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L glutamine

Chaoling Wei, Hua Yang, Songbo Wang, Jian Zhao, Chun Liu, Liping Gao, Enhua Xia, Ying Lu, Yuling Tai, Guangbiao She, Jun Sun, Haisheng Cao, Wei Tong, Qiang Gao, Yeyun Li, Weiwei Deng, Xiaolan Jiang, Wenzhao Wang, Qi Chen, Shihua Zhang, Haijing Li, Junlan Wu, Ping Wang, Penghui Li, Chengying Shi, Fengya Zheng, Jianbo Jian, Bei Huang, Dai Shan, Mingming Shi, Congbing Fang, Yi Yue, Fangdong Li, Daxiang Li, Shu Wei, Bin Han, Changjun Jiang, Ye Yin, Tao Xia, Zhengzhu Zhang, Jeffrey L Bennetzen, Shancen Zhao, Xiaochun Wan
Tea, one of the world's most important beverage crops, provides numerous secondary metabolites that account for its rich taste and health benefits. Here we present a high-quality sequence of the genome of tea, Camellia sinensis var. sinensis (CSS), using both Illumina and PacBio sequencing technologies. At least 64% of the 3.1-Gb genome assembly consists of repetitive sequences, and the rest yields 33,932 high-confidence predictions of encoded proteins. Divergence between two major lineages, CSS and Camellia sinensis var...
April 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Carola Rong, Caroline Park, Joshua D Rosenblat, Mehala Subramaniapillai, Hannah Zuckerman, Dominika Fus, Yena L Lee, Zihang Pan, Elisa Brietzke, Rodrigo B Mansur, Danielle S Cha, Leanna M W Lui, Roger S McIntyre
OBJECTIVES: Extant evidence indicates that ketamine exerts rapid antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant depressive (TRD) symptoms as a part of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). The identification of depressed sub-populations that are more likely to benefit from ketamine treatment remains a priority. In keeping with this view, the present narrative review aims to identify the pretreatment predictors of response to ketamine in TRD as part of MDD and BD. METHOD: Electronic search engines PubMed/MEDLINE, ClinicalTrials...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ganggang Chong, Junhua Di, Cuiluan Ma, Dajing Wang, Chu Wang, Lingling Wang, Pengqi Zhang, Jun Zhu, Yucai He
In this study, biomass-hydrolysate was used for enhancing the bioreduction of ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate (COBE). Firstly, dilute alkalic salt pretreatment was attempted to pretreat bamboo shoot shell (BSS). It was found that enzymatic in situ hydrolysis of 20-50 g/L BSS pretreated with dilute alkalic salts (0.4% Na2 CO3 , 0.032% Na2 S) at 7.5% sulfidity by autoclaving at 110 °C for 40 min gave sugar yields at 59.9%-73.5%. Moreover, linear relationships were corrected on solid recovery-total delignification-sugar yield...
April 7, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Ning Liu, Xiaoshi Ma, Xuan Luo, Yunchang Zhang, Yu He, Zhaolai Dai, Ying Yang, Guoyao Wu, Zhenlong Wu
Background: Programmed cell death plays a fundamental role in intestinal development and mucosal homeostasis. Dysregulation of these processes is associated with an impaired intestinal-mucosal barrier, reduced nutrient absorption, and initiation and progression of intestinal diseases. 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), a product of lipid peroxidation, is commonly used to induce oxidative stress in cells. l-Glutamine is known to protect cells from apoptosis. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Qiuying Chen, Kathryne Kirk, Yevgeniya I Shurubor, Dazhi Zhao, Andrea J Arreguin, Ifrah Shahi, Federica Valsecchi, Guido Primiano, Elizabeth L Calder, Valerio Carelli, Travis T Denton, M Flint Beal, Steven S Gross, Giovanni Manfredi, Marilena D'Aurelio
Using molecular, biochemical, and untargeted stable isotope tracing approaches, we identify a previously unappreciated glutamine-derived α-ketoglutarate (αKG) energy-generating anaplerotic flux to be critical in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutant cells that harbor human disease-associated oxidative phosphorylation defects. Stimulating this flux with αKG supplementation enables the survival of diverse mtDNA mutant cells under otherwise lethal obligatory oxidative conditions. Strikingly, we demonstrate that when residual mitochondrial respiration in mtDNA mutant cells exceeds 45% of control levels, αKG oxidative flux prevails over reductive carboxylation...
April 9, 2018: Cell Metabolism
D Darmaun, A Lapillonne, U Simeoni, J-C Picaud, J-C Rozé, E Saliba, A Bocquet, J-P Chouraqui, C Dupont, F Feillet, M-L Frelut, J-P Girardet, D Turck, A Briend
Due to transient gut immaturity, most very preterm infants receive parenteral nutrition (PN) in the first few weeks of life. Yet providing enough protein and energy to sustain optimal growth in such infants remains a challenge. Extrauterine growth restriction is frequently observed in very preterm infants at the time of discharge from hospital, and has been found to be associated with later impaired neurodevelopment. A few recent randomized trials suggest that intensified PN can improve early growth; whether or not such early PN improves long-term neurological outcome is still unclear...
April 12, 2018: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Patrícia Monah Cunha Bartos, Hugo Teixeira Gomes, Lourdes Isabel Velho do Amaral, João Batista Teixeira, Jonny Everson Scherwinski-Pereira
Several biochemical components associated with different stages of somatic embryogenesis in coffee ( Coffea arabica L.) are investigated using foliar explants. Soluble sugar, starch, free amino acids and total proteins were extracted and quantified at different stages of somatic embryogenesis, such as foliar segments (initial explants), primary calluses, embryogenic calluses, globular embryos, torpedoes, cotyledonary embryos and mature fruit zygotic embryos. Total soluble sugar levels increased sixfold at the initial stages of somatic embryogenesis induction...
April 2018: 3 Biotech
Liguo Qiu, Xiang Shi, Simeng Yu, Qian Han, Xiaoping Diao, Hailong Zhou
Ammonia stress can inhibit the survival and growth, and even cause mortality of shrimp. In this study, ammonia-metabolizing enzyme activities and gene expression were compared between two strains of L. vannamei under different ammonia-N ([Formula: see text]) concentrations (3.4, 13.8, and 24.6 mg/L). The results showed that elevated ammonia concentrations mainly increased glutamine synthetase (GSase) activities while inhibiting transglutaminase (TGase) activities in the muscle of both strains. Thus, we concluded that L...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Barbara Spolaore, Giacomo Forzato, Angelo Fontana
Microbial transglutaminase (TGase) has been successfully used to produce site-specific protein conjugates derivatized at the level of glutamine (Gln) or lysine (Lys) residues with diverse applications. Here, we study the drug human interferon β-1a (IFN) as a substrate of TGase. The derivatization reaction was performed using carbobenzoxy-L-glutaminyl-glycine to modify Lys residues and dansylcadaverine for Gln residues. The 166 amino acids polypeptide chain of IFN β-1a contains 11 Lys and 11 Gln residues potential sites of TGase derivatization...
April 7, 2018: Amino Acids
Soad Al Jaouni, Ahmed M Saleh, Mohammed A M Wadaan, Wael N Hozzein, Samy Selim, Hamada AbdElgawad
Many studies have discussed the influence of elevated carbon dioxide (eCO2 ) on modeling and crop plants. However, much less effort has been dedicated to herbal plants. In this study, a robust monitoring for the levels of 94 primary and secondary metabolites and minerals in two medicinal herbs, basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and peppermint (Mentha piperita L.), grwon under both ambient (aCO2 , 360 ppm) and eCO2 (620 ppm) was performed. We also assessed how the changes in herbal tissue chemistry affected their biological activity...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Robert J Harris, Jingwen Yao, Ararat Chakhoyan, Catalina Raymond, Kevin Leu, Linda M Liau, Phioanh L Nghiemphu, Albert Lai, Noriko Salamon, Whitney B Pope, Timothy F Cloughesy, Benjamin M Ellingson
PURPOSE: To introduce a new pH-sensitive and oxygen-sensitive MRI technique using amine proton CEST echo spin-and-gradient echo (SAGE) EPI (CEST-SAGE-EPI). METHODS: pH-weighting was obtained using CEST estimations of magnetization transfer ratio asymmetry (MTRasym ) at 3 ppm, and oxygen-weighting was obtained using R2' measurements. Glutamine concentration, pH, and relaxation rates were varied in phantoms to validate simulations and estimate relaxation rates. The values of MTRasym and R2' in normal-appearing white matter, T2 hyperintensity, contrast enhancement, and macroscopic necrosis were measured in 47 gliomas...
April 6, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Josy Augustine, Sofia Pavlou, Michael O'Hare, Kevin Harkin, Alan Stitt, Tim Curtis, Heping Xu, Mei Chen
Purpose: Müller glia are critical for the survival of retinal neurons and the integrity of retinal blood vessels. Müller glial cultures are important tools for investigating Müller glial pathophysiology. Here, we report a spontaneously immortalized Müller glial cell line originally cultured and subsequently cloned from mouse pups. The cell line, Queen's University Murine Müller glia Clone-1 (QMMuC-1), has been cultured for over 60 passages, has morphologic features like primary Müller cell (PMC) cultures and remains stable...
March 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Heidy Y Narvaez-Ortiz, Andrea J Lopez, Nishith Gupta, Barbara H Zimmermann
Cytidine triphosphate synthase catalyzes the synthesis of cytidine 5'-triphosphate (CTP) from uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP), the final step in the production of cytidine nucleotides. CTP synthases also form filamentous structures of different morphologies known as cytoophidia , whose functions in most organisms are unknown. Here, we identified and characterized a novel CTP synthase ( Tg CTPS) from Toxoplasma gondii . We show that Tg CTPS is capable of substituting for its counterparts in the otherwise lethal double mutant ( ura7 Δ ura8 Δ) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Rosa Alduina, Margherita Sosio, Stefano Donadio
Glycopeptides (GPAs) are an important class of antibiotics, with vancomycin and teicoplanin being used in the last 40 years as drugs of last resort to treat infections caused by Gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus . A few new GPAs have since reached the market. One of them is dalbavancin, a derivative of A40926 produced by the actinomycete Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727, recently classified as N. gerenzanensis . This review summarizes what we currently know on the multilevel regulatory processes governing production of the glycopeptide A40926 and the different approaches used to increase antibiotic yields...
April 5, 2018: Antibiotics
Akiko Furusawa, Morikazu Miyamoto, Masashi Takano, Hitoshi Tsuda, Yong Sang Song, Daisuke Aoki, Naoyuki Miyasaka, Johji Inazawa, Jun Inoue
Amino acids (AAs) are biologically important nutrient compounds necessary for the survival of any cell. Of the 20 AAs, cancer cells depend on the uptake of several extracellular AAs for survival. However, which extracellular AA is indispensable for the survival of cancer cells and the molecular mechanism involved have not been fully defined. In this study, we found that the reduction of cell survival caused by glutamine (Gln) depletion is inversely correlated with the expression level of glutamine synthetase (GS) in ovarian cancer (OVC) cells...
April 2, 2018: Carcinogenesis
J Kosel, L Vižintin, A Majer, B Bohanec
Freshly released pollen of black elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) was incubated under various culture conditions until germination was achieved. Optimal conditions for germination were determined and used for maturation of unicellular microspores in vitro. Staining with 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, propidium iodide and iodine potassium iodide was used to assess pollen viability, nuclear phase and maturation, respectively. The germination rate was highest when fresh pollen was agitated at 40 rpm in Petri dishes containing a liquid medium consisting of Brewbaker and Kwack salts, 15% (w/v) sucrose, 500 mg/l MES sodium salt, at pH 5...
April 3, 2018: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
Rafael M Santos, Jean-Michel Kessler, Patrick Salou, Jose C Menezes, Antonio Peinado
Raman spectroscopy is a suitable monitoring technique for CHO cultivations. However, a thorough discussion of peaks, bands and region assignments to key metabolites and culture attributes, and the interpretability of produced calibrations is scarce. That understanding is vital for the long-term predictive ability of monitoring models, and to facilitate lifecycle management that comply with regulatory guidelines. Several fed-batch lab-scale mAb mammalian cultivations were carried out, with in-situ Raman spectroscopy used for process state estimation and attribute monitoring...
March 31, 2018: Biotechnology Progress
Hui Jiang, Jian Liu, Xiu-Juan Qin, Yuan-Yuan Chen, Jia-Rong Gao, Mei Meng, Yuan Wang, Ting Wang
The aim of the present study was to explore changes in the urinary metabolic spectrum in rats with knee osteoarthritis, using gas chromatography-time of flight/mass spectrometry (GC-TOF/MS) to determine the metabonomic disease pathogenesis. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the control and model groups (n=8/group), and 20 µl of 4% papain and 0.03 M L-cysteine was injected into the right knee on days 1, 3 and 7 to establish the knee osteoarthritis model. Following 14 days, urine was collected over 12 h and cartilage ultrastructural damage was assessed by hematoxylin-eosin staining...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Daniel Sippel, Michael Rohde, Julia Netzer, Christian Trncik, Jakob Gies, Katharina Grunau, Ivana Djurdjevic, Laure Decamps, Susana L A Andrade, Oliver Einsle
Reduction of N2 by nitrogenases occurs at an organometallic iron cofactor that commonly also contains either molybdenum or vanadium. The well-characterized resting state of the cofactor does not bind substrate, so its mode of action remains enigmatic. Carbon monoxide was recently found to replace a bridging sulfide, but the mechanistic relevance was unclear. Here we report the structural analysis of vanadium nitrogenase with a bound intermediate, interpreted as a μ2 -bridging, protonated nitrogen that implies the site and mode of substrate binding to the cofactor...
March 30, 2018: Science
Yanwei Wang, Xiaojuan Zhou, Chunli Xu, Yan Jin, Baoxin Li
Chirality plays a key role in modern science and technology. Here, we report a simple and effective sensing platform for visual chiral recognition of enantiomers. In this sensing platform, gold nanorods (AuNRs) prepared through a common synthesis route are used as colorimetric probes for visual recognition of glutamine (Gln) enantiomers. D-Gln could rapidly induce the aggregation of AuNRs, thereby resulting in appreciable blue-to-gray color change of AuNRs solution; however, L-Gln could not induce color change of AuNRs...
March 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
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