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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641601/the-impact-of-traumatic-stress-on-pavlovian-biases
#1
O T Ousdal, Q J Huys, A M Milde, A R Craven, L Ersland, T Endestad, A Melinder, K Hugdahl, R J Dolan
BACKGROUND: Disturbances in Pavlovian valuation systems are reported to follow traumatic stress exposure. However, motivated decisions are also guided by instrumental mechanisms, but to date the effect of traumatic stress on these instrumental systems remain poorly investigated. Here, we examine whether a single episode of severe traumatic stress influences flexible instrumental decisions through an impact on a Pavlovian system. METHODS: Twenty-six survivors of the 2011 Norwegian terror attack and 30 matched control subjects performed an instrumental learning task in which Pavlovian and instrumental associations promoted congruent or conflicting responses...
June 23, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630436/a-novel-gd-dtpa-conjugated-poly-l-%C3%AE-glutamyl-glutamine-paclitaxel-polymeric-delivery-system-for-tumor-theranostics
#2
Lipeng Gao, Jinge Zhou, Jing Yu, Qilong Li, Xueying Liu, Lei Sun, Ting Peng, Jing Wang, Jianzhong Zhu, Jihong Sun, Weiyue Lu, Lei Yu, Zhiqiang Yan, Yiting Wang
The conventional chemotherapeutics could not be traced in vivo and provide timely feedback on the clinical effectiveness of drugs. In this study, poly(L-γ-glutamyl-glutamine)-paclitaxel (PGG-PTX), as a model polymer, was chemically conjugated with Gd-DTPA (Gd-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid), a T1-contrast agent of MRI, to prepare a Gd-DTPA-conjugated PGG-PTX (PGG-PTX-DTPA-Gd) delivery system used for tumor theranostics. PGG-PTX-DTPA-Gd can be self-assembled to NPs in water with a z-average hydrodynamic diameter about 35...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628108/germline-hypomorphic-card11-mutations-in-severe-atopic-disease
#3
Chi A Ma, Jeffrey R Stinson, Yuan Zhang, Jordan K Abbott, Michael A Weinreich, Pia J Hauk, Paul R Reynolds, Jonathan J Lyons, Celeste G Nelson, Elisa Ruffo, Batsukh Dorjbal, Salomé Glauzy, Natsuko Yamakawa, Swadhinya Arjunaraja, Kelsey Voss, Jennifer Stoddard, Julie Niemela, Yu Zhang, Sergio D Rosenzweig, Joshua J McElwee, Thomas DiMaggio, Helen F Matthews, Nina Jones, Kelly D Stone, Alejandro Palma, Matías Oleastro, Emma Prieto, Andrea R Bernasconi, Geronimo Dubra, Silvia Danielian, Jonathan Zaiat, Marcelo A Marti, Brian Kim, Megan A Cooper, Neil D Romberg, Eric Meffre, Erwin W Gelfand, Andrew L Snow, Joshua D Milner
Few monogenic causes for severe manifestations of common allergic diseases have been identified. Through next-generation sequencing on a cohort of patients with severe atopic dermatitis with and without comorbid infections, we found eight individuals, from four families, with novel heterozygous mutations in CARD11, which encodes a scaffolding protein involved in lymphocyte receptor signaling. Disease improved over time in most patients. Transfection of mutant CARD11 expression constructs into T cell lines demonstrated both loss-of-function and dominant-interfering activity upon antigen receptor-induced activation of nuclear factor-κB and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)...
June 19, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624247/production-of-l-alanyl-l-glutamine-by-recycling-e-coli-expressing-%C3%AE-amino-acid-ester-acyltransferase
#4
Yimin Li, Wenjie Yuan, Jiaoqi Gao, Chao Fan, Wenzhong Wu, Fengwu Bai
In this study, the optimum induction and reaction conditions, and fermentation process of producing Ala-Gln by E. coli Origami 2 overexpressing α-amino acid ester acyltransferase (OPA) were investigated. Besides, the Ala-Gln synthesis by OPA achieved the maximum molar yield of 94.7% and productivity of 1.89g/L/min due to the extremely high enzyme activity. On this basis, repeated-cycle batch fermentation to produce Ala-Gln indicated that OPA could maintain high Ala-Gln yields and enzyme stabilities after several cell recycling...
June 14, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621016/acute-effects-of-phenylbutyrate-on-glutamine-branched-chain-amino-acid-and-protein-metabolism-in-skeletal-muscles-of-rats
#5
Milan Holecek, Melita Vodenicarovova, Pavel Siman
Phenylbutyrate (PB) acts as chemical chaperone and histone deacetylase inhibitor, which is used to decrease ammonia in urea cycle disorders and has been investigated for use in the treatment of a number of lethal illnesses. We performed in vivo and in vitro experiments to examine the effects of PB on glutamine (GLN), branched-chain amino acid (BCAA; valine, leucine and isoleucine) and protein metabolism in rats. In the first study, animals were sacrificed one hour after three injections of PB (300mg/kg b...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620826/individual-amino-acid-supplementation-can-improve-energy-metabolism-and-decrease-ros-production-in-neuronal-cells-overexpressing-alpha-synuclein
#6
Vedad Delic, Jeddidiah W D Griffin, Sandra Zivkovic, Yumeng Zhang, Tam-Anh Phan, Henry Gong, Dale Chaput, Christian Reynes, Vinh B Dinh, Josean Cruz, Eni Cvitkovic, Devon Placides, Ernide Frederic, Hamed Mirzaei, Stanley M Stevens, Umesh Jinwal, Daniel C Lee, Patrick C Bradshaw
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by alpha-synuclein accumulation and loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) region of the brain. Increased levels of alpha-synuclein have been shown to result in loss of mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I activity leading to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. WT alpha-synuclein was stably overexpressed in human BE(2)-M17 neuroblastoma cells resulting in increased levels of an alpha-synuclein multimer, but no increase in alpha-synuclein monomer levels...
June 15, 2017: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620271/glutamine-ameliorates-mucosal-damage-caused-by-immune-responses-to-duck-plague-virus
#7
Yuanyuan Zhang, Lili Zhao, Yan Zhou, Chenxi Diao, Lingxia Han, Niu Yinjie, Shengwang Liu, Hongyan Chen
The immune-releasing effects of L-glutamine (Gln) supplementation in duck plague virus (DPV)-infected ducklings were evaluated in 120 seven-day-old ducklings that were divided into 8 groups. The ducklings in control and DPV, 0.5Gln and DPV + 0.5Gln, 1.0Gln and DPV + 1.0Gln, and 2.0Gln and DPV + 2.0Gln received 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g of Gln/kg feed/d by gastric perfusion, respectively. Then, the ducklings in control to 2.0Gln were injected with 0.2 mL of phosphate-buffered saline, while those in DPV to DPV + 2...
April 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615682/improved-retinal-function-in-rcs-rats-after-suppressing-the-over-activation-of-mglur5
#8
Jiaman Dai, Yan Fu, Yuxiao Zeng, Shiying Li, Zheng Qin Yin
Müller cells maintain retinal synaptic homeostasis by taking up glutamate from the synaptic cleft and transporting glutamine back to the neurons. To study the interaction between Müller cells and photoreceptors, we injected either DL-α-aminoadipate or L-methionine sulfoximine-both inhibitors of glutamine synthetase-subretinally in rats. Following injection, the a-wave of the electroretinogram (ERG) was attenuated, and metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) was activated. Selective antagonism of mGluR5 by 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine increased the ERG a-wave amplitude and also increased rhodopsin expression...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613381/expressed-sequence-tags-related-to-nitrogen-metabolism-in-maize-inoculated-with-azospirillum-brasilense
#9
L Pereira-Defilippi, E M Pereira, F M Silva, G V Moro
The relative quantitative real-time expression of two expressed sequence tags (ESTs) codifying for key enzymes in nitrogen metabolism in maize, nitrate reductase (ZmNR), and glutamine synthetase (ZmGln1-3) was performed for genotypes inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense. Two commercial single-cross hybrids (AG7098 and 2B707) and two experimental synthetic varieties (V2 and V4) were raised under controlled greenhouse conditions, in six treatment groups corresponding to different forms of inoculation and different levels of nitrogen application by top-dressing...
May 31, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612342/effect-of-glycine-nitrogen-on-lettuce-growth-under-soilless-culture-a-metabolomics-approach-to-identify-the-main-changes-occurred-in-plant-primary-and-secondary-metabolism
#10
Xiao Yang, Lei Feng, Li Zhao, Xiaosong Liu, Danial Hassani, Danfeng Huang
BACKGROUND: Lettuce is a significant source of antioxidants and bioactive compounds. Nitrate is a cardinal fertilizer in horticulture and influences vegetable yield and quality; however, the negative effects of nitrate on the biosynthesis of flavonoids require further study. It is expected that using fertilizers containing organic N could promote the synthesis of health-promoting compounds. RESULTS: Lettuces were hydroponically cultured in media containing 9 mM nitrate or 9 mM glycine for 4 weeks...
June 14, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608307/effects-of-l-glutamine-on-rectal-temperature-and-some-markers-of-oxidative-stress-in-red-sokoto-goats-during-the-hot-dry-season
#11
Ohiemi Benjamin Ocheja, Joseph Olusegun Ayo, Tagang Aluwong, Ndazo Salka Minka
The experiment investigated the ameliorative effects of L-glutamine administration on rectal temperature (RT), erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF), serum antioxidant enzyme activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in Red Sokoto goats during the hot-dry season. Twenty eight healthy Red Sokoto goats, comprising 14 experimental (administered 0.2 g/kg of L-glutamine dissolved in 10 mL of distilled water, once daily for 21 days) and 14 control (administered equivalent of distilled water) goats served as subjects...
June 12, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601082/thiamine-induces-long-term-changes-in-amino-acid-profiles-and-activities-of-2-oxoglutarate-and-2-oxoadipate-dehydrogenases-in-rat-brain
#12
P M Tsepkova, A V Artiukhov, A I Boyko, V A Aleshin, G V Mkrtchyan, M A Zvyagintseva, S I Ryabov, A L Ksenofontov, L A Baratova, A V Graf, V I Bunik
Molecular mechanisms of long-term changes in brain metabolism after thiamine administration (single i.p. injection, 400 mg/kg) were investigated. Protocols for discrimination of the activities of the thiamine diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent 2-oxoglutarate and 2-oxoadipate dehydrogenases were developed to characterize specific regulation of the multienzyme complexes of the 2-oxoglutarate (OGDHC) and 2-oxoadipate (OADHC) dehydrogenases by thiamine. The thiamine-induced changes depended on the brain-region-specific expression of the ThDP-dependent dehydrogenases...
June 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601005/the-isolated-twenty-three-residue-long-n-terminal-region-of-the-glutamine-synthetase-inactivating-factor-binds-to-its-target
#13
José L Neira, Francisco J Florencio, M Isabel Muro-Pastor
Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the ATP-dependent formation of glutamine from glutamate and ammonia. The activity of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 GS type I is regulated by protein-protein interactions with a 65-residue-long protein (IF7). IF7 binds initially to GS through residues at its N terminus. In this work, we studied the conformational preferences of the N-terminal region of IF7 (IF7pep, residues Ala7-Ala29), its binding to GS and its functional properties. Isolated IF7pep populated a nascent helix in aqueous solution...
June 1, 2017: Biophysical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597057/an-l-glutamine-transporter-isoform-for-neurogenesis-facilitated-by-l-theanine
#14
REVIEW
Yukio Yoneda
L-Theanine (=γ-glutamylethylamide) is an amino acid ingredient in green tea with a structural analogy to L-glutamine (L-GLN) rather than L-glutamic acid (L-GLU), with regards to the absence of a free carboxylic acid moiety from the gamma carbon position. L-theanine markedly inhibits [(3)H]L-GLN uptake without affecting [(3)H]L-GLU uptake in cultured neurons and astroglia. In neural progenitor cells with sustained exposure to L-theanine, upregulation of the L-GLN transporter isoform Slc38a1 expression and promotion of both proliferation and neuronal commitment are seen along with marked acceleration of the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and relevant downstream proteins...
June 9, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593472/l-glutamine-in-vitro-modulates-some-immunomodulatory-properties-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#15
Guilherme Galvão Dos Santos, Araceli Aparecida Hastreiter, Talita Sartori, Primavera Borelli, Ricardo Ambrósio Fock
Glutamine (GLUT) is a nonessential amino acid that can become conditionally essential under stress conditions, being able to act in the modulation of the immune responses. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to their capability in the modulation of immune responses through cell-cell contact and by the secretion of soluble factors. Considering that GLUT is an immunonutrient and little is known about the influence of GLUT on the capability of MSCs to modulate immune cells, this work aims to investigate how variations in GLUT concentrations in vitro could affect some immunomodulatory properties of MSCs...
June 7, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593130/the-neuronal-and-astrocytic-protein-slc38a10-transports-glutamine-glutamate-and-aspartate-suggesting-a-role-in-neurotransmission
#16
Sofie V Hellsten, Maria G Hägglund, Mikaela M Eriksson, Robert Fredriksson
In brain cells, glutamine transporters are vital to monitor and control the levels of glutamate and GABA. There are 11 members of the SLC38 family of amino acid transporters of which eight have been functionally characterized. Here, we report the first histological and functional characterization of the previously orphan member, SLC38A10. We used pairwise global sequence alignments to determine the sequence identity between the SLC38 family members. SLC38A10 was found to share 20-25% transmembrane sequence identity with several family members, and was predicted to have 11 transmembrane helices...
June 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591638/interrupted-glucagon-signaling-reveals-hepatic-%C3%AE-cell-axis-and-role-for-l-glutamine-in-%C3%AE-cell-proliferation
#17
E Danielle Dean, Mingyu Li, Nripesh Prasad, Scott N Wisniewski, Alison Von Deylen, Jason Spaeth, Lisette Maddison, Anthony Botros, Leslie R Sedgeman, Nadejda Bozadjieva, Olga Ilkayeva, Anastasia Coldren, Greg Poffenberger, Alena Shostak, Michael C Semich, Kristie I Aamodt, Neil Phillips, Hai Yan, Ernesto Bernal-Mizrachi, Jackie D Corbin, Kasey C Vickers, Shawn E Levy, Chunhua Dai, Christopher Newgard, Wei Gu, Roland Stein, Wenbiao Chen, Alvin C Powers
Decreasing glucagon action lowers the blood glucose and may be useful therapeutically for diabetes. However, interrupted glucagon signaling leads to α cell proliferation. To identify postulated hepatic-derived circulating factor(s) responsible for α cell proliferation, we used transcriptomics/proteomics/metabolomics in three models of interrupted glucagon signaling and found that proliferation of mouse, zebrafish, and human α cells was mTOR and FoxP transcription factor dependent. Changes in hepatic amino acid (AA) catabolism gene expression predicted the observed increase in circulating AAs...
June 6, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590138/vibrational-probes-of-molybdenum-cofactor-protein-interactions-in-xanthine-dehydrogenase
#18
Chao Dong, Jing Yang, Stefan Reschke, Silke Leimkühler, Martin L Kirk
The pyranopterin dithiolene (PDT) ligand is an integral component of the molybdenum cofactor (Moco) found in all molybdoenzymes with the sole exception of nitrogenase. However, the roles of the PDT in catalysis are still unknown. The PDT is believed to be bound to the proteins by an extensive hydrogen-bonding network, and it has been suggested that these interactions may function to fine-tune Moco for electron- and atom-transfer reactivity in catalysis. Here, we use resonance Raman (rR) spectroscopy to probe Moco-protein interactions using heavy-atom congeners of lumazine, molecules that bind tightly to both wild-type xanthine dehydrogenase (wt-XDH) and its Q102G and Q197A variants following enzymatic hydroxylation to the corresponding violapterin product molecules...
June 7, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588793/double-blind-randomized-study-of-oral-glutamine-on-the-management-of-radio-chemotherapy-induced-mucositis-and-dermatitis-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#19
David Lopez-Vaquero, Lucia Gutierrez-Bayard, Juan-Andres Rodriguez-Ruiz, Monica Saldaña-Valderas, Pedro Infante-Cossio
This randomized clinical trial was designed to determine whether glutamine administration was effective in reducing the incidence and severity of mucositis and dermatitis induced by radiotherapy (RT) or chemoradiotherapy (CHRT) in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). Fifty patients were randomized to receive orally either L-Glutamine or placebo (25 patients in each arm). In the glutamine-treated group, 10 g of oral glutamine was administered three times daily. The primary endpoint was to compare the appearance of clinical mucositis between groups at the 6th week, according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events...
June 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560644/biosorption-and-equilibrium-isotherms-study-of-cadmium-removal-by-nostoc-muscorum-meg-1-morphological-physiological-and-biochemical-alterations
#20
Rabbul Ibne A Ahad, Smita Goswami, Mayashree B Syiem
Rice fields of Meghalaya especially in the coal mining belt receive water contaminated by effluents from mines that are known to carry harmful heavy metal ions such as Cu, Fe, Zn, Ni, Cd, As, Pb, Cr, etc. Cd exposure was analyzed in the cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum Meg 1 isolated from a contaminated rice field in Sohra, Meghalaya, India. Toxicity study established 0.5 ppm on day 3 to be the LD50. At LD50 chlorophyll a and total protein concentration was reduced by 50.9 and 52.5%, while nitrogenase and glutamine synthetase activities were inhibited by 40...
June 2017: 3 Biotech
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