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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206740/d-amino-acid-levels-in-perfused-mouse-brain-tissue-and-blood-a-comparative-study
#1
Choyce A Weatherly, Siqi Du, Curran Parpia, Polan T Santos, Adam L Hartman, Daniel W Armstrong
The l-enantiomer is the predominant type of amino acid in all living systems. However, d-amino acids, once thought to be "unnatural", have been found to be indigenous even in mammalian systems and increasingly appear to be functioning in essential biological and neurological roles. Both d- and l-amino acid levels in the hippocampus, cortex, and blood samples from NIH Swiss mice are reported. Perfused brain tissues were analyzed for the first time, thereby eliminating artifacts due to endogenous blood, and decreased the mouse-to-mouse variability in amino acid levels...
February 16, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202352/amino-acid-transporter-slc38a3-promotes-metastasis-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells-by-activating-pdk1
#2
Yanhui Wang, Li Fu, Minqing Cui, Yongbin Wang, Yan Xu, Molin Li, Jun Mi
BACKGROUND: Tumor metastasis is a finely-tuned pathological process coupled to metabolic reprogramming that includes both glutamine and glucose. The solute carrier SLC38A3, a member of amino acid/polyamine/organocation (APC) superfamily, is an L-glutamine transporter. It is not clear whether SLC38A3 involves the metastasis of NSCLC (non small cell lung cancer). METHODS: The scratch test and transwell assay were used to determine the ability of NSCLC to migrate. Cellular amino acids content was determined by mass spectrometry...
February 12, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193333/heterologous-expression-of-%C3%AE-glutamyl-transpeptidase-from-bacillus-atrophaeus-gs-16-and-its-application-in-the-synthesis-of-%C3%AE-d-glutamyl-l-tryptophan-a-known-immunomodulatory-peptide
#3
Meenu Saini, Shruti Bindal, Rani Gupta
Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase from a mesophilic bacterium Bacillus atrophaeus GS-16 (BaGGT) was expressed heterologously in E. coli using pET-51b vector. Maximum production of BaGGT was obtained at 16°C after 16h of IPTG induction and the protein, in its native conformation, was active as a heterooctamer which was composed of four heterodimeric units combined together. One heterodimeric unit constituted two subunits with molecular masses of 45kDa and 21kDa, respectively. The recombinant enzyme was purified by one step His-tag affinity purification protocol with a specific activity of 90U/mg and 5...
April 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191319/discrimination-of-enantiomers-of-dipeptide-derivatives-with-two-chiral-centers-by-tetraaza-macrocyclic-chiral-solvating-agents-using-1-h-nmr-spectroscopy
#4
Lixia Fang, Caixia Lv, Guo Wang, Lei Feng, Pericles Stavropoulos, Guangpeng Gao, Lin Ai, Jiaxin Zhang
(1)H NMR spectroscopy is often used to discriminate enantiomers of chiral analytes and determine their enantiomeric excess (ee) by various chiral auxiliaries. In reported research, these studies were mainly focused on chiral discriminantion of chiral analytes with only one chiral center. However, many chiral compounds possessing two or more chiral centers are often found in natural products, chiral drugs, products of asymmetric synthesis and biological systems. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate their chiral discrimination by effective chiral auxiliaries using (1)H NMR spectroscopy...
December 1, 2016: Organic Chemistry Frontiers: An International Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182739/distinct-effects-of-endosomal-escape-and-inhibition-of-endosomal-trafficking-on-gene-delivery-via-electrotransfection
#5
Lisa D Cervia, Chun-Chi Chang, Liangli Wang, Fan Yuan
A recent theory suggests that endocytosis is involved in uptake and intracellular transport of electrotransfected plasmid DNA (pDNA). The goal of the current study was to understand if approaches used previously to improve endocytosis of gene delivery vectors could be applied to enhancing electrotransfection efficiency (eTE). Results from the study showed that photochemically induced endosomal escape, which could increase poly-L-lysine (PLL)-mediated gene delivery, decreased eTE. The decrease could not be blocked by treatment of cells with endonuclease inhibitors (aurintricarboxylic acid and zinc ion) or antioxidants (L-glutamine and ascorbic acid)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177383/evaluating-the-behavior-growth-performance-immune-parameters-and-intestinal-morphology-of-weaned-piglets-after-simulated-transport-and-heat-stress-when-antibiotics-are-eliminated-from-the-diet-or-replaced-with-l-glutamine
#6
J S Johnson, D C Lay
Study objectives were to evaluate the effects of post-weaning transport during heat stress (HS) and thermoneutral (TN) conditions when dietary antibiotics are removed or replaced with a nutraceutical. Sixty mixed sex piglets from 10 sows ( = 6 piglets/sow) were weaned (18.8 ± 0.8 d of age) and then herded up ramps into 1 of 2 simulated transport trailers in either TN (28.8 ± 0.2°C) or HS (cyclical 32 to 37°C) conditions where they remained for 12 h. During the 12 h of simulated transport, fans were used to simulate air movement through the trailer, feed and water were withheld, and rectal temperature (T) was measured hourly...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175947/characterization-of-an-l-phosphinothricin-resistant-glutamine-synthetase-from-exiguobacterium-sp-and-its-improvement
#7
Shaowei Zhang, Yingkun Han, Ashok Kumar, Haofeng Gao, Ziduo Liu, Nan Hu
A glutamine synthetase (GS; 1341 bp) gene with potent L-phosphinothricin (PPT) resistance was isolated and characterized from a marine bacterium Exiguobacterium sp. Molecular docking analysis indicated that the substitution of residues Glu60 and Arg64 may lead to significant changes in binding pocket. To enhance the enzymatic property of GS, variants E60A and R64G were obtained by site-directed mutagenesis. The results revealed a noteworthy change in the thermostability and activity in comparison to the wild type (WT)...
February 7, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174105/physapubescin-a-natural-withanolide-as-a-kidney-type-glutaminase-kga-inhibitor
#8
Li Cheng, Can-Rong Wu, Li-Han Zhu, Hua Li, Li-Xia Chen
Kidney-type glutaminase (KGA) is over expressed in many kinds of cancers that converts glutamine to glutamate for supplying energy, and has become an object for targeted cancer therapy. The structure-based virtual ligand screening identified physapubescin, a withanolide purified from Physalis pubescens L., as a possible inhibitor of KGA with low binding energy. Enzyme inhibition experiments and cell-based assays further confirmed its inhibitory effects on KGA activity, suggesting potential applications of physapubescin and its derivatives as KGA inhibitors...
January 21, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162896/haploinsufficiency-of-sirt1-enhances-glutamine-metabolism-and-promotes-cancer-development
#9
Natalie S X Ren, Ming Ji, Erik J Tokar, Evan L Busch, Xiaojiang Xu, DeAsia Lewis, Xiangchun Li, Aiwen Jin, Yanping Zhang, William K K Wu, Weichun Huang, Leping Li, David C Fargo, Temitope O Keku, Robert S Sandler, Xiaoling Li
SIRT1, the most conserved mammalian NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase, plays a vital role in the regulation of metabolism, stress responses, and genome stability. However, the role of SIRT1 in the multi-step process leading to transformation and/or tumorigenesis, as either a tumor suppressor or tumor promoter, is complex and may be dependent upon the context in which SIRT1 activity is altered, and the role of SIRT1 in tumor metabolism is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that SIRT1 dose-dependently regulates cellular glutamine metabolism and apoptosis, which in turn differentially impact cell proliferation and cancer development...
February 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139746/a-sensitive-single-enzyme-assay-system-using-the-non-ribosomal-peptide-synthetase-bpsa-for-measurement-of-l-glutamine-in-biological-samples
#10
Alistair S Brown, Katherine J Robins, David F Ackerley
The ability to rapidly, economically and accurately measure L-glutamine concentrations in biological samples is important for many areas of research, medicine or industry, however there is room for improvement on existing methods. We describe here how the enzyme BpsA, a single-module non-ribosomal peptide synthetase able to convert L-glutamine into the blue pigment indigoidine, can be used to accurately measure L-glutamine in biological samples. Although indigoidine has low solubility in aqueous solutions, meaning direct measurements of indigoidine synthesis do not reliably yield linear standard curves, we demonstrate that resolubilisation of the reaction end-products in DMSO overcomes this issue and that spontaneous reduction to colourless leuco-indigoidine occurs too slowly to interfere with assay accuracy...
January 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139703/the-differential-ability-of-asparagine-and-glutamine-in-promoting-the-closed-active-enzyme-conformation-rationalizes-the-wolinella-succinogenes-l-asparaginase-substrate-specificity
#11
Hien Anh Nguyen, Donald L Durden, Arnon Lavie
Many side effects of current FDA-approved L-asparaginases have been related to their secondary L-glutaminase activity. The Wolinella succinogenes L-asparaginase (WoA) has been reported to be L-glutaminase free, suggesting it would have fewer side effects. Unexpectedly, the WoA variant with a proline at position 121 (WoA-P121) was found to have L-glutaminase activity in contrast to Uniprot entry P50286 (WoA-S121) that has a serine residue at this position. Towards understanding how this residue impacts the L-glutaminase property, kinetic analysis was coupled with crystal structure determination of these WoA variants...
January 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130067/farnesoid-x-receptor-activation-promotes-hepatic-amino-acid-catabolism-and-ammonium-clearance-in-mice
#12
Vittoria Massafra, Alexandra Milona, Harmjan R Vos, Rúben J J Ramos, Johan Gerrits, Ellen C L Willemsen, José M Ramos Pittol, Noortje Ijssennagger, Martin Houweling, Hubertus C M T Prinsen, Nanda M Verhoeven-Duif, Boudewijn M Burgering, Saskia W C van Mil
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group H member 4 (NR1H4 or farnesoid X receptor, FXR) regulates bile acid synthesis, transport, and catabolism. FXR also regulates post-prandial lipid and glucose metabolism. We performed quantitative proteomic analyses of liver tissues from mice to evaluate these functions and investigate whether FXR regulates amino acid metabolism. METHODS: To study the role of FXR in mouse liver, we used mice with a disruption of Nr1h4 (FXR-knockout mice) and compared them to floxed control mice...
January 24, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120129/improvement-of-the-ammonia-assimilation-for-enhancing-l-arginine-production-of-corynebacterium-crenatum
#13
Jing Guo, Zaiwei Man, Zhiming Rao, Meijuan Xu, Taowei Yang, Xian Zhang, Zhenghong Xu
There are four nitrogen atoms in L-arginine molecule and the nitrogen content is 32.1%. By now, metabolic engineering for L-arginine production strain improvement was focused on carbon flux optimization. In previous work, we obtained an L-arginine-producing Corynebacterium crenatum SDNN403 (ARG) through screening and mutation breeding. In this paper, a strain engineering strategy focusing on nitrogen supply and ammonium assimilation for L-arginine production was performed. Firstly, the effects of nitrogen atom donor (L-glutamate, L-glutamine and L-aspartate) addition on L-arginine production of ARG were studied, and the addition of L-glutamine and L-aspartate was beneficial for L-arginine production...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118364/physical-and-flavor-characteristics-fatty-acid-profile-antioxidant-status-and-nrf2-dependent-antioxidant-enzyme-gene-expression-changes-in-young-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella-fillets-fed-dietary-valine
#14
Jian-Bo Luo, Lin Feng, Wei-Dan Jiang, Yang Liu, Pei Wu, Jun Jiang, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wu-Neng Tang, Yong-An Zhang, Xiao-Qiu Zhou
This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary valine on the physical and flavor characteristics, fatty acid (FA) profile, antioxidant status and Nrf2-dependent antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the muscle of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed increasing levels of valine (4.3, 8.0, 10.6, 13.1, 16.9 and 19.1 g/kg) for 8 weeks. Compared with the control group, the group fed valine showed improved physical characteristics of fish fillets (increased relative shear force, hydroxyproline, protein and lipid levels and decreased cathepsin B and L activities, as well as cooking loss, were observed)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114430/l-glutamine-induces-expression-of-listeria-monocytogenes-virulence-genes
#15
Adi Haber, Sivan Friedman, Lior Lobel, Tamar Burg-Golani, Nadejda Sigal, Jessica Rose, Nurit Livnat-Levanon, Oded Lewinson, Anat A Herskovits
The high environmental adaptability of bacteria is contingent upon their ability to sense changes in their surroundings. Bacterial pathogen entry into host poses an abrupt and dramatic environmental change, during which successful pathogens gauge multiple parameters that signal host localization. The facultative human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes flourishes in soil, water and food, and in ~50 different animals, and serves as a model for intracellular infection. L. monocytogenes identifies host entry by sensing both physical (e...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112360/low-uptake-of-fluorodeoxyglucose-in-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-in-ovarian-clear-cell-carcinoma-may-reflect-glutaminolysis-of-its-cancer-stem-cell-like-properties
#16
Masakazu Sato, Kei Kawana, Katsuyuki Adachi, Asaha Fujimoto, Ayumi Taguchi, Tomona Fujikawa, Mitsuyo Yoshida, Hiroe Nakamura, Haruka Nishida, Tomoko Inoue, Juri Ogishima, Satoko Eguchi, Aki Yamashita, Kensuke Tomio, Takahide Arimoto, Osamu Wada-Hiraike, Katsutoshi Oda, Takeshi Nagamatsu, Yutaka Osuga, Tomoyuki Fujii
The characteristics of ovarian cancers that showed low activation of glycolysis were investigated. Using medical records of patients with ovarian cancers who had undergone fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) prior to their primary surgery at the University of Tokyo Hospital between 2010 and 2015, we identified cases with a low uptake of FDG in PET/CT. We considered the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) as the degree of glucose uptake. We investigated the properties which may account for the low activation of glycolysis in vitro...
January 20, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089749/pyroglutamate-5-oxoproline-measured-with-hydrophilic-interaction-chromatography-hilic-tandem-mass-spectrometry-in-acutely-ill-patients
#17
Carel J Pretorius, Michael C Reade, Chris Warnholtz, Brett McWhinney, Meng Mei Phua, Jeffrey Lipman, Jacobus P J Ungerer
BACKGROUND: Pyroglutamic acid (PGA) is challenging to quantify in plasma and is a rare cause of metabolic acidosis that is associated with inherited disorders or acquired after exposure to drugs. METHOD: We developed a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method with a short analysis time. We established a reference interval and then measured PGA in acutely ill patients to investigate associations with clinical, pharmaceutical and laboratory parameters...
January 12, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080214/-1-h-nmr-based-metabolomic-studies-of-bisphenol-a-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#18
Changshin Yoon, Dahye Yoon, Junghee Cho, Siwon Kim, Heonho Lee, Hyeonsoo Choi, Suhkmann Kim
Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) spectroscopy was used to study the response of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to increasing concentrations of bisphenol A (4,4'-(propane-2,2-diyl)diphenol, BPA). Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was applied to detect aberrant metabolomic profiles after 72 h of BPA exposure at all levels tested (0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 mg/L). The OPLS-DA score plots showed that BPA exposure caused significant alterations in the metabolome. The metabolomic changes in response to BPA exposure generally exhibited nonlinear patterns, with the exception of reduced levels of several metabolites, including glutamine, inosine, lactate, and succinate...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067279/impaired-novelty-acquisition-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-congenital-hyperammonemia-caused-by-hepatic-glutamine-synthetase-deficiency
#19
Aisa N Chepkova, Olga A Sergeeva, Boris Görg, Helmut L Haas, Nikolaj Klöcker, Dieter Häussinger
Genetic defects in ammonia metabolism can produce irreversible damage of the developing CNS causing an impairment of cognitive and motor functions. We investigated alterations in behavior, synaptic plasticity and gene expression in the hippocampus and dorsal striatum of transgenic mice with systemic hyperammonemia resulting from conditional knockout of hepatic glutamine synthetase (LGS-ko). These mice showed reduced exploratory activity and delayed habituation to a novel environment. Field potential recordings from LGS-ko brain slices revealed significantly reduced magnitude of electrically-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) in both CA3-CA1 hippocampal and corticostriatal synaptic transmission...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063503/does-oral-glutamine-improve-insulin-sensitivity-in-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes
#20
Lournaris Torres-Santiago, Nelly Mauras, Jobayer Hossain, Arthur L Weltman, Dominique Darmaun
OBJECTIVE: The decline in insulin sensitivity (SI) associated with puberty increases the difficulty of achieving glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). The aim of this study was to determine whether glutamine supplementation affects blood glucose by enhancing SI in adolescents with T1D. METHODS: Thirteen adolescents with T1D (HbA1C 8.2 ± 0.1%) were admitted to perform afternoon exercise (four 15-min treadmill/5-min rest cycles of exercise) on two occasions within a 4-wk period...
February 2017: Nutrition
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