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L glutamine

Jyothika Kumar, Elizabeth B Liddle, Carolina C Fernandes, Lena Palaniyappan, Emma L Hall, Siân E Robson, Molly Simmonite, Jan Fiesal, Mohammad Z Katshu, Ayaz Qureshi, Michael Skelton, Nikolaos G Christodoulou, Matthew J Brookes, Peter G Morris, Peter F Liddle
In schizophrenia, abnormal neural metabolite concentrations may arise from cortical damage following neuroinflammatory processes implicated in acute episodes. Inflammation is associated with increased glutamate, whereas the antioxidant glutathione may protect against inflammation-induced oxidative stress. We hypothesized that patients with stable schizophrenia would exhibit a reduction in glutathione, glutamate, and/or glutamine in the cerebral cortex, consistent with a post-inflammatory response, and that this reduction would be most marked in patients with "residual schizophrenia", in whom an early stage with positive psychotic symptoms has progressed to a late stage characterized by long-term negative symptoms and impairments...
June 22, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Manoj Nepal, Chi Ma, Guoxiang Xie, Wei Jia, Peiwen Fei
Given importance of 22-Fanconi Anemia (FA) proteins together to act in a signaling pathway in preventing deleterious clinical symptoms, e.g. severe bone marrow failure, congenital defects, an early onset of aging and cancer, studies on each FA protein become increasingly attractive. However, an unbiased and systematic investigation of cellular effects resulting from each FA protein is missing. Here, we report roles of FA complementation C group protein (FANCC) in the protection from metabolic disorders. This study was prompted by the diabetes-prone feature displayed in FANCC knockout mice, which is not typically shown in patients with FA...
June 21, 2018: Aging
Tsvetelina Yungareva, Zoltan Urshev
In lactobacilli the aggregation phenotype is linked to their ability to colonize the intestinal and urogenital tracts and to counteract pathogenic bacteria. In all available complete genome sequences of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus there are at least two genes putatively related to aggregation, one of which is annotated as aggregation-promoting factor (apf). Here we report the results from the in silico analysis of this gene and its product. The apf gene was present in the genome of all 70 tested L...
June 19, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Michael Pignanelli, Caroline Just, Chrysi Bogiatzi, Vincent Dinculescu, Gregory B Gloor, Emma Allen-Vercoe, Gregor Reid, Bradley L Urquhart, Kelsey N Ruetz, Thomas J Velenosi, J David Spence
Metabolic products of the intestinal microbiome such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) that accumulate in renal failure (gut-derived uremic toxins, GDUTs) affect atherosclerosis and increase cardiovascular risk. We hypothesized that patients on a Mediterranean diet and those consuming lower amounts of dietary precursors would have lower levels of GDUTs. Patients attending vascular prevention clinics completed a Harvard Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and had plasma levels of TMAO, p-cresylsulfate, hippuric acid, indoxyl sulfate, p-cresyl glucuronide, phenyl acetyl glutamine, and phenyl sulfate measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry...
June 16, 2018: Nutrients
Daniel Z Skinner, Brian Bellinger, William Hiscox, Gregory L Helms
The ability of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants to develop freezing tolerance through cold acclimation is a complex rait that responds to many environmental cues including day length and temperature. A large part of the freezing tolerance is conditioned by the C-repeat binding factor (CBF) gene regulon. We investigated whether the level of freezing tolerance of 12 winter wheat lines varied throughout the day and night in plants grown under a constant low temperature and a 12-hour photoperiod. Freezing tolerance was significantly greater (P<0...
2018: PloS One
Penelope D Manta-Vogli, Kleopatra H Schulpis, Yannis Dotsikas, Yannis L Loukas
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is characterized by a complexity of metabolic processes that may impact fetal development and infant health outcome. Normal fetal growth and development depend on a continuous supply of nutrients via the placenta. The placenta transports, utilizes, produces and interconverts amino acids (AAs). FINDINGS: Concentrations of both nonessential and essential AAs in maternal plasma decrease in early pregnancy and persist at low concentrations throughout...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Liping Zhao, Juan Qiao, Meyong Hee Moon, Li Qi
Fabrication of polymer membranes with nanopores and a confinement effect toward enzyme immobilization has been an enabling endeavor. In the work reported here, an enzyme reactor based on a thermoresponsive magnetic porous block copolymer membrane was designed and constructed. Reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization was used to synthesize the block copolymer, poly(maleic anhydride-styrene-N-isopropylacrylamide), with poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) as the thermoresponsive moiety. The self-assembly property of the block copolymer was used for preparation of magnetic porous thin film matrices with iron oxide nanoparticles...
June 16, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Daniel S Dias, Patrícia A F Ribeiro, Vívian T Martins, Daniela P Lage, Lourena E Costa, Miguel A Chávez-Fumagalli, Fernanda F Ramos, Thaís T O Santos, Fernanda Ludolf, Jamil S Oliveira, Tiago A O Mendes, Eduardo S Silva, Alexsandro S Galdino, Mariana C Duarte, Bruno M Roatt, Daniel Menezes-Souza, Antonio L Teixeira, Eduardo A F Coelho
Vaccination seems to be the best approach to control visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Resistance against infection is based on the development of a Th1 immune response characterized by the production of interferons-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-12 (IL-12), granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), among others. A number of antigens have been tested as potential targets against the disease; few of them are able to stimulate human immune cells. In the present study, 1 prediction of MHC class I and II molecules-specific epitopes in the amino acid sequences of 3 Leishmania proteins: 1 hypothetical, prohibitin, and small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing proteins, was performed using bioinformatics tools, and a T-cell epitopes-based recombinant chimeric protein was constructed, synthetized and purified to be evaluated in invitro and in vivo experiments...
May 22, 2018: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
Jiun-Yan Wu, Jen-Hung Liao, Chwen-Jen Shieh, Feng-Chia Hsieh, Yung-Chuan Liu
In this study, the precursor effect for iturin A production was quantitatively analyzed. A strain identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BPD1 (Ba-BPD1) was selected due to its ability to produce iturin A. The enhancement of iturin A production in a submerged culture was tested using various additives, including palmitic acid, oils, and complex amino acids. Among these, complex amino acids triggered the highest yield at 559 mg/L. The respective amino acids that contribute to the structure of iturin A were used as precursors...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Róisín M Loftus, Nadine Assmann, Nidhi Kedia-Mehta, Katie L O'Brien, Arianne Garcia, Conor Gillespie, Jens L Hukelmann, Peter J Oefner, Angus I Lamond, Clair M Gardiner, Katja Dettmer, Doreen A Cantrell, Linda V Sinclair, David K Finlay
Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes with important anti-tumour functions. Cytokine activation of NK cell glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) are essential for robust NK cell responses. However, the mechanisms leading to this metabolic phenotype are unclear. Here we show that the transcription factor cMyc is essential for IL-2/IL-12-induced metabolic and functional responses in mice. cMyc protein levels are acutely regulated by amino acids; cMyc protein is lost rapidly when glutamine is withdrawn or when system L-amino acid transport is blocked...
June 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Andrea V Canosa, Serena Faggiano, Marialaura Marchetti, Stefano Armao, Stefano Bettati, Stefano Bruno, Riccardo Percudani, Barbara Campanini, Andrea Mozzarelli
Serine racemase (SR) catalyses two reactions: the reversible racemisation of L-serine and the irreversible dehydration of L- and D-serine to pyruvate and ammonia. SRs are evolutionarily related to serine dehydratases (SDH) and degradative threonine deaminases (TdcB). Most SRs and TdcBs - but not SDHs - are regulated by nucleotides. SR binds ATP cooperatively and the nucleotide allosterically stimulates the serine dehydratase activity of the enzyme. A H-bond network comprising five residues (T52, N86, Q89, E283 and N316) and water molecules connects the active site with the ATP-binding site...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Huiling Zhang, Wenchao Du, Jose R Peralta-Videa, Jorge L Gardea-Torresdey, Jason C White, Arturo A Keller, Hongyan Guo, Rong Ji, Lijuan Zhao
Due to their well-known antifungal activity, the intentional use of Ag nanoparticle (NPs) as sustainable nano-fungicides is expected to increase in agriculture. However, the impacts of AgNPs on plants must be critically evaluated to guarantee their safe use in food production. In this study, 4-week-old cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants received a foliar application of AgNPs (4 or 40 mg per plant) or Ag+ (0.04 or 0.4 mg per plant) for seven days. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based non-target metabolomics enabled the identification and quantification of 268 metabolites in cucumber leaves...
June 14, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Li-Na Gao, Xin Zhou, Yu-Ren Lu, Kefeng Li, Shan Gao, Chun-Quan Yu, Yuan-Lu Cui
Atherosclerosis is the major worldwide cause of mortality for patients with coronary heart disease. Many traditional Chinese medicine compound prescriptions for atherosclerosis treatment have been tried in patients. Dan-Lou prescription, which is improved from Gualou-Xiebai-Banxia decoction, has been used to treat chest discomfort (coronary atherosclerosis) for approximately 2,000 years in China. Although the anti-inflammatory activities of Dan-Lou prescription have been proposed previously, the mechanism remains to be explored...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Charles T Quinn
In 2017, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved two medications for sickle cell anemia (SCA): hydroxyurea for children (≥2 years of age) and L-glutamine for children and adults (≥5 years). The approval of hydroxyurea for children was long overdue, having been authorized by the FDA for adults in 1998 and by the European Medicines Agency for adults and children in 2007, but the approval of L-glutamine was a surprise to many in the field. There are few published studies of L-glutamine as a treatment for SCA, so all can be reviewed in this brief manuscript...
June 12, 2018: Blood
A Sevastos, I F Kalampokis, A Panagiotopoulou, M Pelecanou, K A Aliferis
Fungal metabolomics is a field of high potential but yet largely unexploited. Focusing on plant-pathogenic fungi, no metabolomics studies exist on their resistance to fungicides, which represents a major issue that the agrochemical and agricultural sectors are facing. Fungal infections cause quantitative, but also qualitative yield losses, especially in the case of mycotoxin-producing species. The aim of the study was to correlate metabolic changes in Fusarium graminearum strains' metabolomes with their carbendazim-resistant level and discover corresponding metabolites-biomarkers, with primary focus on its primary metabolism...
June 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Sarah L Rouse, Fisentzos Stylianou, H Y Grace Wu, Jamie-Lee Berry, Lee Sewell, R Marc L Morgan, Andrea C Sauerwein, Steve Matthews
Gram-negative bacteria possess specialised biogenesis machineries that facilitate the export of amyloid subunits, the fibres of which are key components of their biofilm matrix. The secretion of bacterial functional amyloid requires a specialised outer-membrane protein channel through which unfolded amyloid substrates are translocated. We previously reported the crystal structure of the membrane-spanning domain of the amyloid subunit transporter FapF from Pseudomonas. However, the structure of the periplasmic domain, which is essential for amyloid transport, is yet to be determined...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Yang T Du, Diana Piscitelli, Saima Ahmad, Laurence G Trahair, Jerry R Greenfield, Dorit Samocha-Bonet, Christopher K Rayner, Michael Horowitz, Karen L Jones
Glutamine is a potent stimulus for the release of glucagon-like peptide-1, which increases postprandial insulin and slows gastric emptying (GE). We determined the effects of glutamine on GE of, and glycaemic responses to, low- and high-nutrient drinks in eight healthy males (mean age 21.6 ± 0.7 years and BMI 22.9 ± 0.7 kg/m²). Participants were studied on four occasions on which they consumed either a low-nutrient (beef soup; 18 kcal) or high-nutrient (75 g dextrose; 255 kcal) drink, each with or without 30 g of glutamine (120 kcal), in a randomised, crossover design...
June 7, 2018: Nutrients
Mei Zhang, Yong Zhang, Siqi Ren, Zunjian Zhang, Yongren Wang, Rui Song
A method for monitoring l-asparagine (ASN) depletion in patients' serum using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with precolumn o-phthalaldehyde and ethanethiol (ET) derivatization is described. In order to improve the signal and stability of analytes, several important factors including precipitant reagent, derivatization conditions and detection wavelengths were optimized. The recovery of the analytes in biological matrix was the highest when 4% sulfosalicylic acid (1:1, v/v) was used as a precipitant reagent...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Chromatographic Science
Nirmalya Sen, Allison M Cross, Philip L Lorenzi, Javed Khan, Berkley E Gryder, Suntae Kim, Natasha J Caplen
Ewing sarcoma (EWS) is a soft tissue and bone tumor that occurs primarily in adolescents and young adults. In most cases of EWS, the chimeric transcription factor, EWS-FLI1 is the primary oncogenic driver. The epigenome of EWS cells reflects EWS-FLI1 binding and activation or repression of transcription. Here, we demonstrate that EWS-FLI1 positively regulates the expression of proteins required for serine-glycine biosynthesis and uptake of the alternative nutrient source glutamine. Specifically, we show that EWS-FLI1 activates expression of PHGDH, PSAT1, PSPH, and SHMT2...
June 6, 2018: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Seung-Ryoung Jung, Yi Deng, Christopher Kushmerick, Charles L Asbury, Bertil Hille, Duk-Su Koh
The stability of organic dyes against photobleaching is critical in single-molecule tracking and localization microscopy. Since oxygen accelerates photobleaching of most organic dyes, glucose oxidase is commonly used to slow dye photobleaching by depleting oxygen. As demonstrated here, pyranose-2-oxidase slows bleaching of Alexa647 dye by ∼20-fold. However, oxygen deprivation may pose severe problems for live cells by reducing mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and ATP production. We formulate a method to sustain intracellular ATP levels in the presence of oxygen scavengers...
June 4, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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