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Hexokinase 2

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077391/acclimation-to-hypoxia-increases-carbohydrate-use-during-exercise-in-high-altitude-deer-mice
#1
Daphne S Lau, Alex D Connaty, Sajeni Mahalingam, Nastashya Wall, Zachary A Cheviron, Jay F Storz, Graham R Scott, Grant B McClelland
The low oxygen experienced at high altitude is a significant challenge to effective aerobic locomotion, as it requires sustained tissue oxygen delivery in addition to the appropriate allocation of metabolic substrates. Here we test whether high- and low-altitude deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) have evolved different acclimation responses to hypoxia with respect to muscle metabolism and fuel use during submaximal exercise. Using F1-generation high- and low-altitude deer mice that were born and raised in common conditions, we assessed 1) fuel use during exercise, 2) metabolic enzyme activities, and 3) gene expression for key transporters and enzymes in the gastrocnemius...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056994/hexokinase-2-drives-glycogen-accumulation-in-equine-endometrium-at-day-12-of-diestrus-and-pregnancy
#2
Sarah A Bramer, Alysson Macedo, Claudia Klein
BACKGROUND: Secretion of histotroph during the prolonged pre-implantation phase in mares is crucial to pregnancy maintenance, manifested as increased embryonic loss in mares with age-related endometrial degeneration. Glycogen content of uterine histotroph is higher during the progesterone-dominated phase of the estrous cycle in mares, but regulatory mechanisms are not well understood. METHODS: mRNA expression of glycogen-metabolizing enzymes (HK1, HK2, GSK3B, GYS1, PEPCK, PKM, PYGM) in endometrial samples were compared among mares in anestrus, estrus, and at Day 12 of diestrus and pregnancy...
January 5, 2017: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042874/in-vitro-assessment-of-the-glucose-lowering-effects-of-berberrubine-9-o-%C3%AE-d-glucuronide-an-active-metabolite-of-berberrubine
#3
Na Yang, Run-Bin Sun, Xing-Long Chen, Le Zhen, Chun Ge, Yu-Qing Zhao, Jun He, Jian-Liang Geng, Jia-Hua Guo, Xiao-Yi Yu, Fei Fei, Si-Qi Feng, Xuan-Xuan Zhu, Hong-Bo Wang, Feng-Hua Fu, Ji-Ye Aa, Guang-Ji Wang
Berberrubine (BRB) is the primary metabolite of berberine (BBR) that has shown a stronger glucose-lowering effect than BBR in vivo. On the other hand, BRB is quickly and extensively metabolized into berberrubine-9-O-β-D-glucuronide (BRBG) in rats after oral administration. In this study we compared the pharmacokinetic properties of BRB and BRBG in rats, and explored the mechanisms underlying their glucose-lowering activities. C57BL/6 mice with HFD-induced hyperglycemia were administered BRB (50 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), ig) for 6 weeks, which caused greater reduction in the plasma glucose levels than those caused by BBR (120 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) or BRB (25 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1))...
January 2, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025803/metabolic-transition-of-milk-lactose-synthesis-and-up-regulation-by-akt1-in-sows-from-late-pregnancy-to-lactation
#4
Fang Chen, Baoliang Chen, Wutai Guan, Jun Chen, Yantao Lv, Hanzhen Qiao, Chaoxian Wang, Yinzhi Zhang
Lactose plays a crucial role in controlling milk volume by inducing water toward into the mammary secretory vesicles from the mammary epithelial cell cytoplasm, thereby maintaining osmolality. In current study, we determined the expression of several lactose synthesis related genes, including glucose transporters (glucose transporter 1, glucose transporter 8, sodium-glucose cotransporter 1, sodium-glucose cotransporter 3, and sodium-glucose cotransporter 5), lactose synthases (α-lactalbumin and β1,4-galactosyltransferase), and hexokinases (hexokinase-1 and hexokinase-2) in sow mammary gland tissue at day 17 before delivery, on the 1st day of lactation and at peak lactation...
December 26, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025745/microrna-98-suppress-warburg-effect-by-targeting-hk2-in-colon-cancer-cells
#5
Weimin Zhu, Yijiao Huang, Qi Pan, Pei Xiang, Nanlan Xie, Hao Yu
BACKGROUND: Warburg effect is a hallmark of cancer cells. Accumulating evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRs) could regulate such metabolic reprograming. Aberrant expression of miR-98 has been observed in many types of cancers. However, its functions and significance in colon cancer remain largely elusive. AIMS: To investigate miR-98 expression and the biological functions in colon cancer progression. METHODS: miR-98 expression levels were determined by quantitative RT-PCR in 215 cases of colon cancer samples...
December 26, 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013175/isolation-and-expression-features-of-hexose-kinase-genes-under-various-abiotic-stresses-in-the-tea-plant-camellia-sinensis
#6
Na-Na Li, Wen-Jun Qian, Lu Wang, Hong-Li Cao, Xin-Yuan Hao, Ya-Jun Yang, Xin-Chao Wang
Hexokinases (HXKs, EC 2.7.1.1) and fructokinases (FRKs, EC 2.7.1.4) play important roles in carbohydrate metabolism and sugar signaling during the growth and development of plants. However, the HXKs and FRKs in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis) remain largely unknown. In this manuscript, we present the molecular characterization, phylogenetic relationships, conserved domains and expression profiles of four HXK and seven FRK genes of the tea plant. The 11 deduced CsHXK and CsFRK proteins were grouped into six main classes...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983708/the-hk2-dependent-warburg-effect-and-mitochondrial-oxidative-phosphorylation-in-cancer-targets-for-effective-therapy-with-3-bromopyruvate
#7
REVIEW
Paweł Lis, Mariusz Dyląg, Katarzyna Niedźwiecka, Young H Ko, Peter L Pedersen, Andre Goffeau, Stanisław Ułaszewski
This review summarizes the current state of knowledge about the metabolism of cancer cells, especially with respect to the "Warburg" and "Crabtree" effects. This work also summarizes two key discoveries, one of which relates to hexokinase-2 (HK2), a major player in both the "Warburg effect" and cancer cell immortalization. The second discovery relates to the finding that cancer cells, unlike normal cells, derive as much as 60% of their ATP from glycolysis via the "Warburg effect", and the remaining 40% is derived from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation...
December 15, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943105/hypolipidemic-and-hypoglycemic-activities-of-a-oleanolic-acid-derivative-from-malva-parviflora-on-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#8
Rosa Martha Pérez Gutiérrez
One new oleanolic acid derivative, 2α,3β,23α,29α tetrahydroxyolean-12(13)-en-28-oic acid (1) was isolated from the aerial parts of Malva parviflora. Their structure was characterized by spectroscopic methods. The hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic activities of 1 was analyzed in in streptozotocin (STZ)-nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetes in mice (MD) and type 1 diabetes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice (SD). Triterpene was administered orally at doses of 20 mg/kg for 4 weeks. Organ weight, body weight, glucose, fasting insulin, cholesterol-related lipid profile parameters, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP), glucokinase, hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase activities and glycogen in liver were measured after 4 weeks of treatment...
December 10, 2016: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926482/hexokinase-2-enhances-the-metastatic-potential-of-tongue-squamous-cell-carcinoma-via-the-sod2-h2o2-pathway
#9
Wei Wang, Zhonghua Liu, Luodan Zhao, Jingjing Sun, Qianting He, Wangxiang Yan, Zhiyuan Lu, Anxun Wang
The glycolytic enzyme hexokinase (HK2), which is aberrantly expressed in various types of tumours, is associated with metastasis. However, its role in the progression and metastasis of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) remains unclear. The results of our study showed that HK2 expression is often deregulated in TSCC patients. Increased HK2 expression was associated with tumour stage, clinical stage, lymph node metastasis, but not pathological grade, and reduced overall survival. Microarray and western blotting analyses revealed increases in HK2 expression in TSCC cells with higher metastatic potential...
December 1, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922662/metabolic-reprogramming-and-ampk%C3%AE-1-pathway-activation-by-caulerpin-in-colorectal-cancer-cells
#10
Hua Yu, Huiqin Zhang, Mingjun Dong, Zhou Wu, Zhonglei Shen, Yangyang Xie, Zhenfang Kong, Xiaoyu Dai, Binbin Xu
Caulerpin, a secondary metabolite from the marine invasive green algae Caulerpa cylindracea is known to induce mitochondrial dysfunctions. In this study, the anticancer property of caulerpin was assessed in a panel of colorectal cancer cell lines. We demonstrated that caulerpin inhibited oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and facilitated an early intervention of the mitochondrial function, via inhibiting mitochondrial complex I, accompanied by the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential and a surge of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation...
January 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907091/real-time-fluorescence-measurements-of-ros-and-ca2-in-ischemic-reperfused-rat-hearts-detectable-increases-occur-only-after-mitochondrial-pore-opening-and-are-attenuated-by-ischemic-preconditioning
#11
Tatyana Andrienko, Philippe Pasdois, Andreas Rossbach, Andrew P Halestrap
Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening is critical for ischemia / reperfusion (I/R) injury and is associated with increased [Ca2+] and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we employ surface fluorescence to establish the temporal sequence of these events in beating perfused hearts subject to global I/R. A bespoke fluorimeter was used to synchronously monitor surface fluorescence and reflectance of Langendorff-perfused rat hearts at multiple wavelengths, with simultaneous measurements of hemodynamic function...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906079/muscle-specific-loss-of-bmal1-leads-to-disrupted-tissue-glucose-metabolism-and-systemic-glucose-homeostasis
#12
Brianna D Harfmann, Elizabeth A Schroder, Maureen T Kachman, Brian A Hodge, Xiping Zhang, Karyn A Esser
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the USA, and disruption of circadian rhythms is gaining recognition as a contributing factor to disease prevalence. This disease is characterized by hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance and symptoms caused by failure to produce and/or respond to insulin. The skeletal muscle is a key insulin-sensitive metabolic tissue, taking up ~80 % of postprandial glucose. To address the role of the skeletal muscle molecular clock to insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, we generated an inducible skeletal muscle-specific Bmal1 (-/-) mouse (iMSBmal1 (-/-))...
March 30, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866313/two-myb-related-transcription-factors-play-opposite-roles-in-sugar-signaling-in-arabidopsis
#13
Yi-Shih Chen, Yi-Chi Chao, Tzu-Wei Tseng, Chun-Kai Huang, Pei-Ching Lo, Chung-An Lu
Sugar regulation of gene expression has profound effects at all stages of the plant life cycle. Although regulation at the transcriptional level is one of the most prominent mechanisms by which gene expression is regulated, only a few transcription factors have been identified and demonstrated to be involved in the regulation of sugar-regulated gene expression. OsMYBS1, an R1/2-type MYB transcription factor, has been demonstrated to be involved in sugar- and hormone-regulated α-amylase gene expression in rice...
November 19, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856557/activating-transcription-factor-3-attenuates-chemokine-and-cytokine-expression-in-mouse-skeletal-muscle-after-exercise-and-facilitates-molecular-adaptation-to-endurance-training
#14
Rodrigo Fernández-Verdejo, Aline M Vanwynsberghe, Ahmed Essaghir, Jean-Baptiste Demoulin, Tsonwin Hai, Louise Deldicque, Marc Francaux
Activating transcription factor (ATF)3 regulates the expression of inflammation-related genes in several tissues under pathological contexts. In skeletal muscle, atf3 expression increases after exercise, but its target genes remain unknown. We aimed to identify those genes and to determine the influence of ATF3 on muscle adaptation to training. Skeletal muscles of ATF3-knockout (ATF3-KO) and control mice were analyzed at rest, after exercise, and after training. In resting muscles, there was no difference between genotypes in enzymatic activities or fiber type...
November 17, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856430/glycolysis-and-oxidative-phosphorylation-are-essential-for-purinergic-receptor-mediated-angiogenic-responses-in-vasa-vasorum-endothelial-cells
#15
Martin Lapel, Philip Weston, Derek Strassheim, Vijaya Karoor, Nana Burns, Taras Lyubchenko, Petr Paucek, Kurt R Stenmark, Evgenia V Gerasimovskaya
Angiogenesis is an energy-demanding process; however, the role of cellular energy pathways and their regulation by extracellular stimuli, especially extracellular nucleotides, remain largely unexplored. Using metabolic inhibitors of glycolysis (2-deoxyglucose) and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) (oligomycin, rotenone, and FCCP), we demonstrate that glycolysis and OXPHOS are both essential for angiogenic responses of vasa vasorum endothelial cell (VVEC). Treatment with P2R agonists, ATP, and 2-methylthioadenosine diphosphate trisodium salt (MeSADP), but not P1 receptor agonist, adenosine, increased glycolytic activity in VVEC (measured by extracellular acidification rate and lactate production)...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829129/resveratrol-inhibits-hexokinases-ii-mediated-glycolysis-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-via-targeting-akt-signaling-pathway
#16
Wei Li, Xiaoqian Ma, Na Li, Huasheng Liu, Qiong Dong, Juan Zhang, Cejun Yang, Yin Liu, Qi Liang, Shengwang Zhang, Chang Xu, Wei Song, Shiming Tan, Pengfei Rong, Wei Wang
Deregulation of glycolysis was often observed in human cancer cells. In the present study, we reported resveratrol, a small polyphenol, which has been intensively studied in various tumor models, has a profound anti-tumor effect on human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) via regulation of glycolysis. Resveratrol impaired hexokinase II (HK2)-mediated glycolysis, and markedly inhibited anchorage-dependent and -independent growth of NSCLC cells. Exposure to resveratrol decreased EGFR and downstream kinases Akt and ERK1/2 activation...
November 6, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824926/prognostic-significance-of-the-metabolic-marker-hexokinase-2-in-various-solid-tumors-a-meta-analysis
#17
Yulin Liu, Ke Wu, Liang Shi, Fan Xiang, Kaixiong Tao, Guobin Wang
OBJECTIVE: Recently, numerous studies have reported that hexokinase-2 (HK2) is aberrantly expressed in cancer, indicating that HK2 plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of cancer. However, its prognostic significance in solid tumor remains unclear. Accordingly, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the prognostic value of HK2 in solid tumor. METHODS: Eligible studies were identified using PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for overall survival (OS) or progression-free survival (PFS)/disease-free survival (DFS)/relapse-free survival (RFS) were estimated with random effects or fixed effects models, respectively...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809537/comprehensive-proteomics-analysis-reveals-metabolic-reprogramming-of-tumor-associated-macrophages-stimulated-by-the-tumor-microenvironment
#18
Di Liu, Cheng Chang, Ning Lu, Xing Wang, Qian Lu, Xiaojie Ren, Peng Ren, Dianyuan Zhao, Lijing Wang, Yunping Zhu, Fuchu He, Li Tang
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are major components of the tumor microenvironment. Although a role for TAMs in promoting tumor progression has been revealed, the differentiation mechanisms and intrinsic signals of TAMs regulated by the tumor microenvironment remain unclear. Here we constructed an in vitro TAMs cell model, TES-TAMs, which is from tumor-extract-stimulated bone-marrow-derived macrophages. We performed a comparative proteomics analysis of bone-marrow-derived macrophages and TES-TAMs, which indicated that TES-TAMs possessed characteristic molecular expression of TAMs...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784538/phenotyping-and-auto-antibody-production-by-liver-infiltrating-b-cells-in-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-and-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#19
Brian K Chung, Bardia T Guevel, Gary M Reynolds, D B R K Gupta Udatha, Eva Kristine Klemsdal Henriksen, Zania Stamataki, Gideon M Hirschfield, Tom Hemming Karlsen, Evaggelia Liaskou
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are immune-mediated biliary diseases that demonstrate prominent and restricted genetic association with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles. In PBC, anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA) are specific and used as diagnostic biomarkers. PSC-relevant auto-antibodies remain controversial despite a distinct HLA association that mirrors archetypical auto-antigen driven disorders. Herein, we compared antibody-secreting B cells (ASCs) in PSC and PBC liver explants to determine if liver-infiltrating ASCs represent an opportune and novel source of disease-relevant auto-antibodies...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784456/-the-role-of-hexokinase-2-in-the-metastasis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#20
X L Geng, W H Long, J Hai, Y Zhang, W Zheng, Z Y Zhang, L X Du
Objective: To investigate the regulatory role of HK2 in the metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: The protein expressions of HK2 in 73 HCC tumor tissues and paired adjacent non-tumor tissues were evaluated by using immunohistochemical analysis. The scratch wound healing assay and Transwell assay had been used to analyze the migration and invasion of HCC cells with HK2 knockdown. Expressions of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)markers, such as E-cadherin, ZO-1, N-cadherin and vimentin, in HCC cells with HK2 knockdown were determined by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis...
October 23, 2016: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
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