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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925010/the-effects-of-a-simple-method-for-cryopreservation-and-thawing-procedures-on-cord-blood-derived-dc-based-esophageal-carcinoma-vaccine
#1
J Yu, L Xie, S Chen, J Zhang, G Guo, B Chen
BACKGROUND: Producing sufficient numbers of DCs at one time point and subsequently cryopreserving the generated DCs in ready-for-use aliquots for clinical application is useful in cancer treatment. OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of a simplified cryopreservation method and thawing procedures acting on the biological characteristics and specific cytotoxic activity of cord blood derived DC-based esophageal carcinoma vaccine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells were isolated from cord blood using CD34+ Progenitor Cell Isolation Kit by magnetic cell sorting system (MACS)...
July 2016: Cryo Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925004/appropriate-osmotic-balance-duration-for-different-volumes-of-ovarian-tissue-in-vitrification-solution-a-study-of-ovary-tissue-vitrification-and-transplantation-in-sheep
#2
L Dang, X Zheng, Q Chang, Y Yang, Y Wang, Y Cai, C Hei, H Wang, C Zhao, W Zhu, Y Wang
:   BACKGROUND: Auto-transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue has become a promising method for fertility preservation and standardization of the process is crucial for practical applications. OBJECTIVE: Here we used different size of large sheep ovarian cortex to study the most suitable osmotic balance durations in the vitrification solution for large piece ovary cortex. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ovarian cortices from six-month old female sheep were divided into 40 cubic mm, 80 cubic mm and 160 cubic mm volume, A two-step osmotic balance method was used based on the results from morphological and histological study, we detected the expression of VEGF after thawing, the percentage of follicles that survived and serum E2 levels,together with apoptosis test by TUNEL...
September 2016: Cryo Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924833/tgf%C3%AE-2-induced-outflow-alterations-in-a-bioengineered-trabecular-meshwork-are-offset-by-a-rho-associated-kinase-inhibitor
#3
Karen Y Torrejon, Ellen L Papke, Justin R Halman, Magnus Bergkvist, John Danias, Susan T Sharfstein, Yubing Xie
Members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) cytokine family have long been associated with affecting several cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover. Of particular interest to this work, TGFβ2 has been linked to most types of glaucomas as a potential fibrotic agent that can cause elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP). Given that the trabecular meshwork (TM) provides most of aqueous humor outflow resistance in the eye, an in vitro bioengineered human TM (HTM) model has been created and validated by analyzing effects of TGFβ2 on transcellular pressure changes and outflow facility...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924827/pd-1-pd-l-pathway-inhibits-m-tb-specific-cd4-t-cell-functions-and-phagocytosis-of-macrophages-in-active-tuberculosis
#4
Lei Shen, Yan Gao, Yuanyuan Liu, Bingyan Zhang, Qianqian Liu, Jing Wu, Lin Fan, Qinfang Ou, Wenhong Zhang, Lingyun Shao
The role of the PD-1/PD-L pathway in a murine model of tuberculosis remains controversial regarding viral infections and clinical tuberculosis. We conducted a case-control study to investigate the modulating role and mechanism of the PD-1/PD-L pathway in patients with active tuberculosis. Fifty-nine participants, including 43 active tuberculosis (ATB) patients and 16 healthy controls (HC), were enrolled. Cell surface staining and flow cytometry were used to detect the expressions of PD-1 and its ligands on T cells and monocytes...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924814/mature-igm-expressing-plasma-cells-sense-antigen-and-develop-competence-for-cytokine-production-upon-antigenic-challenge
#5
Pascal Blanc, Ludovic Moro-Sibilot, Lucas Barthly, Ferdinand Jagot, Sébastien This, Simon de Bernard, Laurent Buffat, Sébastien Dussurgey, Renaud Colisson, Elias Hobeika, Thierry Fest, Morgan Taillardet, Olivier Thaunat, Antoine Sicard, Paul Mondière, Laurent Genestier, Stephen L Nutt, Thierry Defrance
Dogma holds that plasma cells, as opposed to B cells, cannot bind antigen because they have switched from expression of membrane-bound immunoglobulins (Ig) that constitute the B-cell receptor (BCR) to production of the secreted form of immunoglobulins. Here we compare the phenotypical and functional attributes of plasma cells generated by the T-cell-dependent and T-cell-independent forms of the hapten NP. We show that the nature of the secreted Ig isotype, rather than the chemical structure of the immunizing antigen, defines two functionally distinct populations of plasma cells...
December 7, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924634/the-promise-of-circulating-tumor-cells-for-precision-cancer-therapy
#6
William L Hwang, Katie L Hwang, David T Miyamoto
The rapidly growing array of therapeutic options in cancer requires informative biomarkers to guide the rational selection and precision application of appropriate therapies. Circulating biomarkers such as circulating tumor cells have immense potential as noninvasive, serial 'liquid biopsies' that may be more representative of the complete spectrum of a patient's individual malignancy than spatially and temporally restricted tumor biopsies. In this review, we discuss the current state-of-the-art in the isolation and molecular characterization of circulating tumor cells as well as their utility in a wide range of clinical applications such as prognostics, treatment monitoring and identification of novel therapeutic targets and resistance mechanisms to enable real-time adjustments in the clinical management of cancer...
December 7, 2016: Biomarkers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923906/cd4-t-cell-effector-commitment-coupled-to-self-renewal-by-asymmetric-cell-divisions
#7
Simone A Nish, Kyra D Zens, Radomir Kratchmarov, Wen-Hsuan W Lin, William C Adams, Yen-Hua Chen, Bonnie Yen, Nyanza J Rothman, Avinash Bhandoola, Hai-Hui Xue, Donna L Farber, Steven L Reiner
Upon infection, an activated CD4(+) T cell produces terminally differentiated effector cells and renews itself for continued defense. In this study, we show that differentiation and self-renewal arise as opposing outcomes of sibling CD4(+) T cells. After influenza challenge, antigen-specific cells underwent several divisions in draining lymph nodes (LN; DLNs) while maintaining expression of TCF1. After four or five divisions, some cells silenced, whereas some cells maintained TCF1 expression. TCF1-silenced cells were T helper 1-like effectors and concentrated in the lungs...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923773/mitochondrial-protein-lipoylation-and-the-2-oxoglutarate-dehydrogenase-complex-controls-hif1%C3%AE-stability-in-aerobic-conditions
#8
Stephen P Burr, Ana S H Costa, Guinevere L Grice, Richard T Timms, Ian T Lobb, Peter Freisinger, Roger B Dodd, Gordon Dougan, Paul J Lehner, Christian Frezza, James A Nathan
Hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) control adaptation to low oxygen environments by activating genes involved in metabolism, angiogenesis, and redox homeostasis. The finding that HIFs are also regulated by small molecule metabolites highlights the need to understand the complexity of their cellular regulation. Here we use a forward genetic screen in near-haploid human cells to identify genes that stabilize HIFs under aerobic conditions. We identify two mitochondrial genes, oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (OGDH) and lipoic acid synthase (LIAS), which when mutated stabilize HIF1α in a non-hydroxylated form...
November 8, 2016: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923070/macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-derived-from-cd4-t-cells-contributes-to-control-of-a-blood-borne-infection
#9
Mary F Fontana, Gabrielly L de Melo, Chioma Anidi, Rebecca Hamburger, Chris Y Kim, So Youn Lee, Jennifer Pham, Charles C Kim
Dynamic regulation of leukocyte population size and activation state is crucial for an effective immune response. In malaria, Plasmodium parasites elicit robust host expansion of macrophages and monocytes, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that myeloid expansion during P. chabaudi infection is dependent upon both CD4+ T cells and the cytokine Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (MCSF). Single-cell RNA-Seq analysis on antigen-experienced T cells revealed robust expression of Csf1, the gene encoding MCSF, in a sub-population of CD4+ T cells with distinct transcriptional and surface phenotypes...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923052/filariae-retrovirus-co-infection-in-mice-is-associated-with-suppressed-virus-specific-igg-immune-response-and-higher-viral-loads
#10
Kirsten Katrin Dietze, Ulf Dittmer, Daniel Karim Koudaimi, Simone Schimmer, Martina Reitz, Minka Breloer, Wiebke Hartmann
Worldwide more than 2 billion people are infected with helminths, predominantly in developing countries. Co-infections with viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are common due to the geographical overlap of these pathogens. Helminth and viral infections induce antagonistic cytokine responses in their hosts. Helminths shift the immune system to a type 2-dominated immune response, while viral infections skew the cytokine response towards a type 1 immune response. Moreover, chronic helminth infections are often associated with a generalized suppression of the immune system leading to prolonged parasite survival, and also to a reduced defence against unrelated pathogens...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923045/tumor-evolution-in-two-patients-with-basal-like-breast-cancer-a-retrospective-genomics-study-of-multiple-metastases
#11
Katherine A Hoadley, Marni B Siegel, Krishna L Kanchi, Christopher A Miller, Li Ding, Wei Zhao, Xiaping He, Joel S Parker, Michael C Wendl, Robert S Fulton, Ryan T Demeter, Richard K Wilson, Lisa A Carey, Charles M Perou, Elaine R Mardis
BACKGROUND: Metastasis is the main cause of cancer patient deaths and remains a poorly characterized process. It is still unclear when in tumor progression the ability to metastasize arises and whether this ability is inherent to the primary tumor or is acquired well after primary tumor formation. Next-generation sequencing and analytical methods to define clonal heterogeneity provide a means for identifying genetic events and the temporal relationships between these events in the primary and metastatic tumors within an individual...
December 2016: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922604/common-variants-on-2p16-1-6p22-1-and-10q24-32-are-associated-with-schizophrenia-in-han-chinese-population
#12
H Yu, H Yan, J Li, Z Li, X Zhang, Y Ma, L Mei, C Liu, L Cai, Q Wang, F Zhang, N Iwata, M Ikeda, L Wang, T Lu, M Li, H Xu, X Wu, B Liu, J Yang, K Li, L Lv, X Ma, C Wang, L Li, F Yang, T Jiang, Y Shi, T Li, D Zhang, W Yue
Many schizophrenia susceptibility loci have been identified through genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in European populations. However, until recently, schizophrenia GWASs in non-European populations were limited to small sample sizes and have yielded few loci associated with schizophrenia. To identify genetic risk variations for schizophrenia in the Han Chinese population, we performed a two-stage GWAS of schizophrenia comprising 4384 cases and 5770 controls, followed by independent replications of 13 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in an additional 4339 schizophrenia cases and 7043 controls of Han Chinese ancestry...
December 6, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922598/epha3-as-a-target-for-antibody-immunotherapy-in-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#13
S Charmsaz, F Al-Ejeh, T Yeadon, K J Miller, F Smith, B Stringer, A S Moore, F-T Lee, L T Cooper, C Stylianou, G T Yarranton, J Woronicz, A M Scott, M Lackmann, A W Boyd
The human EphA3 gene was discovered in a pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pre-B ALL) using the EphA3-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb), IIIA4, which binds and activates both human and mouse EphA3. We use two models of human pre-B ALL to examine EphA3 function, demonstrating effects on pre-B cell receptor signaling. In therapeutic targeting studies we demonstrated anti-tumor effects of the IIIA4 mAb in EphA3-expressing leukemic xenografts and no anti-tumor effect in the xenografts with no EphA3 expression providing evidence that EphA3 is a functional therapeutic target in pre-B ALL...
December 6, 2016: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922597/baboon-envelope-pseudotyped-lentiviral-vectors-a-highly-efficient-new-tool-to-genetically-manipulate-t-cell-acute-lymphoblastic-leukaemia-initiating-cells
#14
C Costa, G Hypolite, O Bernadin, C Lévy, F-L Cosset, V Asnafi, E Macintyre, E Verhoeyen, M Tesio
Leukemia accepted article preview online, 06 December 2016. doi:10.1038/leu.2016.372.
December 6, 2016: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922198/dnmt1-modulation-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-and-hypothetic-influence-on-mitochondrial-dna-methylation-status-during-long-term-nucleo-t-side-analogues-therapy
#15
Giordano Madeddu, Silvia Ortu, Giovanni Garrucciu, Ivana Maida, Michela Melis, Alberto Augusto Muredda, Maria Stella Mura, Sergio Babudieri
Inhibition of viral replication is the most important goal in patients with Hepatitis B virus chronic infection (CHB). Currently, five oral nucleo(t)side analogues (NAs), including Lamivudine, Adefovir, Telbivudine, Entecavir and Tenofovir, have been approved for treatment. The widespread use of NAs has also been linked with a progressive growth of unlikely anomaly attributable to mitochondrial dysfunctions, not previously recognized. Here we explore the hypothesis that NAs may cause persistent epigenetic changes during prolonged NAs therapy in CHB patients...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922118/mining-visualizing-and-comparing-multidimensional-biomolecular-data-using-the-genomics-data-miner-gmine-web-server
#16
Carla Proietti, Martha Zakrzewski, Thomas S Watkins, Bernard Berger, Shihab Hasan, Champa N Ratnatunga, Marie-Jo Brion, Peter D Crompton, John J Miles, Denise L Doolan, Lutz Krause
Genomics Data Miner (GMine) is a user-friendly online software that allows non-experts to mine, cluster and compare multidimensional biomolecular datasets. Various powerful visualization techniques are provided, generating high quality figures that can be directly incorporated into scientific publications. Robust and comprehensive analyses are provided via a broad range of data-mining techniques, including univariate and multivariate statistical analysis, supervised learning, correlation networks, clustering and multivariable regression...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922008/defining-functional-interactions-during-biogenesis-of-epithelial-junctions
#17
J C Erasmus, S Bruche, L Pizarro, N Maimari, T Pogglioli, C Tomlinson, J Lees, I Zalivina, A Wheeler, A Alberts, A Russo, V M M Braga
In spite of extensive recent progress, a comprehensive understanding of how actin cytoskeleton remodelling supports stable junctions remains to be established. Here we design a platform that integrates actin functions with optimized phenotypic clustering and identify new cytoskeletal proteins, their functional hierarchy and pathways that modulate E-cadherin adhesion. Depletion of EEF1A, an actin bundling protein, increases E-cadherin levels at junctions without a corresponding reinforcement of cell-cell contacts...
December 6, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920212/inhibition-of-antigen-specific-and-non-specific-stimulation-of-bovine-t-and-b-cells-by-lymphostatin-from-attaching-and-effacing-escherichia-coli
#18
Robin L Cassady-Cain, Elizabeth A Blackburn, Charlotte R Bell, Elizaveta Elshina, Jayne C Hope, Mark P Stevens
Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) are enteric bacterial pathogens of worldwide importance. Most EPEC and non-O157 EHEC strains express lymphostatin (also known as LifA), a chromosomally-encoded 365 kDa protein. We previously demonstrated that lymphostatin is a putative glycosyltransferase that is important in intestinal colonisation of cattle by EHEC serogroup O5, O111 and O26 strains. However, the nature and consequences of the interaction between lymphostatin and immune cells from the bovine host are ill-defined...
December 5, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920151/lin28-is-induced-in-primed-embryonic-stem-cells-and-regulates-let-7-independent-events
#19
Silvia Parisi, Fabiana Passaro, Luigi Russo, Anna Musto, Angelica Navarra, Simona Romano, Giuseppe Petrosino, Tommaso Russo
Lin28 RNA-binding proteins play important roles in pluripotent stem cells, but the regulation of their expression and the mechanisms underlying their functions are still not definitively understood. Here we address the above-mentioned issues in the first steps of mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation. We observed that the expression of Lin28 genes is transiently induced soon after the exit of ESCs from the naive ground state and that this induction is due to the Hmga2-dependent engagement of Otx2 with enhancers present at both Lin28 gene loci...
December 5, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920123/selective-enhancement-of-insulin-sensitivity-in-the-endothelium-in-vivo-reveals-a-novel-proatherosclerotic-signalling-loop
#20
Hema Viswambharan, Nadira Y Yuldasheva, Anshuman Sengupta, Helen Imrie, Matthew C Gage, Natalie J Haywood, Andrew M Walker, Anna Skromna, Natalia Makova, Stacey L Galloway, Pooja Shah, Piruthivi Sukumar, Karen E Porter, Peter J Grant, Ajay M Shah, Celio X Santos, Jing Li, David J Beech, Stephen Wheatcroft, Richard M Cubbon, Mark T Kearney
RATIONALE: In the endothelium, insulin stimulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) to generate the anti-atherosclerotic signalling radical NO. Insulin resistant type 2 diabetes is associated with reduced NO availability and accelerated atherosclerosis. The effect of enhancing endothelial insulin sensitivity on NO availability is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To answer this question we generated a mouse with endothelial cell (EC)-specific over-expression of the human insulin receptor (hIRECO) using the Tie2 promoter-enhancer...
December 5, 2016: Circulation Research
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