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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335103/correlation-between-gastric-emptying-and-gastric-adaptive-relaxation-influenced-by-amino-acids
#1
Masayuki Uchida, Orie Kobayashi, Chizuru Saito
Background/Aims: Amino acids have many physiological activities. We report the correlation between gastric emptying and gastric adaptive relaxation using tryptophan and amino acids with a straight alkyl chain, hydroxylated chain, and branched chain. Here we sought to further clarify the correlation between gastric emptying and gastric adaptive relaxation by using other amino acids. Methods: In Sprague-Dawley rats, gastric emptying was evaluated by a breath test using [1-¹³C] acetic acid...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333144/aberrant-ipsc-derived-human-astrocytes-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
V C Jones, R Atkinson-Dell, A Verkhratsky, L Mohamet
The pathological potential of human astroglia in Alzheimer's disease (AD) was analysed in vitro using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology. Here, we report development of a human iPSC-derived astrocyte model created from healthy individuals and patients with either early-onset familial AD (FAD) or the late-onset sporadic form of AD (SAD). Our chemically defined and highly efficient model provides >95% homogeneous populations of human astrocytes within 30 days of differentiation from cortical neural progenitor cells (NPCs)...
March 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330181/optimization-of-medium-composition-for-in-vitro-shoot-proliferation-and-growth-of-date-palm-cv-mejhoul
#3
Mouaad Amine Mazri, Reda Meziani, Jamal El Fadile, Az-Eddine Ezzinbi
The effects of major mineral salts, L-glutamine, myo-inositol and carbon source on shoot bud proliferation of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cv. Mejhoul were evaluated. Different concentrations of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3; 550, 825 or 1650 mg/L), potassium nitrate (KNO3; 633.3, 950 or 1900 mg/L), calcium chloride dehydrate (CaCl2·2H2O; 147, 220 or 440 mg/L), potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4; 57, 85 or 170 mg/L), magnesium sulfate heptahydrate (MgSO4·7H2O; 123, 185 or 370 mg/L), L-glutamine and myo-inositol (0...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330175/exploration-of-the-binding-modes-of-l-asparaginase-complexed-with-its-amino-acid-substrates-by-molecular-docking-dynamics-and-simulation
#4
Erva Rajeswara Reddy, Rajulapati Satish Babu, Potla Durthi Chandrasai, Pola Madhuri
Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is an outrageous disease worldwide. L-Asparagine (L-Asn) and L-glutamine (L-Gln) deamination plays crucial role in ALL treatment. Role of Erwinaze(®) (L-asparaginase from Erwinia chrysanthemi) in regulation of L-Asn and L-Gln has been confirmed by the experimental studies. Therapeutic research against ALL remained elusive with the lack of structural information on Erwinaze(®) enzyme. In this present study, homology model of the Erwinaze(®) was developed using MODELLER and the same was validated by various quality indexing tools...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330130/isolation-and-characterization-of-bacterial-endophytes-of-curcuma-longa-l
#5
Ajay Kumar, Ritu Singh, Akhilesh Yadav, D D Giri, P K Singh, Kapil D Pandey
Fourteen endophytic bacterial isolates were isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma longa L. were characterized on the basis of morphology, biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The isolates were identified to six strains namely Bacillus cereus (ECL1), Bacillus thuringiensis (ECL2), Bacillus sp. (ECL3), Bacillus pumilis (ECL4), Pseudomonas putida (ECL5), and Clavibacter michiganensis (ECL6). All the strains produced IAA and solubilized phosphate and only two strains produced siderophore (ECL3 and ECL5) during plant growth promoting trait analysis...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330072/molecular-dynamic-simulations-of-escherichia-coli-l-asparaginase-to-illuminate-its-role-in-deamination-of-asparagine-and-glutamine-residues
#6
Rajeswara Reddy Erva, Satish Babu Rajulapati, Chandrasai Potla Durthi, Mayuri Bhatia, Madhuri Pola
Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is an outrageous disease worldwide. L-Asparagine (L-Asn) and L-Glutamine (L-Gln) deamination play a crucial role in ALL treatment. Role of Elspar(®) (L-asparaginase from Escherichia coli) in regulation of L-Asn and L-Gln has been confirmed by the other researchers through experimental studies. Therapeutic research against ALL remained elusive with the lack of information on molecular interactions of Elspar(®) with amino acid substrates. In the present study, using different docking tools binding cavities, key residues in binding and ligand binding mechanisms were identified...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327992/cyst-fluid-from-cystic-malignant-brain-tumors-a-reservoir-of-nutrients-including-growth-factor-like-nutrients-for-tumor-cells
#7
Daniel Dahlberg, Eduard A Struys, Erwin E Jansen, Lars Mørkrid, Øivind Midttun, Bjørnar Hassel
BACKGROUND: Brain tumors may have cysts, whose content of nutrients could influence tumor cell microenvironment and growth. OBJECTIVE: To measure nutrients in cyst fluid from glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and metastatic brain tumors. METHODS: Quantification of nutrients in cyst fluid from 12 to 18 GBMs and 4 to 10 metastatic brain tumors. RESULTS: GBM cysts contained glucose at 2.2 mmol/L (median value; range <0.8-3...
January 25, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322622/central-nervous-system-changes-induced-by-underbody-blast-induced-hyperacceleration-an-in-vivo-diffusion-tensor-imaging-and-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study
#8
Shiyu Tang, Su Xu, William L Fourney, Ulrich H Leiste, Julie L Proctor, Gary Fiskum, Rao P Gullapalli
Blast-related traumatic brain injury (bTBI) resulting from improvised explosive devices is the hallmark injury of recent wars, and affects many returning veterans who experienced either direct or indirect exposure. Many of these veterans have long-term neurocognitive symptoms. However, there is very little evidence to show whether blast-induced acceleration alone, in the absence of secondary impacts, can cause mild TBI. In this study, we examine the effect of under-vehicle blast-induced hyperacceleration (uBIH) of ∼1700 g on the biochemical and microstrucutral changes in the brain using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320958/p97-vcp-promotes-degradation-of-crbn-substrate-glutamine-synthetase-and-neosubstrates
#9
Thang Van Nguyen, Jing Li, Chin-Chun Jean Lu, Jennifer L Mamrosh, Gang Lu, Brian E Cathers, Raymond J Deshaies
Glutamine synthetase (GS) plays an essential role in metabolism by catalyzing the synthesis of glutamine from glutamate and ammonia. Our recent study showed that CRBN, a direct protein target for the teratogenic and antitumor activities of immunomodulatory drugs such as thalidomide, lenalidomide, and pomalidomide, recognizes an acetyl degron of GS, resulting in ubiquitylation and degradation of GS in response to glutamine. Here, we report that valosin-containing protein (VCP)/p97 promotes the degradation of ubiquitylated GS, resulting in its accumulation in cells with compromised p97 function...
March 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319096/hyperglycemia-exacerbates-colon-cancer-malignancy-through-hexosamine-biosynthetic-pathway
#10
A Vasconcelos-Dos-Santos, H F B R Loponte, N R Mantuano, I A Oliveira, I F de Paula, L K Teixeira, J C M de-Freitas-Junior, K C Gondim, N Heise, R Mohana-Borges, J A Morgado-Díaz, W B Dias, A R Todeschini
Hyperglycemia is a common feature of diabetes mellitus, considered as a risk factor for cancer. However, its direct effects in cancer cell behavior are relatively unexplored. Herein we show that high glucose concentration induces aberrant glycosylation, increased cell proliferation, invasion and tumor progression of colon cancer. By modulating the activity of the rate-limiting enzyme, glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT), we demonstrate that hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) is involved in those processes...
March 20, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317865/complete-genome-sequencing-and-antibiotics-biosynthesis-pathways-analysis-of-streptomyces-lydicus-103
#11
Nan Jia, Ming-Zhu Ding, Hao Luo, Feng Gao, Ying-Jin Yuan
More and more new natural products have been found in Streptomyces species, which become the significant resource for antibiotics production. Among them, Streptomyces lydicus has been known as its ability of streptolydigin biosynthesis. Herein, we present the genome analysis of S. lydicus based on the complete genome sequencing. The circular chromosome of S. lydicus 103 comprises 8,201,357 base pairs with average GC content 72.22%. With the aid of KEGG analysis, we found that S. lydicus 103 can transfer propanoate to succinate, glutamine or glutamate to 2-oxoglutarate, CO2 and L-glutamate to ammonia, which are conducive to the the supply of amino acids...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316020/%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-boosts-mitochondrial-and-neuronal-metabolism-but-is-not-preferred-over-glucose-under-activated-conditions
#12
Lavanya B Achanta, Benjamin D Rowlands, Donald S Thomas, Gary D Housley, Caroline D Rae
The ketone body, β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB), is metabolised by the brain alongside the mandatory brain fuel glucose. To examine the extent and circumstances by which βOHB can supplement glucose metabolism, we studied guinea pig cortical brain slices using increasing concentrations of [U-(13)C]D-βOHB in conjunction with [1-(13)C]D-glucose under conditions of normo- and hypoglycaemia, as well as under high potassium (40 mmol/L K(+)) depolarization in normo- and hypoglycaemic conditions. The contribution of βOHB to synthesis of GABA was also probed by inhibiting the synthesis of glutamine, a GABA precursor, with methionine sulfoximine (MSO)...
March 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306503/phase-separation-of-c9orf72-dipeptide-repeats-perturbs-stress-granule-dynamics
#13
Steven Boeynaems, Elke Bogaert, Denes Kovacs, Albert Konijnenberg, Evy Timmerman, Alex Volkov, Mainak Guharoy, Mathias De Decker, Tom Jaspers, Veronica H Ryan, Abigail M Janke, Pieter Baatsen, Thomas Vercruysse, Regina-Maria Kolaitis, Dirk Daelemans, J Paul Taylor, Nancy Kedersha, Paul Anderson, Francis Impens, Frank Sobott, Joost Schymkowitz, Frederic Rousseau, Nicolas L Fawzi, Wim Robberecht, Philip Van Damme, Peter Tompa, Ludo Van Den Bosch
Liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) of RNA-binding proteins plays an important role in the formation of multiple membrane-less organelles involved in RNA metabolism, including stress granules. Defects in stress granule homeostasis constitute a cornerstone of ALS/FTLD pathogenesis. Polar residues (tyrosine and glutamine) have been previously demonstrated to be critical for phase separation of ALS-linked stress granule proteins. We now identify an active role for arginine-rich domains in these phase separations...
March 16, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302378/hypothermic-storage-of-isolated-spermatogonia-and-oogonia-from-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#14
Bahram Falahatkar, Samaneh Poursaeid, Ryota Kitada, Goro Yoshizaki
A growing number of fish species are endangered due to human activities. A short- or long-time preservation of gametes could conserve genetic resources of threatened fish species. The aim of this study was to evaluate a hypothermic condition for short-term preservation of spermatogonia and oogonia cells isolated from immature transgenic rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and to determine the maximum time point for further transplantation. Viability rate of germ cells was investigated after isolation and during storage at 4 °C up to 24 h...
March 13, 2017: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299479/l-glutamine-and-l-arginine-protect-against-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-infection-via-intestinal-innate-immunity-in-mice
#15
Gang Liu, Wenkai Ren, Jun Fang, Chien-An Andy Hu, Guiping Guan, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Jie Yin, Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan, Shuai Chen, Yuanyi Peng, Yulong Yin
Dietary glutamine (Gln) or arginine (Arg) supplementation is beneficial for intestinal health; however, whether Gln or Arg may confer protection against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection is not known. To address this, we used an ETEC-infected murine model to investigate the protective effects of Gln and Arg. Experimentally, we pre-treated mice with designed diet of Gln or Arg supplementation prior to the oral ETEC infection and then assessed mouse mortality and intestinal bacterial burden. We also determined the markers of intestinal innate immunity in treated mice, including secretory IgA response (SIgA), mucins from goblet cells, as well as antimicrobial peptides from Paneth cells...
March 15, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296275/the-full-length-genomic-sequence-of-a-novel-hla-a-24-allele-hla-a-24-353-identified-in-a-patient-with-hepatitis-b-infection
#16
S-Q Gao, Y-P Xu, L-M He, H Zhang, A-L Yang
HLA-A*24:353 differs from HLA-A*24:02:01 by an amino acid exchange glutamine to glutamate at position 316.
March 12, 2017: HLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295918/the-intrinsically-disordered-inhibitor-of-glutamine-synthetase-is-a-functional-protein-with-random-coil-like-pka-values
#17
Concetta Cozza, José L Neira, Francisco J Florencio, M Isabel Muro-Pastor, Bruno Rizzuti
The sequential action of glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) in cyanobacteria allows the incorporation of ammonium into carbon skeletons. In the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, the activity of GS is modulated by the interaction with proteins, which include a 65-residue-long intrinsically disordered protein (IDP), the inactivating factor IF7. This interaction is regulated by the presence of charged residues in both IF7 and GS. In order to understand how charged amino acids can affect the binding of an IDP with its target, and to provide clues on electrostatic interactions in disordered states of proteins, we measured the pKa values of all IF7 acidic groups (Glu32, Glu36, Glu38, Asp40, Asp58, and Ser65, the backbone C-terminus) at 100 mM NaCl concentration, by using NMR spectroscopy...
March 15, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286732/water-deficit-induced-oxidative-stress-affects-artemisinin-content-and-expression-of-proline-metabolic-genes-in-artemisia-annua-l
#18
Priyanka Soni, Malik Z Abdin
Water stress is one of the most critical abiotic stresses that restricts growth, development, and alters physiological and biochemical mechanisms of plant. The effects of long-term water shortage-induced oxidative stress on morphophysiological parameters, proline metabolic genes, and artemisinin content were studied in Artemisia annua L. under greenhouse conditions. Plant growth, biomass accumulation, relative water content, and chlorophyll content were reduced under drought. Leaf water potential ranged from -0...
March 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275102/plasma-glutamine-is-a-minor-precursor-for-the-synthesis-of-citrulline-a-multispecies-study
#19
Juan C Marini, Umang Agarwal, Inka C Didelija, Mahshid Azamian, Barbara Stoll, Sandesh Cs Nagamani
Background: Glutamine is considered the main precursor for citrulline synthesis in many species, including humans. The transfer of (15)N from 2-[(15)N]-glutamine to citrulline has been used as evidence for this precursor-product relation. However, work in mice has shown that nitrogen and carbon tracers follow different moieties of glutamine and that glutamine contribution to the synthesis of citrulline is minor. It is unclear whether this small contribution of glutamine is also true in other species.Objective: The objective of the present work was to determine the contribution of glutamine to citrulline production by using nitrogen and carbon skeleton tracers in multiple species...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273684/stress-sensitive-arterial-hypertension-hemodynamic-changes-and-brain-metabolites-in-hypertensive-isiah-rats-mri-investigation
#20
A A Seryapina, O B Shevelev, M P Moshkin, A L Markel, A E Akulov
The study of early development of the arterial hypertension in association with emotional stress is of great importance for better understanding of etiolody and pathogenesis of the hypertensive disease. MRI technique was applied to evaluate the hemodynamic and brain metabolites changes in 1- and 3-Mo-old ISIAH rats (10 male rats) with stress-sensitive arterial hypertension and in control normotensive WAG rats (8 male rats). In the 3-Mo-old ISIAH rats, age-dependent increase in the blood pressure was associated with increased blood flow through the renal arteries and decreased blood flow in the lower part of abdominal aorta...
March 8, 2017: Experimental Physiology
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