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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027024/studies-on-the-constituents-of-helleborus-purpurascens-analysis-and-biological-activity-of-the-aqueous-and-organic-extracts
#1
M Heiko Franz, Roxana Birzoi, Catalin-Vasile Maftei, Elena Maftei, Gerhard Kelter, Heinz-Herbert Fiebig, Ion Neda
In Southeast Europe, the ethnomedicinal use of Helleborus species has a very long tradition. Cardiac steroids (Hellebrin), cysteine-rich proteins (Hellethionins) and several steroidal saponins have been identified in these plants. Aim of the present work was to investigate the amino acid composition of native extracts from the root and rootstock of Helleborus purpurascens. The amino acids have been identified by the GC-MS technique on the previously derivatised (Phenomenex Faast Kit) extract samples by comparison with the mass spectra and retention-time of the standards...
October 12, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025897/a-drosophila-model-of-insulin-resistance-associated-with-the-human-trib3-q-r-polymorphism
#2
Zachary Fischer, Rahul Das, Anna Shipman, Jin-Yuan Fan, Laramie Pence, Samuel Bouyain, Leonard L Dobens
Members of the Tribbles family of proteins are conserved pseudokinases with diverse roles in cell growth and proliferation. Both Drosophila Tribbles (Trbl) and vertebrate Trib3 proteins bind to Akt kinase to block its phosphorylation-activation and reduce downstream insulin-stimulated anabolism. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variant in human Trib3, which results in a glutamine (Q) to arginine (R) missense mutation in a conserved motif at position 84, confers stronger Akt binding resulting in reduced Akt phosphorylation and is associated with a predisposition to Type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, diabetic nephropathy, chronic kidney disease and leukemogenesis...
October 12, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025409/genes-for-asparagine-metabolism-in-lotus-japonicus-differential-expression-and-interconnection-with-photorespiration
#3
Margarita García-Calderón, Carmen M Pérez-Delgado, Alfredo Credali, José M Vega, Marco Betti, Antonio J Márquez
BACKGROUND: Asparagine is a very important nitrogen transport and storage compound in plants due to its high nitrogen/carbon ratio and stability. Asparagine intracellular concentration depends on a balance between asparagine biosynthesis and degradation. The main enzymes involved in asparagine metabolism are asparagine synthetase (ASN), asparaginase (NSE) and serine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (SGAT). The study of the genes encoding for these enzymes in the model legume Lotus japonicus is of particular interest since it has been proposed that asparagine is the principal molecule used to transport reduced nitrogen within the plant in most temperate legumes...
October 12, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024770/biochemical-biological-and-molecular-characterization-of-an-l-amino-acid-oxidase-laao-purified-from-bothrops-pictus-peruvian-snake-venom
#4
Fanny Lazo, Dan E Vivas-Ruiz, Gustavo A Sandoval, Edith F Rodríguez, Edgar E G Kozlova, F Costal-Oliveira, Carlos Chávez-Olórtegui, Ruperto Severino, Armando Yarlequé, Eladio F Sanchez
An L-amino acid oxidase from Peruvian Bothrops pictus (Bpic-LAAO) snake venom was purified using a combination of size-exclusion and ion-exchange chromatography. Bpic-LAAO is an homodimeric glycosylated flavoprotein with molecular mass of ∼65 kDa under reducing conditions and ∼132 kDa in its native form as analyzed by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration chromatography, respectively. N-terminal amino acid sequencing showed highly conserved residues in a glutamine-rich motif related to binding substrate. The enzyme exhibited optimal activity towards L-Leu at pH 8...
October 9, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023101/biosynthesis-of-nucleoside-diphosphoramidates-in-campylobacter-jejuni
#5
Zane Taylor, Haley A Brown, Hazel M Holden, Frank M Raushel
Campylobacter jejuni is a pathogenic Gram-negative bacterium and a leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis. C. jejuni produces a capsular polysaccharide (CPS) that contains a unique O-methyl phosphoramidate modification (MeOPN). Recently, the first step in the biosynthetic pathway for the assembly of the MeOPN modification to the CPS was elucidated. It was shown that the enzyme Cj1418 catalyzes the phosphorylation of the amide nitrogen of L-glutamine to form L-glutamine phosphate. In this investigation the metabolic fate of L-glutamine phosphate was determined...
October 12, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021138/glutamine-addiction-in-kidney-cancer-suppresses-oxidative-stress-and-can-be-exploited-for-real-time-imaging
#6
Omran Abu Aboud, Samy Habib, Josephine F Trott, Benjamin Stewart, Sitai Liang, Abhijit J Chaudhari, Julie L Sutcliffe, Robert H Weiss
Many cancers appear to activate intrinsic antioxidant systems as a means to counteract oxidative stress. Some cancers, such as clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), require exogenous glutamine for growth and exhibit reprogrammed glutamine metabolism, at least in part due to the glutathione pathway, an efficient cellular buffering system that counteracts reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other oxidants. We show here that ccRCC xenograft tumors under the renal capsule exhibit enhanced oxidative stress compared to adjacent normal tissue and the contralateral kidney...
October 11, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018296/pharmaceutical-approval-update
#7
Michele B Kaufman
L-glutamine oral powder (Endari) for reducing the acute complications of sickle cell disease; edaravone (Radicava) for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; and midostaurin (Rydapt) for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia in combination with chemotherapy.
October 2017: P & T: a Peer-reviewed Journal for Formulary Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988041/recombinant-small-glutamine-rich-tetratricopeptide-repeat-containing-protein-of-leishmania-infantum-potential-vaccine-and-diagnostic-application-against-visceral-leishmaniasis
#8
Daniel S Dias, Patrícia A F Ribeiro, Vívian T Martins, Daniela P Lage, Áquila S B Portela, Lourena E Costa, Beatriz C S Salles, Mariana P Lima, Fernanda F Ramos, Thaís T O Santos, Rachel B Caligiorne, Miguel A Chávez-Fumagalli, Julia A G Silveira, Danielle F Magalhães-Soares, Denise U Gonçalves, Jamil S Oliveira, Bruno M Roatt, Mariana C Duarte, Daniel Menezes-Souza, Eduardo S Silva, Alexsandro S Galdino, Ricardo A Machado-de-Ávila, Antonio L Teixeira, Eduardo A F Coelho
Different Leishmania proteins have been evaluated in order to find a potential vaccine candidate or diagnostic marker capable of providing long lasting protection against infection or helping to identify infected mammalian hosts, respectively. However, just few molecules have fulfilled all the requirements to be evaluated. In the current study, we evaluated the prophylactic and diagnostic value against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) of a small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing (SGT) protein from Leishmania infantum species...
October 5, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987406/ametryn-removal-by-metarhizium-brunneum-biodegradation-pathway-proposal-and-metabolic-background-revealed
#9
Rafał Szewczyk, Anna Kuśmierska, Przemysław Bernat
Ametryn is a representative of a class of s-triazine herbicides absorbed by plant roots and leaves and characterized as a photosynthesis inhibitor. It is still in use in some countries in the farming of pineapples, soybean, corn, cotton, sugar cane or bananas; however, due to the adverse effects of s-triazine herbicides on living organisms use of these pesticides in the European Union has been banned. In the current study, we characterized the biodegradation of ametryn (100 mg L(-1)) by entomopathogenic fungal cosmopolite Metarhizium brunneum...
October 3, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986165/metabolic-phenotyping-using-kinetic-measurements-in-young-and-older-healthy-adults
#10
Nicolaas E P Deutz, John J Thaden, Gabriella A M Ten Have, Dillon K Walker, Mariëlle P K J Engelen
BACKGROUND: The aging process is often associated with the presence of sarcopenia. Although changes in the plasma concentration of several amino acids have been observed in older adults, it remains unclear whether these changes are related to disturbances in whole body production and/or interconversions. METHODS: We studied 10 healthy young (~22.7 y) and 17 older adults (~64.8 y) by administering a mixture of stable amino acid tracers in a pulse and in a primed constant infusion...
October 3, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980034/effect-of-the-route-of-nutrition-and-l-alanyl-l-glutamine-supplementation-in-amino-acids-concentration-in-trauma-patients
#11
J M Raurich, J A Llompart-Pou, A García-de-Lorenzo, A Buño Soto, P Marsé, G Frontera, J Pérez-Bárcena
PURPOSE: Our purpose was to assess the amino acids' (AAs) profile in trauma patients and to assess the effect of the route of nutrition and the exogenous ALA-GLN dipeptide supplementation on plasma AAs' concentration. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a previous randomized controlled trial. On day 1 and day 6 after trauma, plasma concentration of 25 AAs was measured using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Results were analyzed in relation to the route of nutrition and supplementation of ALA-GLN dipeptide...
October 4, 2017: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972974/differential-inhibition-of-adenylylated-and-deadenylylated-forms-of-m-tuberculosis-glutamine-synthetase-as-a-drug-discovery-platform
#12
A Theron, R L Roth, H Hoppe, C Parkinson, C W van der Westhuyzen, S Stoychev, I Wiid, R D Pietersen, B Baker, C P Kenyon
Glutamine synthetase is a ubiquitous central enzyme in nitrogen metabolism that is controlled by up to four regulatory mechanisms, including adenylylation of some or all of the twelve subunits by adenylyl transferase. It is considered a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of tuberculosis, being essential for the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and is found extracellularly only in the pathogenic Mycobacterium strains. Human glutamine synthetase is not regulated by the adenylylation mechanism, so the adenylylated form of bacterial glutamine synthetase is of particular interest...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971241/effects-of-l-theanine-on-anxiety-like-behavior-cerebrospinal-fluid-amino-acid-profile-and-hippocampal-activity-in-wistar-kyoto-rats
#13
Shintaro Ogawa, Miho Ota, Jun Ogura, Koichi Kato, Hiroshi Kunugi
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The amino acid L-theanine (N-ethyl-L-glutamine) has historically been considered a relaxing agent. In the present study, we examined the effects of repeated L-theanine administration on behavior, levels of amino acids in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and hippocampal activity in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, an animal model of anxiety and depressive disorders. METHODS: Behavioral tests were performed after 7-10 days of L-theanine (0.4 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) or saline administration, followed by CSF sampling for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis...
October 3, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969010/dual-inhibition-of-glycolysis-and-glutaminolysis-as-a-therapeutic-strategy-in-the-treatment-of-ovarian-cancer
#14
Li Sun, Yajie Yin, Leslie H Clark, Wenchuan Sun, Stephanie A Sullivan, Arthur-Quan Tran, Jianjun Han, Lu Zhang, Hui Guo, Esther Madugu, Tommy Pan, Amanda L Jackson, Joshua Kilgore, Hannah M Jones, Timothy P Gilliam, Chunxiao Zhou, Victoria L Bae-Jump
Cancer cell metabolism is required to support the biosynthetic demands of cell growth and cell division, and to maintain reduction oxidaton (redox) homeostasis. This study was designed to test the effects of glucose and glutamine on ovarian cancer cell growth and explore the inter-relationship between glycolysis and glutaminolysis. The SKOV3, IGROV-1 and Hey ovarian cancer cell lines were assayed for glucose, pyruvate and glutamine dependence by analyzing cytotoxicity, cell cycle progression, apoptosis and ATP production...
September 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967864/activation-of-the-nrf2-antioxidant-program-generates-an-imbalance-in-central-carbon-metabolism-in-cancer
#15
Volkan I Sayin, Sarah E LeBoeuf, Simranjit X Singh, Shawn M Davidson, Douglas Biancur, Betul S Guzelhan, Samantha W Alvarez, Warren L Wu, Triantafyllia R Karakousi, Anastasia Maria Zavitsanou, Julian Ubriaco, Alexander Muir, Dimitris Karagiannis, Patrick J Morris, Craig J Thomas, Richard Possemato, Matthew G Vander Heiden, Thales Papagiannakopoulos
During tumorigenesis, the high metabolic demand of cancer cells results in increased production of reactive oxygen species. To maintain oxidative homeostasis, tumor cells increase their antioxidant production through hyperactivation of the NRF2 pathway, which promotes tumor cell growth. Despite the extensive characterization of NRF2-driven metabolic rewiring, little is known about the metabolic liabilities generated by this reprogramming. Here, we show that activation of NRF2, in either mouse or human cancer cells, leads to increased dependency on exogenous glutamine through increased consumption of glutamate for glutathione synthesis and glutamate secretion by xc(-) antiporter system...
October 2, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967640/endometrial-stromal-cells-isolation-expansion-morphological-and-functional-properties
#16
A V Zlatska, A E Rodnichenko, O S Gubar, D O Zubov, S N Novikova, R G Vasyliev
AIM: We aimed to study biological properties of human endometrial stromal cells in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The endometrium samples (n = 5) were obtained by biopsy at the first phase of the menstrual cycle from women with endometrial hypoplasia. In all cases, a voluntary written informed consent was obtained from the patients. Endometrial fragments were dissociated by enzymatic treatment. The cells were cultured in DMEM/F12 supplemented with 10% FBS, 2 mМ L-glutamine and 1 ng/ml FGF-2 in a multi-gas incubator at 5% CO2 and 5% O2...
September 2017: Experimental Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965405/metabolic-characterization-of-dairy-cows-treated-with-gossypol-by-blood-biochemistry-and-body-fluid-untargeted-metabolome-analyses
#17
Chaohua Tang, Kai Zhang, Tengfei Zhan, Qingyu Zhao, Junmin Zhang
To characterize the metabolic disorders of dairy cows treated with gossypol, 12 dairy cows were assigned to either a control group or a treatment group that was fed 1000 mg of gossypol per kilogram of dry matter feed for 28 days. Milk quality was adversely affected, as both milk protein and lactose levels were significantly decreased in the gossypol-treated group (3.40% vs. 3.16%, P = 0.044; 5.15% vs. 4.91%, P = 0.027; respectively). Plasma samples revealed increases in alanine aminotransferase (P = 0.092), choline esterase (P = 0...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960829/separation-and-determination-of-peptide-metabolite-of-bacillus-licheniformis-in-a-microbial-fuel-cell-by-high-speed-capillary-micellar-electrokinetic-chromatography
#18
Wei Wang, Ruiguang Bai, Xiaoyu Cai, Ping Lin, Lihong Ma
A method using high-speed capillary micellar electrokinetic chromatography and a microbial fuel cell was applied to determine the metabolite of the peptides released by Bacillus licheniformis. Two peptides, l-carnosine and l-alanyl-l-glutamine were used as the substrate to feed Bacillus licheniformis in a microbial fuel cell. The metabolism process of the bacterium was monitored by analyzing the voltage outputs of the microbial fuel cell. A home-made spontaneous injection device was applied to perform high-speed capillary micellar electrokinetic chromatography...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958737/changes-in-spectroscopic-biomarkers-after-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-children-with-perinatal-stroke
#19
Helen L Carlson, Patrick Ciechanski, Ashley D Harris, Frank P MacMaster, Adam Kirton
BACKGROUND: Perinatal stroke causes lifelong motor disability, affecting independence and quality of life. Non-invasive neuromodulation interventions such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) combined with intensive therapy may improve motor function in adult stroke hemiparesis but is under-explored in children. Measuring cortical metabolites with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can inform cortical neurobiology in perinatal stroke but how these change with neuromodulation is yet to be explored...
September 13, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958033/an-objective-short-sleep-insomnia-disorder-subtype-is-associated-with-reduced-brain-metabolite-concentrations-in-vivo-a-preliminary-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-assessment
#20
Christopher B Miller, Caroline D Rae, Michael A Green, Brendon J Yee, Christopher J Gordon, Angela L D'Rozario, Simon D Kyle, Colin A Espie, Ronald R Grunstein, Delwyn J Bartlett
Objectives: To evaluate brain metabolites in objective insomnia subtypes defined from polysomnography (PSG): insomnia with short sleep duration (I-SSD) and insomnia with normal sleep duration (I-NSD); relative to good sleeping controls. Methods: PSG empirically grouped insomnia patients into I-SSD (n=12: mean (SD) total sleep time (TST) = 294.7min (30.5)) or I-NSD (n=19: TST = 394.4min (34.9)). 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy acquired in the left occipital cortex (LOCC), left prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate was used to determine levels of creatine, aspartate, glutamate and glutamine (referenced to water)...
August 25, 2017: Sleep
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