant for such patients, who are mostly excluded from the trials upon which these recommendations are based. There is a paucity of data upon which to base the management of older patients with CKD. Nearly all current guidelines recommend less-tight glycaemic control for the older population, citing the lack of proven medium-term benefits and concerns about the high short-term risk of hypoglycaemia...
April 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323667/central-venous-access-in-children-indications-devices-and-risks
#17
Guillermo Ares, Catherine J Hunter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Central venous catheters (CVCs) have a prominent role in the diagnostic and therapy of neonates and children. Herein, we describe the multiple indications for CVC use and the different devices available for central venous access. Given the prevalent use of CVCs, healthcare systems are focused on reducing complications from their use, particularly central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs). The most up-to-date information available sheds light on best practices and future areas of investigation...
March 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319004/updated-risk-factors-should-be-used-to-predict-development-of-diabetes
#18
Mary Angelyn Bethel, Kristen A Hyland, Antonio R Chacra, Prakash Deedwania, Gregory R Fulcher, Rury R Holman, Trond Jenssen, Naomi S Levitt, John J V McMurray, Eleni Boutati, Laine Thomas, Jie-Lena Sun, Steven M Haffner
AIMS: Predicting incident diabetes could inform treatment strategies for diabetes prevention, but the incremental benefit of recalculating risk using updated risk factors is unknown. We used baseline and 1-year data from the Nateglinide and Valsartan in Impaired Glucose Tolerance Outcomes Research (NAVIGATOR) Trial to compare diabetes risk prediction using historical or updated clinical information. METHODS: Among non-diabetic participants reaching 1year of follow-up in NAVIGATOR, we compared the performance of the published baseline diabetes risk model with a "landmark" model incorporating risk factors updated at the 1-year time point...
May 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318138/safety-and-efficacy-of-6-month-versus-12-month-dual-antiplatelet-therapy-in-patients-after-implantation-of-multiple-biodegradable-polymer-coated-sirolimus-eluting-coronary-stents-insight-from-the-i-love-it-2-trial
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jing Qi, Yi Li, Jing Li, Quanmin Jing, Kai Xu, Chuanyu Gao, Likun Ma, Zhi Zhang, Bo Xu, Yaling Han
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to compare the clinical outcomes of 6-month versus 12-month dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in patients receiving multiple biodegradable polymer-coated sirolimus-eluting stents (BP-SES) implants. BACKGROUND: The clinical outcomes for patients who undergo multiple BP-SES implantation with different DAPT durations are uncertain. METHODS: In the I-LOVE-IT 2 trial, 907 patients treated with multiple BP-SES (total stent number ≥2) were assigned to receive 6-month (n = 440) or 12-month (n = 467) DAPT...
March 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314397/effectiveness-of-botulinum-toxin-type-a-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-masticatory-myofascial-pain-a-case-series
#20
Jason S Baker, Patrick J Nolan
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) for the treatment of chronic masticatory myofascial pain (MMP) over 12 months and to test a standardized protocol. METHODS: This is a prospective case series of consecutive adult patients with chronic MMP treated with injection of BTX-A into the bilateral temporalis and masseter muscles. The authors used the same anatomic landmarks and dosage and followed each patient for 12 months...
January 2017: Journal of the American Dental Association
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