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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149302/activity-of-colistin-alone-or-in-combination-with-rifampicin-or-meropenem-in-a-carbapenem-resistant-bioluminescent-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-intraperitoneal-murine-infection-model
#1
Yun Cai, Deqing Yang, Jin Wang, Rui Wang
Background: Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) infections represent a major therapeutic problem and combination therapy may be the chemotherapeutic option. Methods: Bioluminescent CRPA was developed through sequential subcultures in subinhibitory concentrations of meropenem from an engineered strain of bioluminescent PA Xen5. Then CRPA was injected intraperitoneally to establish an intraperitoneal murine infection model. Treatments of colistin alone or combined with rifampicin or meropenem were started 1 h after infection...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149294/pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics-of-systemically-administered-polymyxin-b-against-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-mouse-thigh-and-lung-infection-models
#2
Cornelia B Landersdorfer, Jiping Wang, Veronika Wirth, Ke Chen, Keith S Kaye, Brian T Tsuji, Jian Li, Roger L Nation
Background: The pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationship for polymyxin B against Klebsiella pneumoniae infections is not known. Methods: Dose-fractionation studies with subcutaneous polymyxin B were conducted in neutropenic mice in which infection with three strains of K. pneumoniae had been produced in thighs or lungs. Dosing (thigh infection 0.5-120 mg/kg/day; lung infection 5-120 mg/kg/day) commenced 2 h after inoculation, and bacterial burden was measured 24 h later...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149046/impact-of-a-single-oral-acute-dose-of-aflatoxin-b%C3%A2-on-liver-function-cytokines-and-the-lymphoproliferative-response-in-c57bl-6-mice
#3
Angélica Tieme Ishikawa, Elisa Yoko Hirooka, Paula Leonello Alvares E Silva, Ana Paula Frederico Rodrigues Loureiro Bracarense, Karina Keller Marques da Costa Flaiban, Claudia Yuri Akagi, Osamu Kawamura, Marcio Carvalho da Costa, Eiko Nakagawa Itano
Aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁), a mycotoxin found in food and feed, exerts harmful effects on humans and animals. The liver is the earliest target of AFB₁, and its effects have been evaluated in animal models exposed to acute or chronic doses. Considering the possibility of sporadic ingestion of AFB₁-contaminated food, this study investigated the impact of a single oral dose of AFB₁ on liver function/cytokines and the lymphoproliferative response in mice. C57BL/6 mice were treated with a single oral AFB₁ dose (44, 442 or 663 μg AFB₁/kg of body weight) on the first day...
November 17, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148965/nonclinical-safety-assessment-of-anti-factor-d-key-strategies-and-challenges-for-the-nonclinical-development-of-intravitreal-biologics
#4
Vladimir Bantseev, Rebecca Erickson, Douglas Leipold, Caroline Amaya, Paul E Miller, Helen Booler, Evan A Thackaberry
PURPOSE: The nonclinical toxicology program described here was designed to characterize the safety profile of anti-factor D (AFD; FCFD4514S, lampalizumab) to support intravitreal (ITV) administration in patients with geographic atrophy (GA). METHODS: The toxicity of AFD was assessed in a single-dose and 6-month repeat-dose study in monkeys at doses up to 10 mg/eye. Toxicity was assessed by clinical ophthalmic examinations, intraocular pressure measurements, ocular photography, electroretinography, fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, and anatomic pathology...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148881/ultrarapid-influence-of-buprenorphine-on-major-depression-in-opioid-dependent-patients-a-double-blind-randomized-clinical-trial
#5
Jamshid Ahmadi, Mina Sefidfard Jahromi
OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of different doses of buprenorphine on depression symptoms in opioid dependent inpatient over a three-day interval, using a randomized clinical trial design (RCT). DESIGN: Patients were randomized and assigned to three groups. PARTICIPANTS: Forty males who were admitted to an inpatient psychiatric unit and who fulfilled the DSM-5 criteria for both opioid dependence and major depressive disorder. INTERVENTION: Patients randomly received 32 mg, 64 mg, or 96 mg of buprenorphine as a single high dose...
November 17, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148582/comparative-pharmacokinetics-study-of-orientin-in-rat-plasma-by-uhplc-ms-ms-after-intravenous-administration-of-single-orientin-and-trollius-chinensis-bunge-extract
#6
Nan Zhao, Qi Sun, Yang Song, Lin Wang, Tingjian Zhang, Fanhao Meng
Orientin showed a broad array of biological activities, and it is the major bioactive compound in the Trollius chinensis Bunge. Thus, this paper was conducted to investigate the comparative pharmacokinetics of orientin after intravenous administration of single orientin and Trollius chinensis Bunge extract. Sample preparation involved a simple one-step deproteinization procedure with acetonitrile. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters BEH C18 column with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water containing 0...
November 17, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148129/development-of-functional-electrical-stimulation-rowing-the-rowstim-series
#7
Brian Andrews, Robin Gibbons, Garry Wheeler
Potentially, functional electrical stimulation (FES)-assisted exercise may have an important therapeutic role in reducing comorbidities associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). Here, we present an overview of these secondary life-threatening conditions, discuss the rationale behind the development of a hybrid exercise called FES rowing, and describe our experience in developing FES rowing technology. FES rowing and sculling are unique forms of adaptive rowing for those with SCI. The paralyzed leg musculature is activated by multiple channels of electrical pulses delivered via self-adhesive electrodes attached to the skin...
November 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148050/the-pharmacokinetics-of-morphine-and-codeine-in-human-plasma-and-urine-after-oral-administration-of-qiangli-pipa-syrup
#8
Bin-Bin Guo, Yu-Qiao Zhang, Sheng-Feng Wang, Jin-Song Ding, Wen-Hu Zhou
Papaveris pericarpium, a natural source of morphine and codeine, is the principal active component in many antitussive traditional Chinese medicines. We herein report the first PK study of papaveris pericarpium in human plasma and urine following oral administration of single (15, 30, 60 mL) and multiple dose (15 mL) of Qiangli Pipa Syrup (MOR 0.1 mg/mL, COD 0.028 mg/mL) by monitoring morphine and codeine using a HPLC-MS/MS method. Their Tmax and t1/2 values are independent of dosages, while the AUC0-t linearly increased with higher dosages, indicating linear PK characteristics...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147847/r-hyper-cvad-versus-r-chop-cytarabine-with-high-dose-therapy-and-autologous-haematopoietic-stem-cell-support-in-fit-patients-with-mantle-cell-lymphoma-20%C3%A2-years-of-single-center-experience
#9
Fabienne Widmer, Stefan Balabanov, Davide Soldini, Panagiotis Samaras, Bernhard Gerber, Markus G Manz, Jeroen S Goede
Standard of care for untreated mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is still debated. At the University Hospital Zurich, advanced MCL in physically fit patients is treated either with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone induction followed by consolidating high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell support (R-CHOP/HD-ASCT), or with rituximab plus fractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin and dexamethasone alternating with high-dose methotrexate-cytarabine (R-hyper-CVAD/MTX-AraC) without consolidating HD-ASCT upon physicians' and patients' choice...
November 16, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147840/medulloblastoma-in-adults-a%C3%A2-retrospective-single-institution-analysis
#10
Indrawati Hadi, Olarn Roengvoraphoj, Maximilian Niyazi, Falk Roeder, Ulrich Schüller, Claus Belka, Silke Birgit Nachbichler
PURPOSE: Adult medulloblastoma is a rare disease treated according to the current pediatric treatment guidelines. This retrospective analysis investigated the clinical outcomes and prognostic factors of adult medulloblastoma patients, who received multimodal therapy at our institution. METHODS: Treatment charts of all patients over the age of 15 years of age with de novo medulloblastoma, who had been treated at our institution between 2001 and 2014, were retrospectively analyzed...
November 16, 2017: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147434/acute-radiation-induced-changes-in-sprague-dawley-rat-submandibular-glands-a-histomorphometric-analysis
#11
Manu Krishnan, Aatish Tennavan, Seema Saraswathy, Tarun Sekhri, Ajay Kumar Singh, Velu Nair
Background: Radiation-induced xerostomia is a distressing clinical condition that starts appearing from the initial stages of radiotherapy in head and neck cancer patients. Though submandibular glands contribute to maximum of the "resting salivary" secretions, most of the acute xerostomia experiments so far reported have been on animal parotid glands. Therefore, we assessed and quantified the histologic changes in submandibular glands of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats using histomorphometry, 24 hours after radiation...
April 2017: World Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147135/randomized-clinical-trial-efficacy-and-safety-of-plecanatide-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-idiopathic-constipation
#12
Michael DeMicco, Laura Barrow, Bernadette Hickey, Kunwar Shailubhai, Patrick Griffin
Background: Plecanatide, with the exception of a single amino acid replacement, is identical to human uroguanylin and is approved in the United States for adults with chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC). This double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III study evaluated the efficacy and safety of plecanatide versus placebo in CIC. Methods: Adults meeting modified Rome III CIC criteria were randomized to plecanatide 3 mg (n = 443), 6 mg (n = 449), or placebo (n = 445)...
November 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146761/comparison-among-adjuvant-treatments-for-primary-pterygium-a-network-meta-analysis
#13
Ellen Carrara Fonseca, Eduardo Melani Rocha, Gustavo Viani Arruda
PURPOSE: Pterygium is a frequent ocular disease, where the major challenge is the high level of recurrence after its surgical removal. We performed a network meta-analysis to identify, among several adjuvant treatments for primary pterygium, which is the best to prevent recurrence. METHODS: A search was conducted using PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Latin American and Caribbean Centre on Health Sciences and Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register between 1993 and 2015 for randomisedclinical trials (RCTs) comparing adjuvant treatments following primary pterygium surgery...
November 16, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146737/rheumatic-disorders-associated-with-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-patients-with-cancer-clinical-aspects-and-relationship-with-tumour-response-a-single-centre-prospective-cohort-study
#14
Marie Kostine, Léa Rouxel, Thomas Barnetche, Rémi Veillon, Florent Martin, Caroline Dutriaux, Léa Dousset, Anne Pham-Ledard, Sorilla Prey, Marie Beylot-Barry, Amaury Daste, Marine Gross-Goupil, Julie Lallier, Alain Ravaud, Edouard Forcade, Bernard Bannwarth, Marie-Elise Truchetet, Christophe Richez, Nadia Mehsen, Thierry Schaeverbeke
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence and type of rheumatic immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), as well as the correlation with tumour response. METHODS: This was a single-centre prospective observational study including all cancer patients receiving ICIs. The occurrence of irAEs and tumour response was assessed on a regular basis. Patients who experienced musculoskeletal symptoms were referred to the department of rheumatology for clinical evaluation and management...
November 16, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146718/deep-brain-nuclei-t1-shortening-after-gadobenate-dimeglumine-in-children-influence-of-radiation-and-chemotherapy
#15
S Kinner, T B Schubert, R J Bruce, S L Rebsamen, C A Diamond, S B Reeder, H A Rowley
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intrinsic T1-hyperintense signal has recently been reported in the deep gray nuclei on brain MR imaging after multiple doses of gadolinium-based contrast agents. Most reports have included adult patients and excluded those undergoing radiation or chemotherapy. We investigated whether T1 shortening is also observed in children and tried to determine whether radiochemotherapy is a risk factor for this phenomenon. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this single-center retrospective study, we reviewed clinical charts and images of all patients 18 years of age or younger with ≥4 gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced MRIs for 6 years...
November 16, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146617/cure-in-advanced-renal-cell-cancer-is-it-an-achievable-goal
#16
Dhanusha Sabanathan, John J Park, Manuel Marquez, Louise Francisco, Natalie Byrne, Howard Gurney
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy has historically been of interest in the management of metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) because of its relative chemoresistance and the reproducible but low incidence of spontaneous remission in metastatic disease. Recently, targeted immunotherapies in the form of checkpoint inhibitors have shown durable responses in approximately 20%-30% of patients with solid tumors, with a much more acceptable side-effect profile. Anti-programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1)/programmed death receptor ligand 1 antibodies rely on the presence of host T cells in the tumor microenvironment to be stimulated in order to activate an antitumor response...
November 16, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146527/osthole-attenuates-right-ventricular-remodeling-via-decreased-myocardial-apoptosis-and-inflammation-in-monocrotaline-induced-rats
#17
Yeli Li, Yiqi Li, Fuguo Shi, Lina Wang, Lisheng Li, Danli Yang
Osthole (Ost) is a coumarin that exhibits wide pharmacological effects in the cardiovascular system. However, whether Ost can inhibit apoptosis and inflammation in right ventricle (RV) cardiomyocytes and prevent RV remodeling is not clear. This study was designed to investigate the effect of Ost on RV remodeling and the underlying mechanism. By applying a monocrotaline (MCT)-induced rat model, the effect of Ost on RV remodeling was investigated. Rats were given a single dose of MCT (50mg⁄kg) subcutaneously (s...
November 13, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146246/nanoparticle-formulation-improves-doxorubicin-efficacy-by-enhancing-host-antitumor-immunity
#18
Eric M Mastria, Leon Y Cai, Matthew J Kan, Xinghai Li, Jeffrey L Schaal, Steven Fiering, Michael D Gunn, Mark W Dewhirst, Smita K Nair, Ashutosh Chilkoti
Strategies that enhance the host antitumor immune response promise to revolutionize cancer therapy. Optimally mobilizing the immune system will likely require a multi-pronged approach to overcome the resistance developed by tumors to therapy. Recently, it has become recognized that doxorubicin can contribute to re-establishing host antitumor immunity through the generation of immunogenic cell death. However, the potential for delivery strategies to further enhance the immunological effects of doxorubicin has not been adequately examined...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146157/angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-activation-ameliorates-pulmonary-endothelial-dysfunction-in-rats-with-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-through-mediating-phosphorylation-of-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase
#19
Gang Li, Han Zhang, Lei Zhao, Yaozhong Zhang, Daole Yan, Yinglong Liu
This study aims to investigate the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) activation on pulmonary endothelial function in the process of preventing pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in rat models and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Specific pathogen free rats were randomly divided into five groups including control group, PAH group, PAH + Resorcinolnaphthalein (Res) group (ACE2 activation), PAH + Res + MLN4760 group (ACE2 inhibition), and PAH + Res + L-NAME group (endothelial nitric oxide synthase [eNOS] inhibition)...
October 28, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146124/relationship-of-c-reactive-protein-reduction-to-cardiovascular-event-reduction-following-treatment-with-canakinumab-a-secondary-analysis-from-the-cantos-randomised-controlled-trial
#20
Paul M Ridker, Jean G MacFadyen, Brendan M Everett, Peter Libby, Tom Thuren, Robert J Glynn
BACKGROUND: Canakinumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting interleukin-1β, reduces inflammation and cardiovascular event rates with no effect on lipid concentrations. However, it is uncertain which patient groups benefit the most from treatment and whether reductions in the inflammatory biomarker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) correlate with clinical benefits for individual patients. METHODS: The Canakinumab Anti-Inflammatory Thrombosis Outcomes Study (CANTOS) used computer-generated codes to randomly allocate 10 061 men and women with a history of myocardial infarction to placebo or one of three doses of canakinumab (50 mg, 150 mg, or 300 mg) given subcutaneously once every 3 months...
November 13, 2017: Lancet
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