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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453063/-1-h-nmr-based-metabolomics-reveals-interactive-effects-between-the-carrier-solvent-methanol-and-a-pharmaceutical-mixture-in-an-amphibian-developmental-bioassay-with-limnodynastes-peronii
#1
Steven D Melvin, Oliver A H Jones, Anthony R Carroll, Frederic D L Leusch
Organic carrier solvents are used in aquatic toxicity testing to improve chemical solubility and facilitate the exploration of dose-response relationships. Both water- and solvent-control groups are normally included in these scenarios to ensure that the solvent itself has no effect on the test organism, but this fails to consider possible interactive effects between carrier solvents and contaminants of interest. We explored this topic by exposing Limnodynastes peronii tadpoles to a mixture of common water-soluble pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, metformin and valproic acid) in the presence and absence of the carrier solvent methanol, according to standard developmental bioassay methodology...
February 10, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452407/dietary-l-glutamine-supplementation-improves-growth-performance-gut-morphology-and-serum-biochemical-indices-of-broiler-chickens-during-necrotic-enteritis-challenge
#2
G D Xue, R Barekatain, S B Wu, M Choct, R A Swick
Necrotic enteritis (NE) causes significant economic losses in the broiler chicken industry, especially in birds raised without in-feed antibiotics. L-glutamine (Gln) is an amino acid that may compensate for metabolic losses from infection and improve the intestinal development. This study investigated the effects of dietary Gln (10 g/kg) supplementation on growth performance, intestinal lesions, jejunum morphology, and serum biochemical indices of broiler chickens during NE challenge. The study employed a factorial arrangement of treatments with factors: NE challenge, no or yes; dietary Gln inclusion, 0 g/kg in starter (S), d 0 to 10, grower (G) d 10 to 24, and finisher (F) d 24 to 35; 10 g/kg in S, G, F, or 10 g/kg in S, G only...
February 14, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434187/glutamine-metabolism-regulates-flip-expression-and-sensitivity-to-trail-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-cells
#3
Marta Mauro-Lizcano, Abelardo López-Rivas
Glutamine plays an important role in the metabolism of tumor cells through its contribution to redox homeostasis, bioenergetics, synthesis of macromolecules, and signaling. Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are highly metastatic and associated with poor prognosis. TNBC cells show a marked dependence on extracellular glutamine for growth. Herein we demonstrate that TNBC cells are markedly sensitized to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis upon glutamine deprivation...
February 12, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433620/effects-of-various-glutamine-concentrations-on-gene-expression-and-steviol-glycosides-accumulation-in-stevia-rebaudiana-bertoni
#4
Fatemeh Esmaeili, Matin Ghaheri, Danial Kahrizi, Mohsen Mansouri, Seyed Mehdi Safavi, Tayebeh Ghorbani, Sarre Muhammadi, Elham Rahmanian, Siavash Vaziri
Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is one of the most important biologically sourced and low-calorie sweeteners that contains a lots of Steviol glycosides. Tissue culture is the best method for propagation of stevia and micro nutrients can affect both morphological traits and steviol glycosides production. In the present study, we investigated the effect of different concentrations of glutamine (10, 20, 30 and 40 g/l) on expression of UGT74G1 and UGT76G1 genes and stevioside and rebaudioside A accumulation in the leaves of stevia under in vitro conditions...
February 10, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425689/an-easy-to-use-liquid-chromatography-method-with-fluorescence-detection-for-the-simultaneous-determination-of-five-neuroactive-amino-acids-in-different-regions-of-rat-brain
#5
Beatriz M Fonseca, Ana C Cristóvão, Gilberto Alves
INTRODUCTION: To comprehend the normal function and pathological characteristics of certain neurological disorders it is important to evaluate the neuroactive amino acids levels in animal models. METHODS: This work describes a simple liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (LC-FLD) method for the simultaneous determination of aspartic acid (Asp), glutamic acid (Glu), glutamine (Gln), taurine (Tau) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), using methyl-L-arginine as internal standard, in samples of rat brain tissue...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423048/specific-alterations-in-gut-microbiota-are-associated-with-prognosis-of-budd-chiari-syndrome
#6
Yu-Ling Sun, Wen-Qi Li, Peng-Xu Ding, Zhi-Wei Wang, Chang-Hua Wei, Xiu-Xian Ma, Rui-Fang Zhang, Yan Wu, Lin Zhou, Ruo-Peng Liang, Yan-Peng Zhang, Yi-Pu Zhao, Rong-Tao Zhu, Jian Li
Gut microbiota is associated with liver diseases. However, gut microbial characteristics of Budd-Chiari syndrome (B-CS) have not been reported. Here, by MiSeq sequencing, gut microbial alterations were characterized among 37 health controls, 20 liver cirrhosis (LC) patients, 31 initial B-CS patients (B-CS group), 33 stability patients after BCS treatment (stability group) and 23 recurrent patients after BCS treatment (recurrence group). Gut microbial diversity was increased in B-CS versus LC. Bacterial community of B-CS clustered with controls but separated from LC...
January 9, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415497/modification-and-assembly-of-a-versatile-lactonase-for-bacterial-quorum-quenching
#7
Melissa K Rhoads, Pricila Hauk, Valerie Gupta, Michelle L Bookstaver, Kristina Stephens, Gregory F Payne, William E Bentley
This work sets out to provide a self-assembled biopolymer capsule activated with a multi-functional enzyme for localized delivery. This enzyme, SsoPox, which is a lactonase and phosphotriesterase, provides a means of interrupting bacterial communication pathways that have been shown to mediate pathogenicity. Here we demonstrate the capability to express, purify and attach SsoPox to the natural biopolymer chitosan, preserving its activity to "neutralize" long-chain autoinducer-1 (AI-1) communication molecules...
February 6, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414016/rapid-analysis-of-glutamate-glutamine-and-gaba-in-mice-frontal-cortex-microdialysis-samples-using-hplc-coupled-to-electrospray-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#8
Celine Defaix, Audrey Solgadi, Thu Ha Pham, Alain M Gardier, Pierre Chaminade, Laurent Tritschler
In vivo measurement of multiple neurotransmitters is highly interesting but remains challenging in the field of neuroscience. GABA and l-glutamic acid are the major inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters, respectively, in the central nervous system, and their changes are related to a variety of diseases such as anxiety and major depressive disorder. This study described a simple method allowing the simultaneous LC-MS/MS quantification of l-glutamic acid, glutamine and GABA. Analytes were acquired from samples of the prefrontal cortex by microdialysis technique in freely moving mice...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407615/dual-roles-of-cystatin-a-in-the-immune-defense-of-the-pacific-oyster-crassostrea-gigas
#9
Fan Mao, Yue Lin, Zhiying He, Jun Li, Zhiming Xiang, Yang Zhang, Ziniu Yu
Cystatins are a large family of the proteins that function as reversible and tight-binding inhibitors of cysteine proteases, which consequently regulate multiple physiological activities including apoptosis and innate immunity. In the present study, we cloned a gene from Crassostrea gigas encoding cystatin, which is related to cystatin A superfamily. CgCytA was comprised of a cystatin-like domain with two conserved glycine residues (GG) near the N-terminal and a highly conserved glutamine-valine-glycine (Q-X-V-X-G) motif in the form of QVVAG loop...
January 30, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407039/a-role-for-glutamine-183-in-the-folate-oxidative-half-reaction-of-methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase-from-escherichia-coli
#10
Chong Zuo, Amber L Jolly, Andriana P Nikolova, David I Satzer, Sirui Cao, Jeremy S Sanchez, David P Ballou, Elizabeth E Trimmer
The flavoprotein methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) from Escherichia coli catalyzes a ping-pong reaction with NADH and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate (CH2-H4folate) to produce NAD+ and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (CH3-H4folate). This work focuses on the function of the invariant, active-site amino acid Gln183. X-ray structures of the enzyme complexes Ered(wild-type)•NADH and Eox(Glu28Gln)•CH3-H4folate indicate that Gln183 makes key hydrogen-bonding interactions with both NADH and folate in their respective half-reactions, suggesting roles in binding each substrate...
February 3, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405605/13-c-flux-analysis-reveals-that-rebalancing-medium-amino-acid-composition-can-reduce-ammonia-production-while-preserving-central-carbon-metabolism-of-cho-cell-cultures
#11
Allison G McAtee Pereira, Jason L Walther, Myles Hollenbach, Jamey D Young
13 C metabolic flux analysis (MFA) provides a rigorous approach to quantify intracellular metabolism of industrial cell lines. In this study, 13 C MFA was used to characterize the metabolic response of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells to a novel medium variant designed to reduce ammonia production. Ammonia inhibits growth and viability of CHO cell cultures, alters glycosylation of recombinant proteins, and enhances product degradation. Ammonia production was reduced by manipulating the amino acid composition of the culture medium; specifically, glutamine, glutamate, asparagine, aspartate, and serine levels were adjusted...
February 6, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405021/-effect-of-oral-glutamine-on-chemotherapy-induced-peripheral-neuropathy-in-cancer-patients-an-evidence-based-appraisal
#12
Wan-Na Sun, Jing-Wei Su, Zih-Ping Shen, Hsin-Tien Hsu
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy may induce peripheral neuropathy, which often results in the chemotherapy dose being reduced or the chemotherapy regimen being stopped. At present, there are no treatment guidelines for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Glutamine is one of the treatment strategies currently applied in practice. This strategy is expensive and lacks clear evidence as to its efficacy. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of oral glutamine on CIPN in cancer patients...
February 2018: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404053/separation-and-determination-of-acetyl-glutamine-enantiomers-by-hplc-ms-and-its-application-in-pharmacokinetic-study
#13
Xiaoxiao Zhang, Lei Gao, Zunjian Zhang, Yuan Tian
A high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) method was established for the separation and determination of acetyl-glutamine enantiomers (acetyl-L-glutamine and acetyl-D-glutamine) simultaneously. Baseline separation was achieved on Chiralpak AD-H column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm). n-Hexane (containing 0.1% acetic acid) and ethanol (75:25, v/v) were used as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. The detection was operated in the negative ion mode with an ESI source...
October 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402311/hepatic-stem-cells-with-self-renewal-and-liver-repopulation-potential-are-harbored-in-cdcp1-positive-subpopulations-of-human-fetal-liver-cells
#14
Ran-Ran Zhang, Yun-Wen Zheng, Bin Li, Yun-Zhong Nie, Yasuharu Ueno, Tomonori Tsuchida, Hideki Taniguchi
BACKGROUND: Mature human hepatocytes are critical in preclinical research and therapy for liver disease, but are difficult to manipulate and expand in vitro. Hepatic stem cells (HpSCs) may be an alternative source of functional hepatocytes for cell therapy and disease modeling. Since these cells play an import role in regenerative medicine, the precise characterization that determines specific markers used to isolate these cells as well as whether they contribute to liver regeneration still remain to be shown...
February 5, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402284/metabolic-characterization-of-menopause-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-evidence
#15
Qin Wang, Diana L Santos Ferreira, Scott M Nelson, Naveed Sattar, Mika Ala-Korpela, Debbie A Lawlor
BACKGROUND: Women who experience menopause are at higher cardiometabolic risk and often display adverse changes in metabolic biomarkers compared with pre-menopausal women. It remains elusive whether the changes in cardiometabolic biomarkers during the menopausal transition are due to ovarian aging or chronological aging. Well-conducted longitudinal studies are required to determine this. The aim of this study was to explore the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of reproductive status, defined according to the 2012 Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop criteria, with 74 metabolic biomarkers, and establish whether any associations are independent of age-related changes...
February 6, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400603/a-novel-bicistronic-gene-design-couples-stable-cell-line-selection-with-a-fucose-switch-in-a-designer-cho-host-to-produce-native-and-afucosylated-glycoform-antibodies
#16
Gargi Roy, Tom Martin, Arnita Barnes, Jihong Wang, Rod Brian Jimenez, Megan Rice, Lina Li, Hui Feng, Shu Zhang, Raghothama Chaerkady, Herren Wu, Marcello Marelli, Diane Hatton, Jie Zhu, Michael A Bowen
The conserved glycosylation site Asn297 of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) can be decorated with a variety of sugars that can alter mAb pharmacokinetics and recruitment of effector proteins. Antibodies lacking the core fucose at Asn297 (afucosylated mAbs) show enhanced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and increased efficacy. Here, we describe the development of a robust platform for the manufacture of afucosylated therapeutic mAbs by engineering a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) host cell line to co-express a mAb with GDP-6-deoxy-D-lyxo-4-hexulose reductase (RMD), a prokaryotic enzyme that deflects an intermediate in the de novo synthesis of fucose to a dead-end product, resulting in the production of afucosylated mAb (GlymaxX™ Technology, ProBioGen)...
February 5, 2018: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400109/evolution-of-the-neurochemical-profiles-in-the-g93a-sod1-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#17
Hongxia Lei, Elisabeth Dirren, Carole Poitry-Yamate, Bernard L Schneider, Rolf Gruetter, Patrick Aebischer
In vivo 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) investigations of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mouse brain may provide neurochemical profiles and alterations in association with ALS disease progression. We aimed to longitudinally follow neurochemical evolutions of striatum, brainstem and motor cortex of mice transgenic for G93A mutant human superoxide dismutase type-1 (G93A-SOD1), an ALS model. Region-specific neurochemical alterations were detected in asymptomatic G93A-SOD1 mice, particularly in lactate (-19%) and glutamate (+8%) of brainstem, along with γ-amino-butyric acid (-30%), N-acetyl-aspartate (-5%) and ascorbate (+51%) of motor cortex...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399816/characterization-and-virus-susceptibility-of-a-continuous-cell-line-derived-from-the-brain-of-aequidens-rivulatus-g%C3%A3-nther
#18
S W Yeh, Y H Cheng, F N Nan, C M Wen
Cell cultures derived from the brain tissues of Aequidens rivulatus (Günther) have been characterized previously. In this study, a continuous cell line ARB8 was further established, and its growth characteristics, transcription and susceptibility to fish viruses-including chum salmon reovirus (CSV), marbled eel infectious pancreative necrosis virus (MEIPNV), grouper nervous necrosis virus (GNNV), giant seaperch iridovirus (GSIV), red seabream iridovirus (RSIV), koi herpesvirus (KHV), herpesvirus anguilla (HVA) and marbled eel polyoma-like virus (MEPyV)-were examined...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396029/prenatal-treatment-of-ornithine-transcarbamylase-deficiency
#19
Yael Wilnai, Yair J Blumenfeld, Kristina Cusmano, Susan R Hintz, Deborah Alcorn, William E Benitz, William E Berquist, Jonathan A Bernstein, Ricardo O Castillo, Waldo Concepcion, Tina M Cowan, Kenneth L Cox, Deirdre J Lyell, Carlos O Esquivel, Margaret Homeyer, Louanne Hudgins, Melissa Hurwitz, Jonathan P Palma, Susan Schelley, Vishnu Priya Akula, Marshall L Summar, Gregory M Enns
PURPOSE OF STUDY: Patients with neonatal urea cycle defects (UCDs) typically experience severe hyperammonemia during the first days of life, which results in serious neurological injury or death. Long-term prognosis despite optimal pharmacological and dietary therapy is still poor. The combination of intravenous sodium phenylacetate and sodium benzoate (Ammonul®) can eliminate nitrogen waste independent of the urea cycle. We report attempts to improve outcomes for males with severe ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD), a severe X-linked condition, via prenatal intravenous administration of Ammonul and arginine to heterozygous carrier females of OTCD during labor...
January 16, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393473/protective-effects-of-n-2-%C3%A2-l%C3%A2-alanyl%C3%A2-l%C3%A2-glutamine-mediated-by-the-jak2-stat3-signaling-pathway-on-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion
#20
Shan Liu, Yang Yang, Yan Qiu Song, Jie Geng, Qing Liang Chen
To explore the protective effect of N(2)-L-alanyl-L-glutamine (NLAG) on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), and observe the influence of NLAG on the Janus activated kinase signal transducer 2 and activator of transcription 3 (JAK2/STAT3) signaling pathway‑associated molecules. Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: Sham, IRI and NLAG. In the IRI rat model, the cardiac hemodynamics, the maximum rate of left ventricular pressure (+dP/dtmax) and the left ventricular end‑diastolic pressure (LVDP) were recorded...
February 2, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
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