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psychiatric manifestations of neuro disease

Jutta Maria Birkhoff, Cesare Garberi, Laura Re
The aim of this case report is to underline the importance of possible legal consequences of the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). This disease is associated with antisocial behavior, impulse control disorder and cognitive and personality impairment, which are often the earliest manifestations of the bvFTD. One of the antisocial behaviors possibly associated with this neurodegenerative disease is pathological stealing. This case report is about a 50-year-old Italian man who had a regular life until 2010...
July 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Daniel Carrillo Robles, Gerardo García Maldonado
Prion diseases are a group of rare and rapidly progressive neurodegenerative conditions that may cause neuropsychiatric symptoms. This group of diseases has been described since the 18(th) century, but they were recognized decades later, when it became clear that the humans were affected by infected animals. There was controversy when the problem was attributed to a single protein with infective capacity. The common pathological process is characterized by the conversion of the normal cellular prion protein into an abnormal form...
April 2016: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
Cécile M Yelnik, Elizabeth Kozora, Simone Appenzeller
Thrombotic manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) are well known, and various non-stroke neuro-psychiatric manifestations (NPMs) have also been consistently described, but their place in APS remains unclear. Some syndromes, such as migraine or cognitive dysfunction, are frequently described in APS, whereas others, like seizure, multiple sclerosis-like symptoms, transverse myelitis, movement disorders, or psychiatric symptoms, are rarely found. Overlap with other autoimmune diseases, in particular with systemic lupus erythematosus, the lack of large sample size prospective studies, and discrepancies in antiphospholipid antibody (aPL) determinations complicate the study of the relationship between those disorders and aPL/APS...
February 2016: Current Rheumatology Reports
V Bozikas, A Ramnalis, J Dittopoulos, J Iakovou, G Garyfallos, K Fokas
Beçhet's disease (BD) is a chronic, heterogeneous, multisystem disease that affects young males and females around the Mediterranean region, as well as from Far and Middle East. Its etiology is vague with vasculitis being its main pathological feature. International diagnostic criteria have been established and they require the presence of recurrent oral ulcerations plus two of the following: Recurrent genital ulceration, eye lesions, skin lesions and positive pathergy test. A significant number of patients with Beçhet's disease suffers from symptoms from the central nervous system (CNS), while the most common clinical symptoms are pyramidal signs, mental-behavioral changes, hemiparesis and brain stem syndrome...
October 2015: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra, Thomas Gregor Issac, Krishnan Ayyappan
First episode of psychosis can occur at any age and it can be primarily psychiatric or secondary to other occult diseases. It is of great therapeutic relevance to be cautious about organic etiology as early diagnosis can help in early initiation of disease modifying treatments. To study patients who presented with first episode of psychosis and later turned out to be due to lupus erythematosus with varying periods of delay. Details of patients who were considered as treatment unresponsive psychosis and later turned out to be due to vasculitis were entered in excel sheet and analyzed...
July 2015: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
S Mrabet, F Ellouze, S Ellini, M F Mrad
Biermer disease or pernicious anemia is an autoimmune atrophic gastritis characterized by the lack of secretion of gastric intrinsic factor. This leads to an insufficient absorption of vitamin B12 in the ileum. Clinical manifestations are mainly hematologic. Neuropsychiatric manifestations are known but are less frequent especially early in the disease. Inaugural neuropsychiatric arrays are rare and various thus making diagnosis difficult. In this article, we report through two clinical cases different neuropsychiatric manifestations revealing pernicious anemia...
December 2015: L'Encéphale
Elena Lionetti, Salvatore Leonardi, Chiara Franzonello, Margherita Mancardi, Martino Ruggieri, Carlo Catassi
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is a syndrome diagnosed in patients with symptoms that respond to removal of gluten from the diet, after celiac disease and wheat allergy have been excluded. NCGS has been related to neuro-psychiatric disorders, such as autism, schizophrenia and depression. A singular report of NCGS presenting with hallucinations has been described in an adult patient. We report a pediatric case of a psychotic disorder clearly related to NCGS and investigate the causes by a review of literature...
July 8, 2015: Nutrients
B M Frey, C Gassner, H H Jung
Multisystem deterioration occurs mainly in older individuals and may be related to physiological tissue degeneration. However, genetic predisposition may be unmasked by inappropriate functional and structural system deficiencies. McLeod syndrome (MLS) is a rare, multisystem disease which is X-chromosomal inherited and belongs to the neuroacanthocytosis syndromes (NAS). The main clinical manifestations contain progressive neuro-psychiatric and cognitive deterioration, choreatic movement disorder, as well as myopathy, sensory motor axonal neuropathy and cardiomyopathy...
June 2015: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
Rosaria Talarico, Laura Palagini, Anna d'Ascanio, Elena Elefante, Claudia Ferrari, Chiara Stagnaro, Chiara Tani, Angelo Gemignani, Mauro Mauri, Stefano Bombardieri, Marta Mosca
Behçet's syndrome (BS) is a systemic, chronic, relapsing vasculitis, typically characterized by recurrent orogenital ulcers, ocular inflammation and skin manifestations; articular, vascular, gastroenteric and neurological involvement may also occur. Besides the other clinical features of BS, it seems relatively frequent that patients with BS develop a neurobehavioural syndrome, characterized by euphoria, bipolar disorders and paranoid attitudes, loss of insight/disinhibition, and indifference to their disease, defined as 'neuro-psycho-BS'...
March 2015: CNS Drugs
Amita Aggarwal, Puja Srivastava
About 20% of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) starts in childhood and children have less gender bias in favor of females as compared to adults. Systemic manifestations, nephritis, neuro-psychiatric disease and cytopenias are more common in children at presentation than adults. Since most children develop lupus in their early adolescence, dealing with the diagnosis of an unpredictable lifelong disease during this phase of life is challenging. Physicians must recognise specific medical and social needs of this age group, for optimal long-term outcome...
February 2015: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
Sanjay Pandey
Chorea is an involuntary movement disorder characterised by flowing and rhythmic in nature. Hyperkinetic movement disorders such as myoclonus may be mistaken for chorea. Pathogenes of chorea is complex and results from dysfunction of network between motor nucleus of thalamus and subcortical nuclei including globus pallidus interna. There are genetic and non genetic causes of chorea. Huntington's disease is most common genetic cause of chorea. Clinical manifestations of Huntington's disease are mainly neurological and psychiatric...
July 2013: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Puja Patel, Mitchell Steinschneider, Alexis Boneparth, George Lantos
Behçet disease is a systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology that can affect the neurologic system. Neuro-Behçet disease is not well defined in children and adolescents, and the diagnosis is difficult to make in this population as they often present with insufficient symptoms to meet diagnostic criteria. Psychiatric symptoms as the initial manifestation of neuro-Behçet disease has rarely been reported. We describe a 17-year-old boy who presented with acute psychosis and was subsequently diagnosed with neuro-Behçet disease...
September 2014: Journal of Child Neurology
Rajeev Philip, P Prem Patidar, Pankaj Agarwal, K K Gupta
Rare genetic or inherited forms of diabetes can mimic immune mediated type 1 diabetes. Early age of onset and associated features help to differentiate these diseases from type 1 diabetes. Wolfram syndrome, an inherited neuro degenerative disorder, presents as insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, optic atrophy and deafness. But less well described features like psychiatric manifestations can be the presentation of this disease. We present such a case. Wolfram syndrome should be considered as a differential diagnosis in insulin dependent diabetic children who present with neuropsychiatric problems...
September 2013: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Alessandro Ferretti, Pasquale Parisi, Maria Pia Villa
Although a range of neurological and psychiatric disorders are widely reported to be associated with coeliac patients, their pathogenesis remains unclear. Some such disorders are believed to be secondary to vitamin deficiency due to malabsorption, others to immune mechanisms. We hypothesise that hyperhomocysteinemia might, by damaging the blood-brain barrier, expose neuronal tissue to all neuro-irritative metabolites, such as homocysteine itself, a neurotoxic excitatory and proconvulsant amino acid. Neurons respond to these stimuli through hyperexcitability, thereby predisposing subjects to neurological disorders such as epilepsy and headache...
October 2013: Medical Hypotheses
S El Hechmi, S Bouhlel, W Melki, Z El Hechmi
UNLABELLED: Fahr's syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by abnormal deposits of calcium in areas of the brain that control movement, including the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortex associated with many neurological and psychiatric abnormalities such as a rigid hypokinetic syndrome, mood disorders and cognitive impairment. Fahr's syndrome is secondary to some disorders, such as hypoparathyroidism. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 56 year-old man, with a history of cataract, who was admitted to our psychiatric hospital for the first time in his life because of psychotic symptoms associated with irritability and aggressiveness...
June 2014: L'Encéphale
M Amendolara, C Barbarino, D Bucca, G Stevanato, M Zucchelli, F Romano, L Baiano, M Bernardi, A Broggiato, S Ramuscello, M Rizzo
The Whipple' Disease (W.D.) is a very rare disease with an incidence of 1 per 1.000.000 inhabitants; it is a systemic infection that may mimic a wide spectrum of clinical disorders, which may have a fatal outcome and affects mainly male 40-50 years old. The infective agent is an actinomycete, Tropheryma Whipplei (T.W.) that was isolated 100 years after first description by Wipple, and identified in macrophages of mucosa of the small intestine by biopsy which is characterized by periodic acid-Schiff-positive, products of the inner membrane of his polysaccharide bacterial cell wall...
April 2013: Il Giornale di Chirurgia
Tiago A Mestre, Mateusz Zurowski, Susan H Fox
INTRODUCTION: 5-Hydroxytryptamine 2A receptors (5-HT2A-Rs) are widely expressed in the brain and have been implicated in mood and behavior. Based on the use of atypical antipsychotics in schizophrenia, antagonism of 5-HT2A-Rs initially emerged as a potential intervention capable of reducing the incidence of extrapyramidal symptoms, while exerting an effective antipsychotic action. More recently, highly selective 5-HT2A-R antagonists have been evaluated in the treatment of a wide range of other psychiatric disorders...
April 2013: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
Sanoop K Zachariah, P A Thomas
Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) has a variable clinical expression. Majority of the patients are asymptomatic. Symptomatic PHPT with classical skeletal, renal, abdominal and neuro-psychiatric manifestations have become exceedingly rare. Asymptomatic maternal PHPT manifesting as neonatal hypocalcaemic convulsions is another rare entity. The commonest cause of PHPT are solitary parathyroid adenomas. These benign tumors are extremely small being difficult to identify even at surgical exploration. Very large tumors known as giant adenomas are uncommon...
April 2010: Indian Journal of Surgery
Mohammed Al-Owain, Dilek Colak, Albandary Albakheet, Banan Al-Younes, Zainab Al-Humaidi, Moeen Al-Sayed, Hindi Al-Hindi, Abdulaziz Al-Sugair, Ahmed Al-Muhaideb, Zuhair Rahbeeni, Abdullah Al-Sehli, Fatima Al-Fadhli, Pinar T Ozand, Robert W Taylor, Namik Kaya
Our study describes a novel phenotype in a series of nine Saudi patients with lactic acidosis, from four consanguineous families three of which are related. Detailed genetic studies including linkage, homozygosity mapping and targeted sequencing identified a causative mutation in the BCS1L gene. All affected members of the families have an identical mutation in this gene, mutations of which are recognized causes of Björnstad syndrome, GRACILE syndrome and a syndrome of neonatal tubulopathy, encephalopathy, and liver failure (MIM 606104) leading to isolated mitochondrial respiratory chain complex III deficiency...
September 2013: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Yasushi Iwasaki, Keiko Mori, Masumi Ito, Maya Mimuro, Mari Yoshida
We report on a 72-year-old-Japanese man with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) who presented with hemispheric cerebral cortical atrophy with selective neuronal necrosis after status epilepticus. His disease manifested with psychiatric symptoms, such as a "hot feeling" in the abdomen, at the age of 68 years. He was found to have hypochondriasis and anxiety disorder and was treated in the Department of Psychiatry. Parkinsonism gradually developed approximately 1 year later. Approximately 3 years after the onset of psychiatric symptoms, he suddenly experienced left hemiclonic seizures with consciousness disturbance, and he was admitted to our hospital...
September 2012: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
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