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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911855/glutamine-and-glutaminolysis-are-required-for-efficient-replication-of-infectious-spleen-and-kidney-necrosis-virus-in-chinese-perch-brain-cells
#1
Xiaozhe Fu, Xianqin Hu, Ningqiu Li, Feifei Zheng, Xingxing Dong, Jing Duan, Qiang Lin, Jiagang Tu, Lijuan Zhao, Zhibin Huang, Jianguo Su, Li Lin
Viruses rely on host cellular metabolism for energy and macromolecule synthesis during their replication. Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) causes significant economic losses in the Chinese perch (Siniperca chuatsi) industry worldwide. However, little is known about the relationship between ISKNV replication and cellular metabolism. Using transcriptomic analysis, we observed that glutamine metabolism in Chinese perch brain (CPB) cells is altered during ISKNV infection. Moreover, ISKNV replication was decreased in CPB cells cultured in the glutamine-depleted medium...
November 29, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909746/brain-glutamate-in-anorexia-nervosa-a-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-case-control-study-at-7-tesla
#2
Beata R Godlewska, Alexandra Pike, Ann L Sharpley, Agnes Ayton, Rebecca J Park, Philip J Cowen, Uzay E Emir
RATIONALE: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious psychiatric disorder with high morbidity and mortality. There are no established pharmacological treatments and the neurobiology of the condition is poorly understood. Previous studies using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) have shown that AN may be associated with reductions in indices of brain glutamate; however, at conventional field strengths (≤3 T), it is difficult to separate glutamate from its precursor and metabolite, glutamine...
December 1, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908241/molecular-cloning-biochemical-characterization-and-antitumor-properties-of-a-novel-l-asparaginase-from-synechococcus-elongatus-pcc6803
#3
R Kebeish, A El-Sayed, H Fahmy, A Abdel-Ghany
L-asparaginase (EC 3.5.1.1), which catalyzes the deamidation of L-asparagine to L-aspartic acid and ammonia, has been widely used as a key therapeutic tool in the treatment of tumors. The current commercially available L-asparaginases, produced from bacteria, have signs of toxicity and hypersensitivity reactions during the course of tumor therapy. Therefore, searching for L-asparaginases with unique biochemical properties and fewer adverse effects was the objective of this work. In this study, cyanobacterial strain Synechococcus elongatus PCC6803 was found as a novel source of L-asparaginase...
October 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898344/may-glutamine-addiction-drive-the-delivery-of-antitumor-cisplatin-based-pt-iv-prodrugs
#4
Mauro Ravera, Elisabetta Gabano, Stefano Tinello, Ilaria Zanellato, Domenico Osella
A small series of Pt(IV) prodrugs containing Gln-like (Gln=glutamine) axial ligands has been designed with the aim to take advantage of the increased demand of Gln showed by some cancer cells (glutamine addiction). In complex 4 the Gln, linked through the α-carboxylic group is recognized by the Gln transporters, in particular by the solute carrier transporter SLC1A5. All compounds showed cellular accumulation, as well as antiproliferative activity, related to their lipophilicity, as already demonstrated for the majority of Pt(IV) prodrugs, that enter cells mainly by passive diffusion...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897391/a-systematic-review-on-the-role-of-vitamins-minerals-proteins-and-other-supplements-for-the-treatment-of-cachexia-in-cancer-a-european-palliative-care-research-centre-cachexia-project
#5
REVIEW
Mochamat, Henning Cuhls, Milka Marinova, Stein Kaasa, Christiane Stieber, Rupert Conrad, Lukas Radbruch, Martin Mücke
We provide a systematic review to support the European Palliative Care Research Collaboration development of clinical guidelines for cancer patients suffering from cachexia. CENTRAL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ClinicalTrials.gov, and a selection of cancer journals have been searched up until 15 April 2016. The systematic literature research yielded 4214 publications with 21 of these included in the final evaluation. Regarding minerals, our search identified only one study examining the use of magnesium with no effect on weight loss...
July 20, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885629/glutaminases
#6
Javier Márquez, José M Matés, José A Campos-Sandoval
Mammalian glutaminases catalyze the stoichiometric conversion of L-glutamine to L-glutamate and ammonium ions. In brain, glutaminase is considered the prevailing pathway for synthesis of the neurotransmitter pool of glutamate. Besides neurotransmission, the products of glutaminase reaction also fulfill crucial roles in energy and metabolic homeostasis in mammalian brain. In the last years, new functional roles for brain glutaminases are being uncovered by using functional genomic and proteomic approaches. Glutaminases may act as multifunctional proteins able to perform different tasks: the discovery of multiple transcript variants in neurons and glial cells, novel extramitochondrial localizations, and isoform-specific proteininteracting partners strongly support possible moonlighting functions for these proteins...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885625/glucose-lactate-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-acetate-gaba-and-succinate-as-substrates-for-synthesis-of-glutamate-and-gaba-in-the-glutamine-glutamate-gaba-cycle
#7
Leif Hertz, Douglas L Rothman
The glutamine-glutamate/GABA cycle is an astrocytic-neuronal pathway transferring precursors for transmitter glutamate and GABA from astrocytes to neurons. In addition, the cycle carries released transmitter back to astrocytes, where a minor fraction (~25 %) is degraded (requiring a similar amount of resynthesis) and the remainder returned to the neurons for reuse. The flux in the cycle is intense, amounting to the same value as neuronal glucose utilization rate or 75-80 % of total cortical glucose consumption...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884211/plasma-glutamine-levels-before-cardiac-surgery-are-related-to-post-surgery-infections-an-observational-study
#8
Hanneke Buter, Matty Koopmans, Ramses Kemperman, Lilian Jekel, Christiaan Boerma
BACKGROUND: A low plasma glutamine level was found in 34% of patients after elective cardiothoracic surgery. This could be a result of the inflammation caused by surgical stress or the use of extracorporeal circulation (ECC). But it is also possible that plasma glutamine levels were already lowered before surgery and reflect an impaired metabolic state and a higher likelihood to develop complications. In the present study plasma glutamine levels were measured before and after cardiac surgery and we questioned whether there is a relation between plasma glutamine levels and duration of ECC and the occurrence of postoperative infections...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873013/neonatal-l-glutamine-modulates-anxiety-like-behavior-cortical-spreading-depression-and-microglial-immunoreactivity-analysis-in-developing-rats-suckled-on-normal-size-and-large-size-litters
#9
Denise Sandrelly Cavalcanti de Lima, Elian da Silva Francisco, Cássia Borges Lima, Rubem Carlos Araújo Guedes
In mammals, L-glutamine (Gln) can alter the glutamate-Gln cycle and consequently brain excitability. Here, we investigated in developing rats the effect of treatment with different doses of Gln on anxiety-like behavior, cortical spreading depression (CSD), and microglial activation expressed as Iba1-immunoreactivity. Wistar rats were suckled in litters with 9 and 15 pups (groups L 9 and L 15; respectively, normal size- and large size litters). From postnatal days (P) 7-27, the animals received Gln per gavage (250, 500 or 750 mg/kg/day), or vehicle (water), or no treatment (naive)...
November 21, 2016: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866838/glutaminolysis-and-fumarate-accumulation-integrate-immunometabolic-and-epigenetic-programs-in-trained-immunity
#10
Rob J W Arts, Boris Novakovic, Rob Ter Horst, Agostinho Carvalho, Siroon Bekkering, Ekta Lachmandas, Fernando Rodrigues, Ricardo Silvestre, Shih-Chin Cheng, Shuang-Yin Wang, Ehsan Habibi, Luís G Gonçalves, Inês Mesquita, Cristina Cunha, Arjan van Laarhoven, Frank L van de Veerdonk, David L Williams, Jos W M van der Meer, Colin Logie, Luke A O'Neill, Charles A Dinarello, Niels P Riksen, Reinout van Crevel, Clary Clish, Richard A Notebaart, Leo A B Joosten, Hendrik G Stunnenberg, Ramnik J Xavier, Mihai G Netea
Induction of trained immunity (innate immune memory) is mediated by activation of immune and metabolic pathways that result in epigenetic rewiring of cellular functional programs. Through network-level integration of transcriptomics and metabolomics data, we identify glycolysis, glutaminolysis, and the cholesterol synthesis pathway as indispensable for the induction of trained immunity by β-glucan in monocytes. Accumulation of fumarate, due to glutamine replenishment of the TCA cycle, integrates immune and metabolic circuits to induce monocyte epigenetic reprogramming by inhibiting KDM5 histone demethylases...
November 16, 2016: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863447/hepatitis-c-virus-infection-triggers-a-tumor-like-glutamine-metabolism
#11
Pierre L Lévy, Sarah Duponchel, Hannah Eischeid, Jennifer Molle, Maud Michelet, Gaëlle Diserens, Martina Vermathen, Peter Vermathen, Jean-Francois Dufour, Hans-Peter Dienes, Hans-Michael Steffen, Margarete Odenthal, Fabien Zoulim, Birke Bartosch
Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the main causes of hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the molecular mechanisms linking the infection to cancer development remain poorly understood. Here we used HCV-infected cells and liver biopsies to study how HCV modulates the glutaminolysis pathway, which is known to play an important role in cellular energetics, stress defense and neoplastic transformation. Transcript levels of glutaminolytic factors were quantified in Huh7.5 cells or primary human hepatocytes infected with the JFH1 HCV strain as well as in biopsies of chronic HCV patients...
November 18, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856334/quantitative-metabolic-flux-analysis-reveals-an-unconventional-pathway-of-fatty-acid-synthesis-in-cancer-cells-deficient-for-the-mitochondrial-citrate-transport-protein
#12
Lei Jiang, Adam Boufersaoui, Chendong Yang, Bookyung Ko, Dinesh Rakheja, Gerardo Guevara, Zeping Hu, Ralph J DeBerardinis
The mitochondrial citrate transport protein (CTP), encoded by SLC25A1, accommodates bidirectional trafficking of citrate between the mitochondria and cytosol, supporting lipid biosynthesis and redox homeostasis. Genetic CTP deficiency causes a fatal neurodevelopmental syndrome associated with the accumulation of L- and D-2-hydroxyglutaric acid, and elevated CTP expression is associated with poor prognosis in several types of cancer, emphasizing the importance of this transporter in multiple human pathologies...
November 14, 2016: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854330/enhanced-production-of-anthraquinones-and-phenolic-compounds-and-biological-activities-in-the-cell-suspension-cultures-of-polygonum-multiflorum
#13
Muthu Thiruvengadam, Kaliyaperumal Rekha, Govindasamy Rajakumar, Taek-Jun Lee, Seung-Hyun Kim, Ill-Min Chung
Anthraquinones (AQs) and phenolic compounds are important phytochemicals that are biosynthesized in cell suspension cultures of Polygonum multiflorum. We wanted to optimize the effects of plant growth regulators (PGRs), media, sucrose, l-glutamine, jasmonic acid (JA), and salicylic acid (SA) for the production of phytochemicals and biomass accumulation in a cell suspension culture of P. multiflorum. The medium containing Murashige and Skoog (MS) salts and 4% sucrose supplemented with 1 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 0...
November 16, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843119/potential-nutrients-for-preventing-or-treating-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia
#14
REVIEW
Liya Ma, Ping Zhou, Josef Neu, Hung-Chih Lin
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a frequent complication occurring in extremely preterm infants. Despite recent advances in newborn medicine, the incidence of BPD does not appear to have changed markedly, and specific treatments and prevention strategies are still lacking. Nutrition plays an important role in normal lung development and maturation. Malnutrition may delay somatic growth and new alveoli development, thus aggravating pulmonary injury involved in the pathogenesis of BPD. However, few nutrients have been investigated for their potential to mitigate the pathogenesis of BPD...
September 15, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834067/novel-pathogenic-variant-c-580c-t-in-the-cps1-gene-in-a-newborn-with-carbamoyl-phosphate-synthetase-1-deficiency-identified-by-whole-exome-sequencing
#15
Rihwa Choi, Hyung Doo Park, Mina Yang, Chang Seok Ki, Soo Youn Lee, Jong Won Kim, Junghan Song, Yun Sil Chang, Won Soon Park
Diagnosis of the urea cycle disorder (USD) carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1) deficiency (CPS1D) based on only the measurements of biochemical intermediary metabolites is not sufficient to properly exclude other UCDs with similar symptoms. We report the first Korean CPS1D patient using whole exome sequencing (WES). A four-day-old female neonate presented with respiratory failure due to severe metabolic encephalopathy with hyperammonemia (1,690 μmol/L; reference range, 11.2-48.2 μmol/L). Plasma amino acid analysis revealed markedly elevated levels of alanine (2,923 μmol/L; reference range, 131-710 μmol/L) and glutamine (5,777 μmol/L; reference range, 376-709 μmol/L), whereas that of citrulline was decreased (2 μmol/L; reference range, 10-45 μmol/L)...
January 2017: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833747/microbiota-host-interplay-at-the-gut-epithelial-level-health-and-nutrition
#16
REVIEW
Jean-Paul Lallès
Growing evidence suggests the implication of the gut microbiota in various facets of health and disease. In this review, the focus is put on microbiota-host molecular cross-talk at the gut epithelial level with special emphasis on two defense systems: intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) and inducible heat shock proteins (iHSPs). Both IAP and iHSPs are induced by various microbial structural components (e.g. lipopolysaccharide, flagellin, CpG DNA motifs), metabolites (e.g. n-butyrate) or secreted signal molecules (e...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830534/guanosine-protects-against-traumatic-brain-injury-induced-functional-impairments-and-neuronal-loss-by-modulating-excitotoxicity-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-inflammation
#17
Rogério da Rosa Gerbatin, Gustavo Cassol, Fernando Dobrachinski, Ana Paula O Ferreira, Caroline B Quines, Iuri D Della Pace, Guilherme L Busanello, Jessié M Gutierres, Cristina W Nogueira, Mauro S Oliveira, Félix A Soares, Vera M Morsch, Michele R Fighera, Luiz Fernando F Royes
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most common types of brain injuries that cause death or persistent neurological disturbances in survivors. Most of the promising experimental drugs were not effective in clinical trials; therefore, the development of TBI drugs represents a huge unmet need. Guanosine, an endogenous neuroprotective nucleoside, has not been evaluated in TBI to the best of our knowledge. Therefore, the present study evaluated the effect of guanosine on TBI-induced neurological damage. Our findings showed that a single dose of guanosine (7...
November 9, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830010/glutaminase-inhibitor-compound-968-inhibits-cell-proliferation-and-sensitizes-paclitaxel-in-ovarian-cancer
#18
Lingqin Yuan, Xiugui Sheng, Leslie H Clark, Lu Zhang, Hui Guo, Hannah M Jones, Adam K Willson, Paola A Gehrig, Chunxiao Zhou, Victoria L Bae-Jump
Our overall goal was to investigate the anti-tumor activity of the glutaminase 1 (GLS1) Inhibitor compound 968 in ovarian cancer cells. The human ovarian cancer cell lines, HEY, SKOV3 and IGROV-1 were used. Cell proliferation was assessed by MTT assay after treatment with compound 968. Cell cycle progression and Annexin V expression were evaluated using Cellometer. Western blotting was performed to determine changes in GLS1, cellular stress and cell cycle checkpoints. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity were assessed by ELISA assay...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828769/metabolic-biomarkers-and-neurodegeneration-a-pathway-enrichment-analysis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-parkinson-s-disease-and-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#19
Medi Kori, Busra Aydın, Semra Unal, Kazim Yalcin Arga, Dilek Kazan
Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) lack robust diagnostics and prognostic biomarkers. Metabolomics is a postgenomics field that offers fresh insights for biomarkers of common complex as well as rare diseases. Using data on metabolite-disease associations published in the previous decade (2006-2016) in PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Web of Science, we identified 101 metabolites as putative biomarkers for these three neurodegenerative diseases...
November 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827410/sgta-interacts-with-the-proteasomal-ubiquitin-receptor-rpn13-via-a-carboxylate-clamp-mechanism
#20
Arjun Thapaliya, Yvonne Nyathi, Santiago Martínez-Lumbreras, Ewelina M Krysztofinska, Nicola J Evans, Isabelle L Terry, Stephen High, Rivka L Isaacson
The fate of secretory and membrane proteins that mislocalize to the cytosol is decided by a collaboration between cochaperone SGTA (small, glutamine-rich, tetratricopeptide repeat protein alpha) and the BAG6 complex, whose operation relies on multiple transient and subtly discriminated interactions with diverse binding partners. These include chaperones, membrane-targeting proteins and ubiquitination enzymes. Recently a direct interaction was discovered between SGTA and the proteasome, mediated by the intrinsic proteasomal ubiquitin receptor Rpn13...
November 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
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