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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936464/refractory-testicular-germ-cell-tumors-are-highly-sensitive-to-the-second-generation-dna-methylation-inhibitor-guadecitabine
#1
Costantine Albany, Mary P Hever-Jardine, Katherine M von Herrmann, Christina Y Yim, Janice Tam, Joshua M Warzecha, Leah Shin, Sarah E Bock, Brian S Curran, Aneeq S Chaudhry, Fred Kim, George E Sandusky, Pietro Taverna, Sarah J Freemantle, Brock C Christensen, Lawrence H Einhorn, Michael J Spinella
Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most common cancers of young males. A substantial portion of TGCT patients are refractory to cisplatin. There are no effective therapies for these patients, many of whom die from progressive disease. Embryonal carcinoma (EC) are the stem cells of TGCTs. In prior in vitro studies we found that EC cells were highly sensitive to the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza deoxycytidine (5-aza). Here, as an initial step in bringing demethylation therapy to the clinic for TGCT patients, we evaluated the effects of the clinically optimized, second generation demethylating agent guadecitabine (SGI-110) on EC cells in an animal model of cisplatin refractory testicular cancer...
December 7, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936089/interaction-potency-of-single-walled-carbon-nanotubes-with-dnas-a-novel-assay-for-assessment-of-hazard-risk
#2
Chunhe Yao, Cristina Carlisi, Yuning Li, Da Chen, Jianfu Ding, Yong-Lai Feng
Increasing use of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) necessitates a novel method for hazard risk assessment. In this work, we investigated the interaction of several types of commercial SWCNTs with single-stranded (ss) and double-stranded (ds) DNA oligonucleotides (20-mer and 20 bp). Based on the results achieved, we proposed a novel assay that employed the DNA interaction potency to assess the hazard risk of SWCNTs. It was found that SWCNTs in different sizes or different batches of the same product number of SWCNTs showed dramatically different potency of interaction with DNAs...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935887/-efficacy-of-using-rivaroxaban-for-treatment-of-heat-induced-thrombosis-after-endovenous-laser-ablation
#3
A A Fokin, D A Borsuk, E L Kazachkov
AIM: The study was aimed at assessing efficacy of using rivaroxaban for treatment of endothermal heat-induced thrombosis (EHIT) after endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) of saphenous veins. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Our prospective study included a total of 1,326 patients subjected to 1,514 EVLAs. In 1,091 (72.1%) cases the great saphenous vein (GSV) was ablated, in 124 (8.2%) cases the anterior accessory vein (AAV) was treated and in 299 (19.7%) cases the small saphenous vein (SSV) was treated...
2016: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935766/dual-source-single-energy-multidetector-ct-used-to-obtain-multiple-radiation-exposure-levels-within-the-same-patient-phantom-development-and-clinical-validation
#4
Davide Bellini, Juan Carlos Ramirez-Giraldo, Alex Bibbey, Justin Solomon, Lynne M Hurwitz, Alfredo Farjat, Achille Mileto, Ehsan Samei, Daniele Marin
Purpose To develop, in a phantom environment, a method to obtain multidetector computed tomographic (CT) data sets at multiple radiation exposure levels within the same patient and to validate its use for potential dose reduction by using different image reconstruction algorithms for the detection of liver metastases. Materials and Methods The American College of Radiology CT accreditation phantom was scanned by using a dual-source multidetector CT platform. By adjusting the radiation output of each tube, data sets at six radiation exposure levels (100%, 75%, 50%, 37...
December 5, 2016: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935735/pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-properties-of-lisdexamfetamine-in-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#5
Lenard A Adler, Samuel Alperin, Terry Leon, Stephen V Faraone
BACKGROUND: Lisdexamfetamine (LDX) is a prodrug and consists of an active moiety, d-amphetamine, bound to lysine. Clinically, d-amphetamine becomes available postcleavage of the prodrug in the blood stream. Clinical effects of LDX in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been shown to persist up to 14 hours; however, pharmacokinetic (PK) data of LDX and amphetamine in ADHD adults are not currently available. OBJECTIVES: (1) To examine PK data of LDX and d-amphetamine in plasma and (2) to compare such PK data with Time-Sensitive ADHD Symptom Scale (TASS) ratings (PK vs...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935183/metformin-in-adults-with-type-1-diabetes-design-and-methods-of-reducing-with-metformin-vascular-adverse-lesions-removal-an-international-multicentre-trial
#6
J R Petrie, N Chaturvedi, I Ford, I Hramiak, A D Hughes, A J Jenkins, B Klein, R Klein, T C Ooi, P Rossing, N Sattar, C D A Stehouwer, H M Colhoun
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular (CV) disease is a major cause of reduced life expectancy in type 1 diabetes (T1D). Intensive insulin therapy prevents CV complications but is constrained by hypoglycaemia and weight gain. Adjunct metformin reduces insulin dose requirement and stabilises weight but there are no data on its cardiovascular effects. AIMS: We have initiated an international double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (REMOVAL: REducing with MetfOrmin Vascular Adverse Lesions in type 1 diabetes) to examine whether metformin reduces progression of atherosclerosis in adults with T1D...
December 9, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935054/damaging-effects-of-ultraviolet-radiation-on-the-cornea
#7
Naomi C Delic, J Guy Lyons, Nick Di Girolamo, Gary M Halliday
The cornea sits at the anterior aspect of the eye and additionally to the skin, is highly exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). The cornea blocks a significant proportion of UVB from reaching the posterior structures of the eye. However, UVA can penetrate the full thickness of the cornea, even reaching the anterior portion of the lens. Epidemiological data indicate that UVR is a contributing factor for a multitude of corneal diseases of the cornea including pterygium, photokeratitis, climatic droplet keratopathy, (CDK) and ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN), although the pathogenic mechanisms of each require further elucidation...
December 9, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934635/metabolism-of-the-mek1-2-inhibitor-pimasertib-involves-a-novel-conjugation-with-phospho-ethanolamine-in-patients-with-solid-tumors
#8
Holger Scheible, Friedrich Kraetzer, Andreas Marx, Andreas Johne, Elmar Wimmer
Pimasertib (AS703026 or MSC1936369B) is a selective inhibitor of MEK1/2, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, which is often dysregulated in cancer cells. Pimasertib has shown potent preclinical anti tumor activity and its clinical activity is being investigated in various tumor types. In this phase I study, the disposition and biotransformation of (14)C-radiolabeled pimasertib was investigated in six patients with locally advanced or metastatic solid tumors (NCT 01713036). Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) and radiodetection techniques were used to investigate the profiles and structures of metabolites in plasma, urine and feces after a single oral dose of (14)C-pimasertib...
December 1, 2016: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934561/various-regimens-of-total-body-irradiation-for-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant
#9
Naoya Ishibashi, Toshiya Maebayashi, Takuya Aizawa, Masakuni Sakaguchi, Osamu Abe, Kazuyoshi Sakanishi, Yuji Endoh, Tsutomu Saito, Jiro Kawamori, Yoshiaki Tanaka
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the safety of total body irradiation before bone marrow transplant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 110 patients (65 male, 45 female) who underwent total body irradiation for hematopoietic stem cell transplant between May 1998 and March 2013. Median age at total body irradiation was 17 years (range, 1-62 y). Median observation time was 777 days (range, 31-5494 d). Initial diagnoses were acute lymphoblastic leukemia (24 patients), acute myeloid leukemia (26 patients), chronic myeloid leukemia (7 patients), myelodysplastic syndrome (8 patients), malignant lymphoma (13 patients), mucopolysaccharidosis (12 patients), neuroblastoma (10 patients), and other diseases (10 patients)...
December 2016: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933726/inheritance-of-evolved-clethodim-resistance-in-lolium-rigidum-populations-from-australia
#10
Rupinder Kaur Saini, Jenna Malone, Gurjeet Gill, Christopher Preston
BACKGROUND: In Australia, the extensive use of clethodim for the control of Lolium rigidum has resulted in the evolution of many clethodim-resistant L.rigidum populations. Five clethodim-resistant populations of L. rigidum were analysed for the inheritance of clethodim resistance. RESULTS: Reciprocal crosses were made between resistant (R) and susceptible (S) populations. Within crosses, dose responses of reciprocal F1 families of all populations, except A61 were similar each other, indicating clethodim resistance in these populations is encoded on the nuclear genome...
December 8, 2016: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933549/demyelination-occurred-as-the-secondary-damage-following-diffuse-axonal-loss-in-a-rat-model-of-radiation-myelopathy
#11
Li Wei, Yong Zhou, Chang-Jiang Liu, Ke Zheng, Hua You
The main purpose of the present study was to examine the time and dose-dependent course of demyelination in the rat radiation myelopathy model in the first 180 days after irradiation of the spinal cord. An irradiated cervical spinal cord rat model (C2-T2 segment) was generated using a (60)Co irradiator to deliver 50 Gy and 100 Gy, respectively. The behavioral dysfunction was observed by the forelimb paralysis scoring system. The histological damage in the irradiated spinal cord was examined by hematoxylin/eosin staining, luxol fast blue staining, immunohistochemical analysis, methylene blue/Azure II staining, and uranyl/lead salts staining...
December 8, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933477/impact-of-low-energy-ct-imaging-on-selection-of-positive-oral-contrast-media-concentration
#12
Manuel Patino, Diana J Murcia, Andrea Prochowski Iamurri, Avinash R Kambadakone, Peter F Hahn, Dushyant V Sahani
OBJECTIVES: To determine to what extent low-energy CT imaging affects attenuation of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) opacified with positive oral contrast media (OCM). Second, to establish optimal OCM concentrations for low-energy diagnostic CT exams. METHODS: One hundred patients (38 men and 62 women; age 62 ± 11 years; BMI 26 ± 5) with positive OCM-enhanced 120-kVp single-energy CT (SECT), and follow-up 100-kVp acquisitions (group A; n = 50), or 40-70-keV reconstructions from rapid kV switching-single-source dual-energy CT (ssDECT) (group B; n = 50) were included...
December 8, 2016: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933426/characterization-of-the-first-fully-human-anti-tem1-scfv-in-models-of-solid-tumor-imaging-and-immunotoxin-based-therapy
#13
Xiaopeng Yuan, Mingjuan Yang, Xiang Chen, Xuhua Zhang, Shrey Sukhadia, Najia Musolino, Huijing Bao, Tingtao Chen, Chen Xu, Qirui Wang, Stephen Santoro, Daniel Ricklin, Jia Hu, Ruihe Lin, Wei Yang, Zhijun Li, Weijun Qin, Aizhi Zhao
Tumor endothelial marker 1 (TEM1) has been identified as a novel surface marker upregulated on the blood vessels and stroma in many solid tumors. We previously isolated a novel single-chain variable fragment (scFv) 78 against TEM1 from a yeast display scFv library. Here, we evaluated the potential applications of scFv78 as a tool for tumor molecular imaging, immunotoxin-based therapy and nanotherapy. Epitope mapping, three-dimensional structure docking and affinity measurements indicated that scFv78 could bind to both human and murine TEM1, with equivalent affinity, at a well-conserved conformational epitope...
December 8, 2016: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933242/transtuzumab-induced-organizing-pneumonia-a-case-report
#14
Ajay Gupta, Louise Teo, Philip Masel, David Godbolt, Geoffrey Beadle
BACKGROUND: Patients with metastatic breast cancer often have pulmonary symptoms with varying aetiologies. Transtuzumab is an extremely important drug used in the treatment of Her 2 neu over-expressing breast cancers. In this report we describe a case of organizing pneumonia associated with use of transtuzumab in metastatic breast cancer. Only three such cases have previously been reported. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 43 year old lady with Her 2 neu 3+, estrogen and progesterone receptor positive, metastatic breast cancer was started on weekly transtuzumab and albumen bound paclitaxel...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933222/endophthalmitis-prophylaxis-using-a-single-drop-of-thermoresponsive-controlled-release-microspheres-loaded-with-moxifloxacin-in-a-rabbit-model
#15
Alex Mammen, Eric G Romanowski, Morgan V Fedorchak, Deepinder K Dhaliwal, R M Shanks, Regis P Kowalski
PURPOSE: Postsurgical endophthalmitis is a sight-threatening problem. We introduce a simple approach by using a single application of thermoresponsive controlled-release microspheres, loaded with moxifloxacin, to prevent bacterial endophthalmitis in a rabbit endophthalmitis prevention model. METHODS: We separated 24 rabbits into 3 treatment groups in which topical drop treatment was placed onto the conjunctival cul-de-sac: (1) a single drop of controlled-release microspheres containing moxifloxacin, (2) a single drop of controlled-release microspheres without moxifloxacin, and (3) multiple topical treatment with moxifloxacin alone every 15 minutes for 1 hour...
December 2016: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932882/sustained-release-liquisolid-compact-tablets-containing-artemether-lumefantrine-as-alternate-day-regimen-for-malaria-treatment-to-improve-patient-compliance
#16
Petra Obioma Nnamani, Agatha Adaora Ugwu, Emmanuel Chinedu Ibezim, Franklin Chimaobi Kenechukwu, Paul Achile Akpa, John-Dike Nwabueze Ogbonna, Nicholas Chinedu Obitte, Amelia Ngozi Odo, Maike Windbergs, Claus-Michael Lehr, Anthony Amaechi Attama
The present study aimed to develop low-dose liquisolid tablets of two antimalarial drugs artemether-lumefantrine (AL) from a nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) of lumefantrine (LUM) and estimate the potential of AL as an oral delivery system in malariogenic Wistar mice. LUM-NLCs were prepared by hot homogenization using Precirol(®) ATO 5/Transcutol(®) HP and tallow fat/Transcutol(®) HP optimized systems containing 3:1 ratios of the lipids, respectively, as the matrices. LUM-NLC characteristics, including morphology, particle size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, yield, pH-dependent stability, and interaction studies, were investigated...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932789/the-maintenance-ability-and-ca-2-availability-of-skeletal-muscle-are-enhanced-by-sildenafil
#17
Mei Huang, Keon Jin Lee, Kyung-Jin Kim, Mi Kyoung Ahn, Chung-Hyun Cho, Do Han Kim, Eun Hui Lee
Sildenafil relaxes vascular smooth muscle cells and is used to treat pulmonary artery hypertension as well as erectile dysfunction. However, the effectiveness of sildenafil on skeletal muscle and the benefit of its clinical use have been controversial, and most studies focus primarily on tissues and organs from disease models without cellular examination. Here, the effects of sildenafil on skeletal muscle at the cellular level were examined using mouse primary skeletal myoblasts (the proliferative form of skeletal muscle stem cells) and myotubes, along with single-cell Ca(2+) imaging experiments and cellular and biochemical studies...
December 9, 2016: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932243/inhibition-of-mtor-eif4e-by-anti-viral-drug-ribavirin-effectively-enhances-the-effects-of-paclitaxel-in-oral-tongue-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#18
Dehua Dai, Hujie Chen, Jing Tang, Yi Tang
Upregulation of eIF4E is associated with poor clinical outcome in many human cancers and represents a potential therapeutic target. However, the function of eIF4E remains unknown in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC). In this work, we show that ribavirin, an anti-viral drug, effectively augments sensitivity of OTSCC cells to paclitaxel via inhibiting mTOR/eIF4E signaling pathway. Ribavirin dose-dependently inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in SCC-9 and CAL27 cells. Combination of ribavirin and paclitaxel are more effectively in inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis in OTSCC cells...
December 5, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932109/risk-evaluation-and-outcome-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-in-kidney-transplant-patients
#19
S Brakemeier, M Dürr, F Bachmann, D Schmidt, J Gaedeke, K Budde
Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) affects immunocompromised patients. As a result of effective prophylaxis in the 1st months after kidney transplantation, PJP is increasingly diagnosed in the long term after transplantation. The present study evaluates course and outcome of PJP in a single transplant center from 2010 to 2015. Twenty-three patients presented with PJP at a mean of 53.7 ± 50.2 months after transplantation. Of these, 3 patients underwent ABO-incompatible (ABO-i) living-donor transplantation and 3 patients were treated with the use of belatacept...
November 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932068/rovalpituzumab-tesirine-a-dll3-targeted-antibody-drug-conjugate-in-recurrent-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-first-in-human-first-in-class-open-label-phase-1-study
#20
Charles M Rudin, M Catherine Pietanza, Todd M Bauer, Neal Ready, Daniel Morgensztern, Bonnie S Glisson, Lauren A Byers, Melissa L Johnson, Howard A Burris, Francisco Robert, Tae H Han, Sheila Bheddah, Noah Theiss, Sky Watson, Deepan Mathur, Bharathi Vennapusa, Hany Zayed, Satwant Lally, Donald K Strickland, Ramaswamy Govindan, Scott J Dylla, Stanford L Peng, David R Spigel
BACKGROUND: Rovalpituzumab tesirine is a first-in-class antibody-drug conjugate directed against delta-like protein 3 (DLL3), a novel target identified in tumour-initiating cells and expressed in more than 80% of patients with small-cell lung cancer. We aimed to assess the safety and activity of rovalpituzumab tesirine in patients who progressed after one or more previous regimen. METHODS: We conducted a phase 1 open-label study at ten cancer centres in the USA...
December 2, 2016: Lancet Oncology
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