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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323755/cyp2b6-genotype-directed-dosing-is-required-for-optimal-efavirenz-exposure-in-children-3-to-36-months-with-hiv-infection
#1
Carolyn Bolton Moore, Edmund V Capparelli, Pearl Samson, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Patrick Jean-Philippe, Carol Worrell, Barbara Heckman, Lynette Purdue, Stephen A Spector, Alex Benns, William Borkowsky, Amy Loftis, Elizabeth Hawkins, Carole Wallis, Ellen G Chadwick
OBJECTIVES: To determine safety, efficacy and genotypic-specific dose requirements of EFV in children aged 3 - <36 months of age with HIV infection with or without TB co-infection. DESIGN: IMPAACT P1070 was a 24 week prospective cohort trial of EFV (as open capsules) plus two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in children with HIV infection 3- < 36 months without tuberculosis (Cohort 1). METHODS: CYP2B6 G516T genotype was determined and intensive PK's were performed at week 2...
March 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303749/-spontaneous-visual-perspective-taking-mediated-by-attention-orienting-that-is-voluntary-and-not-reflexive
#2
Mark R Gardner, Zainabb Hull, Donna Taylor, Caroline J Edmonds
Experiments revealing 'spontaneous' visual perspective-taking are conventionally interpreted as demonstrating that adults have the capacity to track simple mental states in a fast and efficient manner ('implicit mentalising'). A rival account suggests that these experiments can be explained by the general purpose mechanisms responsible for reflexive attentional orienting. Here, we report two experiments designed to distinguish between these competing accounts. In Experiment 1, we assessed whether reflexive attention orienting was sufficient to yield findings interpreted as spontaneous perspective taking in the 'avatar task' (Samson et al...
March 17, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302555/development-of-bioinformatics-infrastructure-for-genomics-research-in-h3africa
#3
Nicola J Mulder, Ezekiel Adebiyi, Marion Adebiyi, Seun Adeyemi, Azza Ahmed, Rehab Ahmed, Bola Akanle, Mohamed Alibi, Don L Armstrong, Shaun Aron, Efejiro Ashano, Shakuntala Baichoo, Alia Benkahla, David K Brown, Emile R Chimusa, Faisal M Fadlelmola, Dare Falola, Segun Fatumo, Kais Ghedira, Amel Ghouila, Scott Hazelhurst, Iunu Isewon, Segun Jung, Samar Kamal Kassim, Jonathan K Kayondo, Mamana Mbiyavanga, Ayton Meintjes, Somia Mohammed, Abayomi Mosaku, Ahmed Moussa, Mustafa Muhammd, Zahra Mungloo-Dilmohamud, Oyekanmi Nashiru, Trust Odia, Adaobi Okafor, Olaleye Oladipo, Victor Osamor, Jellili Oyelade, Khalid Sadki, Samson Pandam Salifu, Jumoke Soyemi, Sumir Panji, Fouzia Radouani, Oussama Souiai, Özlem Tastan Bishop
BACKGROUND: Although pockets of bioinformatics excellence have developed in Africa, generally, large-scale genomic data analysis has been limited by the availability of expertise and infrastructure. H3ABioNet, a pan-African bioinformatics network, was established to build capacity specifically to enable H3Africa (Human Heredity and Health in Africa) researchers to analyze their data in Africa. Since the inception of the H3Africa initiative, H3ABioNet's role has evolved in response to changing needs from the consortium and the African bioinformatics community...
March 13, 2017: Global Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294646/cost-and-mortality-impact-of-an-algorithm-driven-sepsis-prediction-system
#4
Jacob Calvert, Jana Hoffman, Christopher Barton, David Shimabukuro, Michael Ries, Uli Chettipally, Yaniv Kerem, Melissa Jay, Samson Mataraso, Ritankar Das
AIMS: To compute the financial and mortality impact of InSight, an algorithm-driven biomarker, which forecasts the onset of sepsis with minimal use of electronic health record data. METHODS: We compare InSight with existing sepsis screening tools and compute the differential life and cost savings associated with its use in the inpatient setting. To do so, we obtain mortality reduction from an increase in the number of sepsis cases correctly identified by InSight...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290276/meta-analysis-on-the-effect-of-interventions-used-in-cattle-processing-plants-to-reduce-escherichia-coli-contamination
#5
REVIEW
Samson Zhilyaev, Vasco Cadavez, Ursula Gonzales-Barron, Katherine Phetxumphou, Daniel Gallagher
Cattle coming from feedlots to slaughter often harbor pathogenic E. coli that can contaminate final meat products. As a result, reducing pathogenic contamination during processing is a main priority. Unfortunately, food safety specialists face challenges when trying to determine optimal intervention strategies from published literature. Plant intervention literature results and methods vary significantly, making it difficult to implement interventions with any degree of certainty in their effectiveness. To create a more robust understanding of plant intervention effectiveness, a formal systematic literature review and meta-analysis was conducted on popular intervention methods...
March 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285755/-the-human-and-economic-burden-of-cancer-in-france-in-2014-based-on-the-sniiram-national-database
#6
Philippe Tuppin, Laurence Pestel, Solène Samson, Anne Cuerq, Sébastien Rivière, Stéphane Tala, Pierre Denis, Jérôme Drouin, Claude Gissot, Christelle Gastaldi-Ménager, Anne Fagot-Campagna
INTRODUCTION: The national health insurance information system (Sniiram) can be used to estimate the national medical and economic burden of cancer. This study reports the annual rates, characteristics and expenditure of people reimbursed for cancer. METHODS: Among 57 million general health scheme beneficiaries (86% of the French population), people managed for cancer were identified using algorithms based on hospital diagnoses and full refund for long-term cancer...
March 9, 2017: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284035/ethnopharmacological-approaches-in-mood-and-anxiety-disorders-the-relevance-of-the-oxidative-stress-status
#7
Simplice Harquin Foyet, Ioana-Miruna Balmus, Ngatanko Abaïssou Hervé Hervé, Asongalem Acha Emmanuel, Samson Guenne, Martin Kiendrebéogo, Alin Ciobica
Neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders are one of the most important pathologies that lead to increased morbidity in populations. Both mood and anxiety disorders include mental disorders not caused by detectable organic abnormalities of the brain. At the molecular level, affective spectrum symptomatology is due to neurotransmitter dysregulation including receptor or transporter impairments and also due to faulty intracellular signaling that generally leads to impaired neurotransmission. Also, recent studies have shown the relationship between oxidative stress and the development of affective disorders...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281259/hypermulticolor-detector-for-quantum-antibody-based-concurrent-detection-of-intracellular-markers-for-hiv-diagnosis
#8
Annie Agnes Suganya Samson, Joon Myong Song
Antiretroviral treatment can reduce the death rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and its effectiveness is maximized at the early stage of HIV infection. The present protocol demonstrates an early stage high-content HIV diagnosis based on multicolor concurrent monitoring of CD4, CD8, and CD3 coreceptors and F-actin cytoskeleton using quantum dot (Qdot)-antibody conjugates at the single cell level. Artificial HIV infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) can be achieved by treating PBMCs with gp120...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279063/symposium-oncology-leadership-in-asia
#9
Dong-Young Noh, Jae Kyung Roh, Yeul Hong Kim, Kazuhiro Yoshida, Hideo Baba, Marie Cherry Lynn Samson-Fernando, Sanjeev Misra, Zeba Aziz, Rainy Umbas, Yogendra P Singh, Tony Shu Kam Mok, Han-Kwang Yang, Hideyuki Akaza
The Symposium on "Oncology Leadership in Asia" was held as part of the official program of the 42nd Annual Meeting of the Korean Cancer Association. Given the increasing incidence of cancer in all countries and regions of Asia, regardless of developmental stage, and also in light of the recognized need for Asian countries to enhance collaboration in cancer prevention, research, treatment and follow-up, the symposium was held with the aim of bringing together oncology specialists from eight countries and regions in Asia to present the status in their own national context and discuss the key challenges and requirements in order to establish a greater Asian presence in the area of cancer control and research...
March 9, 2017: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278495/antioxidant-supplements-and-gastrointestinal-diseases-a-critical-appraisal
#10
Islam Khan, Sue E Samson, Ashok Kumar Grover
The gastrointestinal tract digests and absorbs dietary nutrients; protects the body against physical and chemical damage from contents in its lumen; provides immunity against external antigens and keeps an optimum environment for the gut microbiota. These functions cannot be performed normally in several diseases of which the following are discussed here: irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease which includes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Because these diseases are associated with oxidative stress, a host of antioxidant supplements are used for maintenance and recovery of the gut functions...
March 8, 2017: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278269/small-rodents-as-paratenic-or-intermediate-hosts-of-carnivore-parasites-in-berlin-germany
#11
Jürgen Krücken, Julia Blümke, Denny Maaz, Janina Demeler, Sabrina Ramünke, Daniela Antolová, Roland Schaper, Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna
Rodents are important intermediate and paratenic hosts for carnivore parasites, including the important zoonotic agents Toxoplasma, Echinococcus and Toxocara. Monitoring of such parasites in rodents can be used to detect increasing risks for human and veterinary public health. Rodents were trapped at four sites in Berlin, two near the city center, two at the periphery. PCRs were conducted to detect Coccidia (target ITS-1) and specifically Toxoplasma gondii (repetitive element) in brain and ascarids (ITS-2) in muscle or brain tissue...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275458/demographic-and-clinical-correlates-of-hiv-1-rna-levels-in-antiretroviral-therapy-naive-adults-attending-a-tertiary-hospital-in-jos-nigeria
#12
EDITORIAL
Joseph Anejo-Okopi, Isaac Okoh Abah, Yakhat Barshep, Augustine Odo Ebonyi, Comfort Daniyam, Samson Ejiji Isa, Gomerep Simji, Stephen Oguche, Patricia Agaba, Patricia Lar, Oche Agbaji, John A Idoko
BACKGROUND: Plasma HIV-RNA viral load (VL) of HIV-infected persons is an important prognostic factor in HIV management. We determined the VL among antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive patients to identify the association between patients' demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics with VL. METHOD: A cross-sectional study of 224 ART-naive HIV-1-infected patients (≥15 years of age) accessing care at the Jos University Teaching Hospital AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria ART treatment centre, from October 2010 to April 2011...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274614/metformin-represses-glucose-starvation-induced-autophagic-response-in-microvascular-endothelial-cells-and-promotes-cell-death
#13
Samson Mathews Samuel, Suparna Ghosh, Yasser Majeed, Gnanapragasam Arunachalam, Mohamed M Emara, Hong Ding, Chris R Triggle
Metformin, the most frequently administered drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, is being investigated for its potential in the treatment of various types of cancer; however, the cellular basis for this putative anti-cancer action remains controversial. In the current study we examined the effect of metformin on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy in glucose-starved micro-vascular endothelial cells (MECs). The rationale for our experimental protocol is that in a growing tumor MECs are subjected to hypoxia and nutrient/glucose starvation that results from the reduced supply and relatively high consumption of glucose...
March 6, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265796/expressive-incoherence-and-alexithymia-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
Andreia P Costa, Georges Steffgen, Andrea C Samson
Expressive incoherence can be implicated in socio-emotional communicative problems in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present study examined expressive incoherence in 37 children with ASD and 41 typically developing (TD) children aged 3-13 years old during a frustration task. The role of alexithymia in expressive incoherence was also assessed. Compared to TD children, children with ASD had higher expressive incoherence, such as more neutral and positive emotion expressions during negative behaviors, but not in the expression of negative emotions during positive behaviors...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265358/blanching-influences-the-phenolics-composition-antioxidant-activity-and-inhibitory-effect-of-adansonia-digitata-leaves-extract-on-%C3%AE-amylase-%C3%AE-glucosidase-and-aldose-reductase
#15
Emmanuel A Irondi, Jacob K Akintunde, Samson O Agboola, Aline A Boligon, Margareth L Athayde
Adansonia digitata (A. digitata) leaves serve as food and has several medicinal uses in many parts of the world. This study evaluated the influence of blanching on the phenolics composition, antioxidant activity, and inhibitory effect of methanol extract of A. digitata leaves on the activities of some key enzymes (α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and aldose reductase) implicated in type 2 diabetes (T2D) in vitro. Reverse-phase HPLC analysis revealed that the leaves had appreciable levels of flavonoids and phenolic acids, including catechin, epicatechin, rutin, quercitrin, quercetin, kaempferol, and luteolin (flavonoids); gallic, chlorogenic, caffeic, and ellagic acids (phenolic acids)...
March 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264704/initiating-community-engagement-in-an-ecohealth-research-project-in-southern-africa
#16
Rosemary Musesengwa, Moses J Chimbari, Samson Mukaratirwa
BACKGROUND: Community Engagement (CE) in health research ensures that research is consistent with the socio-cultural, political and economic contexts where the research is conducted. The greatest challenges for researchers are the practical aspects of CE in multicentre health research. This study describes the CE in an ecohealth community-based research project focusing on two vulnerable and research naive rural communities. METHODS: A qualitative, longitudinal multiple case study approach was used...
March 7, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264655/screening-in-maternity-to-ascertain-tuberculosis-status-smats-study
#17
Edward Broughton, Samson Haumba, Marianne Calnan, Sandile Ginindsa, Rosanna Jeffries, Gugu Maphalala, Sikhathele Mazibuko, Munamato Mirara, Surbhi Modi, Pasipamire Munyaradzi, Peter Preko, Batsabile Simelane
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of tuberculosis is difficult among pregnant women because the signs and symptoms of the disease, such as fatigue, shortness of breath, sweating, cough, and mild fever are similar to some manifestations of pregnancy. It is particularly challenging among HIV-infected women as symptoms are often masked or atypical. Currently, WHO recommends a standard four-symptom screening tool for pregnant and lactating women. There is evidence from South Africa that this screening tool (which, despite complex symptomology in this population, recommends identification of patients with weight loss, fever, current cough and night sweats), may be missing true active TB cases...
March 6, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263976/nlrp1-promotes-tumor-growth-by-enhancing-inflammasome-activation-and-suppressing-apoptosis-in-metastatic-melanoma
#18
Z Zhai, W Liu, M Kaur, Y Luo, J Domenico, J M Samson, Y G Shellman, D A Norris, C A Dinarello, R A Spritz, M Fujita
Inflammasomes are mediators of inflammation, and constitutively activated NLRP3 inflammasomes have been linked to interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-mediated tumorigenesis in human melanoma. Whereas NLRP3 regulation of caspase-1 activation requires the adaptor protein ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (caspase recruitment domain)), caspase-1 activation by another danger-signaling sensor NLRP1 does not require ASC because NLRP1 contains a C-terminal CARD domain that facilitates direct caspase-1 activation via CARD-CARD interaction...
March 6, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261332/immunohistochemical-and-molecular-characterizations-in-urothelial-carcinoma-of-bladder-in-patients-less-than-45-years
#19
Veronika Weyerer, Roland Schneckenpointner, Thomas Filbeck, Maximilian Burger, Ferdinand Hofstaedter, Peter J Wild, Samson W Fine, Peter A Humphrey, Louis P Dehner, Mahul B Amin, Josef Rüschoff, Carsten Boltze, Andrea Tannapfel, Ellen Zwarthoff, Antonio Lopez-Beltran, Rodolfo Montironi, Cord Langner, Robert Stoehr, Arndt Hartmann, Johannes Giedl
Bladder tumours in early-onset patients are rare and seem to exhibit unique clinicopathological features. Only few studies have investigated somatic alterations in this specific age of onset group and evidence is accumulating of a distinct molecular behaviour of early-onset bladder tumours. We collected the largest cohort of early-onset tumours of patients 45 years old or younger and aimed to test genomic alterations typically found in bladder cancer. Tumours of 118 early-onset patients were compared with a consecutive group of 113 cases...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259556/a-multi-country-study-to-assess-the-effect-of-a-treatment-with-moxidectin-pour-on-during-the-dry-period-on-milk-production-in-dairy-cows
#20
Thomas Geurden, David J Bartram, Hima Bindu Vanimisetti, Jane Fanke, Philippe Camuset, Jacques Devos, Andrew Sawyer, Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Janina Demeler, Johannes Charlier
A randomized clinical study was conducted in a total of 45 commercial dairy farms in France (14 farms), Germany (28 farms) and the UK (3 farms) to evaluate the effect of an anthelmintic treatment on milk yield in the subsequent lactation. A total of 1287 animals with suspected exposure to Ostertagia ostertagi were included in the study. Animals were treated during the dry period (7-77days before parturition) with moxidectin pour-on (Cydectin(®) 0.5% Pour-On, Zoetis; 638 animals) or left untreated (649 animals) according to a randomized block design...
February 20, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
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