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Robert C. Whitaker

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595015/2-chloro-2-fluoro-ribonucleotide-prodrugs-with-potent-pan-genotypic-activity-against-hepatitis-c-virus-replication-in-culture
#1
Shaoman Zhou, Sawsan Mahmoud, Peng Liu, Longhu Zhou, Maryam Ehteshami, Leda Bassit, Sijia Tao, Robert A Domaoal, Ozkan Sari, Coralie De Schutter, Sheida Amiralaei, Ahmed Khalil, Olivia Ollinger Russell, Tamara R McBrayer, Tony Whitaker, Nageh Abou-Taleb, Franck Amblard, Steven J Coats, Raymond Felix Schinazi
Pan-genotypic nucleoside HCV inhibitors display a high genetic barrier to drug resistance and are the preferred direct acting agents to achieve complete sustained virologic response in humans. Herein, we report, the discovery of a -D-2'-Cl,2'-F-uridine phosphoramidate nucleotide 16, as a non-toxic pan-genotypic anti-HCV agent. Phosphoramidate 16 in its 5'-triphosphate form specifically inhibited HCV NS5B polymerase with no marked inhibition of human polymerases and cellular mitochondrial RNA polymerase. Studies on the intracellular half-life of phosphoramidate 16-TP in live cells demonstrated favorable half-life of 11...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417333/immediate-tissue-expander-or-implant-based-breast-reconstruction-does-not-compromise-the-oncologic-delivery-of-post-mastectomy-radiotherapy-pmrt
#2
Krishan R Jethwa, Mohamed M Kahila, Thomas J Whitaker, William S Harmsen, Kimberly S Corbin, Sean S Park, Elizabeth S Yan, Valerie Lemaine, Judy C Boughey, Robert W Mutter
PURPOSE: Increasingly, women are choosing immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) following mastectomy. Reports have indicated IBR may compromise post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT). We investigated the impact of IBR on timing of PMRT, target coverage, and doses to organs at risk in a modern radiotherapy practice using advanced planning techniques. METHODS: Between 2013 and 2015, PMRT was delivered to 116 patients (66 mastectomy alone, 50 IBR). PMRT was delivered with a median dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions...
April 17, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398318/elevating-the-conversation-about-ge-crops
#3
Fred Gould, Richard M Amasino, Dominique Brossard, C Robin Buell, Richard A Dixon, Jose B Falck-Zepeda, Michael A Gallo, Ken E Giller, Leland L Glenna, Timothy Griffin, Bruce R Hamaker, Peter M Kareiva, Daniel Magraw, Carol Mallory-Smith, Kevin V Pixley, Elizabeth P Ransom, Michael Rodemeyer, David M Stelly, C Neal Stewart, Robert J Whitaker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 11, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362079/role-of-defects-and-surface-states-in-the-carrier-transport-and-nonlinearity-of-the-diode-characteristics-in-pbs-zno-quantum-dot-solar-cells
#4
Y Cheng, M C D Whitaker, R Makkia, S Cocklin, V R Whiteside, L A Bumm, E Adcock-Smith, K P Roberts, P Hari, I R Sellers
The roles of bulk surface states and interfacial defects are probed experimentally using a combination of current-voltage, capacitance-voltage, and impedance measurements. The critical importance of the quality of both the film and interfaces is evident in current-voltage measurements where shunting and interface states result in large dark currents and the subsequent loss of Jsc. These properties are shown to be critically related to the nature and role of the PbS QD interface with the (nominally) ohmic gold contact...
April 7, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237635/prevent-dm-comparative-effectiveness-trial-of-lifestyle-intervention-and-metformin
#5
Matthew J O'Brien, Alberly Perez, Adam B Scanlan, Victor A Alos, Robert C Whitaker, Gary D Foster, Ronald T Ackermann, Jody D Ciolino, Carol Homko
INTRODUCTION: Although the Diabetes Prevention Program and other clinical trials demonstrated the efficacy of intensive lifestyle interventions (ILI) and metformin to prevent type 2 diabetes, no studies have tested their comparative effects in pragmatic settings. This study was designed to compare the real-world effectiveness of ILI, metformin, and standard care among Hispanic women (Latinas) with prediabetes. STUDY DESIGN: RCT. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Ninety-two Latinas, who had a mean hemoglobin A1c of 5...
June 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940688/self-regulation-and-sleep-duration-sleepiness-and-chronotype-in-adolescents
#6
Judith A Owens, Tracy Dearth-Wesley, Daniel Lewin, Gerard Gioia, Robert C Whitaker
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether shorter school-night sleep duration, greater daytime sleepiness, and greater eveningness chronotype were associated with lower self-regulation among adolescents. METHODS: An online survey of 7th- to 12th-grade students in 19 schools in Fairfax County, Virginia Public Schools was conducted in 2015. Self-regulation was measured with the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, 2nd edition, Screening Self-Report Form. Sleep measures included school night-sleep duration (hours between usual bedtime and wake time), daytime sleepiness (Sleepiness Scale in the Sleep Habits Survey, tertiles), and chronotype (Morningness-Eveningness Scale for Children, continuous score and tertiles)...
December 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614660/feasibility-and-full-course-dosimetry-of-an-intraoperatively-placed-multichannel-brachytherapy-catheter-for-accelerated-partial-breast-irradiation
#7
Bradley J Stish, Deanna H Pafundi, Tina J Hieken, Thomas J Whitaker, Keith M Furutani, James W Jakub, Judy C Boughey, Amy C Degnim, Luke B McLemore, Benjamin Mou, Robert W Mutter, Sean S Park
PURPOSE: Determine feasibility and resultant dosimetry of an intraoperatively placed multichannel intracavitary brachytherapy catheter for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). METHODS: Patients with breast cancer underwent intraoperative brachytherapy catheter placement based on frozen section analysis with immediate postoperative APBI. The planning target volume evaluation (PTVEval) and organs at risk were contoured on daily pretreatment CT scans for each patient, and the original treatment plan was applied to assess full-course dosimetry...
September 7, 2016: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542518/physiological-and-behavioral-adaptations-in-bats-living-at-high-latitudes
#8
Justin G Boyles, Liam P McGuire, Esmarie Boyles, Jesika P Reimer, Christopher A C Brooks, Robert W Rutherford, Teresa A Rutherford, John O Whitaker, Gary F McCracken
Widespread animals at the extremes of the species' distribution experience ecological constraints different than individuals in the core of the distribution. For example, small endotherms at very high latitudes face short summers with cool temperatures and a lack of true darkness. In particular, insectivorous bats at high latitudes may experience constraints because of their unique life history traits, and may have different energy requirements than bats at lower latitudes. To evaluate the extent of these differences, we estimated an energy budget and refueling rates for reproductively active female little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) roosting in buildings in eastern Alaska (~63°N)...
October 15, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27439416/erratum-to-a-novel-treatment-schedule-for-rapid-completion-of-surgery-and-radiation-in-early-stage-breast-cancer
#9
Tina J Hieken, Robert W Mutter, James W Jakub, Judy C Boughey, Amy C Degnim, William R Sukov, Stephanie Childs, Kimberly S Corbin, Keith M Furutani, Thomas J Whitaker, Sean S Park
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27426836/bedtime-in-preschool-aged-children-and-risk-for-adolescent-obesity
#10
Sarah E Anderson, Rebecca Andridge, Robert C Whitaker
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether preschool-aged children with earlier bedtimes have a lower risk for adolescent obesity and whether this risk reduction is modified by maternal sensitivity. STUDY DESIGN: Data from 977 of 1364 participants in the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were analyzed. Healthy singleton-births at 10 US sites in 1991 were eligible for enrollment. In 1995-1996, mothers reported their preschool-aged (mean = 4.7 years) child's typical weekday bedtime, and mother-child interaction was observed to assess maternal sensitivity...
September 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27334215/a-novel-treatment-schedule-for-rapid-completion-of-surgery-and-radiation-in-early-stage-breast-cancer
#11
Tina J Hieken, Robert W Mutter, James W Jakub, Judy C Boughey, Amy C Degnim, William R Sukov, Stephanie Childs, Kimberly S Corbin, Keith M Furutani, Thomas J Whitaker, Sean S Park
BACKGROUND: Data support the use of accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI) for early-stage breast cancer. We initiated a prospective protocol for intraoperative APBI catheter placement using a multi-lumen strut-based device. We hypothesized that with intraoperative pathology assessment of margins and sentinel nodes, all locoregional treatment (surgery and APBI) could be completed within 10 days with acceptable complication rates and cosmesis. METHODS: Eligible patients included women age 50 years or older with clinical T1 estrogen receptor positive (ER+) sentinel lymph node (SLN)-negative invasive ductal cancer or pure ductal carcinoma in situ...
October 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27216050/biochemical-characterization-of-the-active-anti-hepatitis-c-virus-metabolites-of-2-6-diaminopurine-ribonucleoside-prodrug-compared-to-sofosbuvir-and-bms-986094
#12
Maryam Ehteshami, Sijia Tao, Tugba Ozturk, Longhu Zhou, Jong Hyun Cho, Hongwang Zhang, Sheida Amiralaei, Jadd R Shelton, Xiao Lu, Ahmed Khalil, Robert A Domaoal, Richard A Stanton, Justin E Suesserman, Biing Lin, Sam S Lee, Franck Amblard, Tony Whitaker, Steven J Coats, Raymond F Schinazi
Ribonucleoside analog inhibitors (rNAI) target the hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B) and cause RNA chain termination. Here, we expand our studies on β-d-2'-C-methyl-2,6-diaminopurine-ribonucleotide (DAPN) phosphoramidate prodrug 1 (PD1) as a novel investigational inhibitor of HCV. DAPN-PD1 is metabolized intracellularly into two distinct bioactive nucleoside triphosphate (TP) analogs. The first metabolite, 2'-C-methyl-GTP, is a well-characterized inhibitor of NS5B polymerase, whereas the second metabolite, 2'-C-methyl-DAPN-TP, behaves as an adenosine base analog...
August 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27087142/dental-histology-of-coelophysis-bauri-and-the-evolution-of-tooth-attachment-tissues-in-early-dinosaurs
#13
Raymond K M Fong, Aaron R H LeBlanc, David S Berman, Robert R Reisz
Studies of dinosaur teeth have focused primarily on external crown morphology and thus, use shed or in situ tooth crowns, and are limited to the enamel and dentine dental tissues. As a result, the full suites of periodontal tissues that attach teeth to the jaws remain poorly documented, particularly in early dinosaurs. These tissues are an integral part of the tooth and thus essential to a more complete understanding of dental anatomy, development, and evolution in dinosaurs. To identify the tooth attachment tissues in early dinosaurs, histological thin sections were prepared from the maxilla and dentary of a partial skull of the early theropod Coelophysis bauri from the Upper Triassic (Rhaetian- 209-201 Ma) Whitaker Quarry, New Mexico, USA...
July 2016: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27070408/multiple-markers-of-cortical-morphology-reveal-evidence-of-supragranular-thinning-in-schizophrenia
#14
K Wagstyl, L Ronan, K J Whitaker, I M Goodyer, N Roberts, T J Crow, P C Fletcher
In vivo structural neuroimaging can reliably identify changes to cortical morphology and its regional variation but cannot yet relate these changes to specific cortical layers. We propose, however, that by synthesizing principles of cortical organization, including relative contributions of different layers to sulcal and gyral thickness, regional patterns of variation in thickness of different layers across the cortical sheet and profiles of layer variation across functional hierarchies, it is possible to develop indirect morphological measures as markers of more specific cytoarchitectural changes...
April 12, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26985037/role-of-ventral-subiculum-in-context-induced-relapse-to-alcohol-seeking-after-punishment-imposed-abstinence
#15
Nathan J Marchant, Erin J Campbell, Leslie R Whitaker, Brandon K Harvey, Konstantin Kaganovsky, Sweta Adhikary, Bruce T Hope, Robert C Heins, Thomas E Prisinzano, Eyal Vardy, Antonello Bonci, Jennifer M Bossert, Yavin Shaham
UNLABELLED: In many human alcoholics, abstinence is self-imposed because of the negative consequences of excessive alcohol use, and relapse is often triggered by exposure to environmental contexts associated with prior alcohol drinking. We recently developed a rat model of this human condition in which we train alcohol-preferring P rats to self-administer alcohol in one context (A), punish the alcohol-reinforced responding in a different context (B), and then test for relapse to alcohol seeking in Contexts A and B without alcohol or shock...
March 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26883369/spot-scanned-pancreatic-stereotactic-body-proton-therapy-a-dosimetric-feasibility-and-robustness-study
#16
Terence T Sio, Kenneth W Merrell, Chris J Beltran, Jonathan B Ashman, Kathleen A Hoeft, Robert C Miller, Thomas J Whitaker, Stephanie K Wurgler, Erik J Tryggestad
PURPOSE: We explored the dosimetric potential of spot-scanned stereotactic body proton therapy (SBPT) for pancreatic cancer. METHODS: We compared SBPT to stereotactic body intensity-modulated radiotherapy (SB-IMRT) in 10 patients. We evaluated 3 variables in SBPT planning: (1) 4 and 6 mm spot size; (2) single vs. multi-field optimization (SFO vs. MFO); and (3) optimization target volume (OTV) expansion. Robustness analysis was performed with unidirectional isocenter shifts of ±3 mm in x, y, and z and ±3% stopping power uncertainties...
February 2016: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26597415/the-rationale-design-and-baseline-characteristics-of-prevent-dm-a-community-based-comparative-effectiveness-trial-of-lifestyle-intervention-and-metformin-among-latinas-with-prediabetes
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Alberly Perez, Victor A Alos, Adam Scanlan, Catarina M Maia, Adam Davey, Robert C Whitaker, Gary D Foster, Ronald T Ackermann, Matthew J O'Brien
Promotora Effectiveness Versus Metformin Trial (PREVENT-DM) is a randomized comparative effectiveness trial of a lifestyle intervention based on the Diabetes Prevention Program delivered by community health workers (or promotoras), metformin, and standard care. Eligibility criteria are Hispanic ethnicity, female sex, age ≥ 20 years, fluent Spanish-speaking status, BMI ≥ 23 kg/m(2), and prediabetes. We enrolled 92 participants and randomized them to one of the following three groups: standard care, DPP-based lifestyle intervention, or metformin...
November 2015: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26580144/relationships-heal
#18
Robert C Whitaker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26053661/maternal-hiv-1-envelope-specific-antibody-responses-and-reduced-risk-of-perinatal-transmission
#19
Sallie R Permar, Youyi Fong, Nathan Vandergrift, Genevieve G Fouda, Peter Gilbert, Robert Parks, Frederick H Jaeger, Justin Pollara, Amanda Martelli, Brooke E Liebl, Krissey Lloyd, Nicole L Yates, R Glenn Overman, Xiaoying Shen, Kaylan Whitaker, Haiyan Chen, Jamie Pritchett, Erika Solomon, Emma Friberg, Dawn J Marshall, John F Whitesides, Thaddeus C Gurley, Tarra Von Holle, David R Martinez, Fangping Cai, Amit Kumar, Shi-Mao Xia, Xiaozhi Lu, Raul Louzao, Samantha Wilkes, Saheli Datta, Marcella Sarzotti-Kelsoe, Hua-Xin Liao, Guido Ferrari, S Munir Alam, David C Montefiori, Thomas N Denny, M Anthony Moody, Georgia D Tomaras, Feng Gao, Barton F Haynes
Despite the wide availability of antiretroviral drugs, more than 250,000 infants are vertically infected with HIV-1 annually, emphasizing the need for additional interventions to eliminate pediatric HIV-1 infections. Here, we aimed to define humoral immune correlates of risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1, including responses associated with protection in the RV144 vaccine trial. Eighty-three untreated, HIV-1-transmitting mothers and 165 propensity score-matched nontransmitting mothers were selected from the Women and Infants Transmission Study (WITS) of US nonbreastfeeding, HIV-1-infected mothers...
July 1, 2015: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26024851/the-comparative-efficacy-of-lifestyle-intervention-and-metformin-by-educational-attainment-in-the-diabetes-prevention-program
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Matthew J O'Brien, Robert C Whitaker, Daohai Yu, Ronald T Ackermann
OBJECTIVE: Educational attainment is inversely associated with type 2 diabetes risk, but it is unknown whether education impacts individuals' diabetes prevention efforts. We examined the comparative efficacy of intensive lifestyle intervention and metformin by educational attainment among participants in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), an ongoing U.S. multi-site trial beginning in 1996. METHODS: We studied 2,910 DPP participants randomized to receive lifestyle intervention, metformin, or placebo...
August 2015: Preventive Medicine
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