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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091579/impact-of-age-and-vaccination-history-on-long-term-serological-responses-after-symptomatic-b-pertussis-infection-a-high-dimensional-data-analysis
#1
Inonge van Twillert, Axel A Bonačić Marinović, Betsy Kuipers, Jacqueline A M van Gaans-van den Brink, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Cécile A C M van Els
Capturing the complexity and waning patterns of co-occurring immunoglobulin (Ig) responses after clinical B. pertussis infection may help understand how the human host gradually loses protection against whooping cough. We applied bi-exponential modelling to characterise and compare B. pertussis specific serological dynamics in a comprehensive database of IgG, IgG subclass and IgA responses to Ptx, FHA, Prn, Fim2/3 and OMV antigens of (ex-) symptomatic pertussis cases across all age groups. The decay model revealed that antigen type and age group were major factors determining differences in levels and kinetics of Ig (sub) classes...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090683/similar-but-not-consistent-revisiting-the-pitfalls-of-measuring-igg-subclasses-with-different-assays
#2
Beatrice Ludwig-Kraus, Frank Bernhard Kraus
BACKGROUND: Laboratory quantification of IgG subclasses (IgGSc) is a well-established second-line tool for differential diagnosis of immune deficiencies. However, so far there is still no internationally approved standard available for IgGSc, and different assays are prone to produce divergent results. In this study, we evaluated the comparability and equivalence of two commercially available IgGSc assays, one being the Siemens IgGSc assay on a BN ProSpec analyzer and the other being The Binding Site (TBS) IgGSc assay on a Roche cobas c502 analyzer...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078662/low-immunoglobulin-e-flags-two-distinct-types-of-immune-dysregulation
#3
M Elkuch, V Greiff, C T Berger, M Bouchenaki, T Daikeler, A Bircher, A A Navarini, I Heijnen, M Recher
During the last two decades, hyper-immunoglobulin (Ig)E syndromes have been characterized clinically and molecularly in patients with genetically determined primary immunodeficiencies. However, the detection of low IgE levels, defined here as below detection limit in the routine clinical immunology laboratory, has received little attention. We analysed the association of serum IgA, IgM and IgG levels (including IgG subclasses) with low, normal or high serum IgE levels in patients evaluated in a single-centre out-patient immunodeficiency and allergy clinic...
January 11, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076511/passive-acquisition-of-anti-staphylococcus-aureus-antibodies-by-newborns-via-transplacental-transfer-and-breastfeeding-regardless-of-maternal-colonization
#4
Maria Isabel Valdomir Nadaf, Laila Lima, Inês Stranieri, Olga Akiko Takano, Magda Carneiro-Sampaio, Patricia Palmeira
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the transmission of anti-Staphylococcus aureus (Sa) IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 via placental transfer and the transfer of IgA via the colostrum according to maternal Sa carrier status at delivery. METHODS: We evaluated anti-Sa IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 in maternal and cord sera and IgA in colostrum from a case (n=49, Sa+) and a control group (n=98, Sa-). RESULTS: Of the 250 parturients analyzed for this study, 49 were nasally colonized with S...
December 1, 2016: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075502/antibody-and-cytokine-levels-in-humans-fed-on-by-the-common-bed-bug-cimex-lectularius-l
#5
Johnathan M Sheele, Gale E Ridge, Katirina Coppolino, Tracey Bonfield, Andrew B Young, Stephanie L Gaines, Thomas S McCormick
Little is known about cimicosis, the resultant dermal reaction from feeding activity by the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. We fed C. lectularius on human study subjects four times over four weeks, measured serum cytokine and antibody levels, and subjects recorded any cimicosis. The average time for subjects to develop cimicosis decreased with each feeding from 8.4, to 2.1, 1.5, and 1.3 days, respectively. There were no significant changes in total IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgG4, or IgE levels between the first and fourth bed bug feedings, but there was a significant decrease in total IgG3 levels (p < 0...
January 11, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061786/attenuated-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae-double-deletion-mutant-s-8%C3%A2-clpp-apxiic-confers-protection-against-homologous-or-heterologous-strain-challenge
#6
Fang Xie, Gang Li, Long Zhou, Yanhe Zhang, Ning Cui, Siguo Liu, Chunlai Wang
BACKGROUND: Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiological agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, which leads to large economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. In this study, S-8△clpP△apxIIC, a double-deletion mutant of A. pleuropneumoniae was constructed, and its safety and protective efficacy were evaluated in pigs. RESULTS: The S-8△clpP△apxIIC mutant exhibited attenuated virulence in a murine (BALB/c) model, and caused no detrimental effects on pigs even at a dose of up to 1...
January 6, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018355/biophysical-and-functional-characterization-of-rhesus-macaque-igg-subclasses
#7
Austin W Boesch, Nana Yaw Osei-Owusu, Andrew R Crowley, Thach H Chu, Ying N Chan, Joshua A Weiner, Pranay Bharadwaj, Rufus Hards, Mark E Adamo, Scott A Gerber, Sarah L Cocklin, Joern E Schmitz, Adam R Miles, Joshua W Eckman, Aaron J Belli, Keith A Reimann, Margaret E Ackerman
Antibodies raised in Indian rhesus macaques [Macaca mulatta (MM)] in many preclinical vaccine studies are often evaluated in vitro for titer, antigen-recognition breadth, neutralization potency, and/or effector function, and in vivo for potential associations with protection. However, despite reliance on this key animal model in translation of promising candidate vaccines for evaluation in first in man studies, little is known about the properties of MM immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses and how they may compare to human IgG subclasses...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017425/vaccination-of-rhesus-macaques-with-the-live-attenuated-hsv-1-vaccine-vc2-stimulates-the-proliferation-of-mucosal-t-cells-and-germinal-center-responses-resulting-in-sustained-production-of-highly-neutralizing-antibodies
#8
Brent A Stanfield, Bapi Pahar, Vladimir N Chouljenko, Ronald Veazey, Konstantin G Kousoulas
We have shown that the live-attenuated HSV-1 VC2 vaccine strain with mutations in glycoprotein K (gK) and the membrane protein UL20 is unable to establish latency in vaccinated animals and produces a robust immune response capable of completely protecting mice against lethal vaginal HSV-1 or HSV-2 infections. To better understand the immune response generated by vaccination with VC2, we tested its ability to elicit immune responses in rhesus macaques. Vaccinated animals showed no signs of disease and developed increasing HSV-1 and HSV-2 reactive IgG1 after two booster vaccinations, while IgG subtypes IgG2 and IgG3 remained at low to undetectable levels...
December 22, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006952/comparison-of-antibody-responses-induced-by-rv144-vax003-and-vax004-vaccination-regimens
#9
Chitraporn Karnasuta, Siriwat Akapirat, Sirinan Madnote, Hathairat Savadsuk, Jiraporn Puangkaew, Surawach Rittiroongrad, Supachai Rerks-Ngarm, Sorachai Nitayaphan, Punnee Pitisuttithum, Jaranit Kaewkungwal, Jim Tartaglia, Faruk Sinangil, Donald P Francis, Merlin Robb, Mark de Souza, Nelson L Michael, Jean-Louis Excler, Jerome H Kim, Robert J O'Connell, Nicos Karasavvas
The RV144 prime-boost regimen demonstrated efficacy against HIV acquisition while VAX003 and VAX004 did not. Although these trials differed by risk groups, immunization regimens and immunogens, antibody responses may have contributed to the differences observed in vaccine efficacy. We assessed HIV-specific IgG, both total and subclass, and IgA binding to HIV envelope (Env): gp120 proteins and CycV2 and CycV3 peptides and gp70V1V2 scaffolds in these 3 HIV vaccine trials. After two protein immunizations, IgG responses to 92TH023 gp120 (contained in ALVAC-HIV vaccine) were significantly higher in RV144 but responses to other Env were higher in the VAX trials lacking ALVAC-HIV...
December 22, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004336/quantification-of-the-igg2-4-kappa-monoclonal-therapeutic-eculizumab-from-serum-using-isotype-specific-affinity-purification-and-microflow-lc-esi-q-tof-mass-spectrometry
#10
Paula M Ladwig, David R Barnidge, Maria A V Willrich
As therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) become more humanized, traditional tryptic peptide approaches used to measure biologics in serum become more challenging since unique clonotypic peptides used for quantifying the mAb may also be found in the normal serum polyclonal background. An alternative approach is to monitor the unique molecular mass of the intact light chain portion of the mAbs using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Distinguishing a therapeutic mAb from a patient's normal polyclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) repertoire is the primary limiting factor when determining the limit of quantitation (LOQ) in serum...
December 21, 2016: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994063/biological-characterization-of-a-stable-effector-functionless-sefl-monoclonal-antibody-scaffold-in-vitro
#11
Ling Liu, Frederick W Jacobsen, Nancy Everds, Yao Zhuang, Yan Bin Yu, Nianyu Li, Darcey Clark, Mai Phuong Nguyen, Madeline Fort, Padma Narayanan, Kei Kim, Riki Stevenson, Linda Narhi, Kannan Gunasekaran, Jeanine L Bussiere
The Stable Effector FunctionLess (SEFL) antibody was designed as an IgG1 antibody with a constant region that lacks the ability to interact with Fcγ receptors. The engineering and stability and pharmacokinetic assessments of the SEFL scaffold is described in the accompanying article titled "Engineering an IgG Scaffold Lacking Effector Function with Optimized Developability" by Jacobsen et al. The biological properties of these SEFL antibodies were assessed in a variety of human and cynomolgus monkey in vitro assays...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994062/engineering-an-igg-scaffold-lacking-effector-function-with-optimized-developability
#12
Frederick W Jacobsen, Riki Stevenson, Cynthia Li, Hossein Salimi-Moosavi, Ling Liu, Jie Wen, Quanzhou Luo, Kristine Daris, Lynette Buck, Sterling Miller, Shu-Yin Ho, Wei Wang, Qing Chen, Kenneth Walker, Jette Wypych, Linda Narhi, Kannan Gunasekaran
IgG isotypes can differentially bind to Fcγ receptors and complement, making the selection of which isotype to pursue for development of a particular therapeutic antibody important in determining the safety and efficacy of the drug. IgG2 and IgG4 isotypes have significantly lower binding affinity to Fcγ receptors. Recent evidence suggests that the IgG2 isotype is not completely devoid of effector function, while the IgG4 isotype can undergo in vivo Fab arm exchange leading to bispecific antibody and off-target effects...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993495/myocarditis-in-different-experimental-models-infected-by-trypanosoma-cruzi-is-correlated-with-the-production-of-igg1-isotype
#13
Ivo Santana Caldas, Livia de Figueiredo Diniz, Paulo Marcos da Matta Guedes, Álvaro Fernando da Silva do Nascimento, Lúcia Maria da Cunha Galvão, Wanderson Geraldo de Lima, Sérgio Caldas, Maria Terezinha Bahia
This study was designed to verify the relationship between IgG antibodies isotypes and myocarditis in Trypanosoma cruzi infection using mice and dogs infected with different T. cruzi strains. The animals were infected with benznidazole-susceptible Berenice-78 and benznidazole-resistant AAS and VL-10 strains. The IgG subtypes were measured in serum samples from dogs (IgG, IgG1, and IgG2) and mice (IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b). The infection of dogs with VL-10 strain induced the highest levels of heart inflammation while intermediate and lower levels were detected with Berenice-78 and AAS strains, respectively...
December 16, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982442/assessment-of-disulfide-and-hinge-modifications-of-monoclonal-antibodies
#14
REVIEW
Bernd Moritz, Jan Olaf Stracke
During the last years there was a substantial increase in the use of antibodies and related proteins as therapeutics. The emphasis of the pharmaceutical industry is on IgG1, IgG2 and IgG4 antibodies which are therefore in the focus of this article. In order to ensure appropriate quality control of such biopharmaceuticals, deep understanding of their chemical degradation pathways and the resulting impact on potency, pharmacokinetics and safety is required. Criticality of modifications may be specific for individual antibodies and has to be assessed for each molecule...
December 16, 2016: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980506/atomistic-modelling-of-scattering-data-in-the-collaborative-computational-project-for-small-angle-scattering-ccp-sas
#15
Stephen J Perkins, David W Wright, Hailiang Zhang, Emre H Brookes, Jianhan Chen, Thomas C Irving, Susan Krueger, David J Barlow, Karen J Edler, David J Scott, Nicholas J Terrill, Stephen M King, Paul D Butler, Joseph E Curtis
The capabilities of current computer simulations provide a unique opportunity to model small-angle scattering (SAS) data at the atomistic level, and to include other structural constraints ranging from molecular and atomistic energetics to crystallography, electron microscopy and NMR. This extends the capabilities of solution scattering and provides deeper insights into the physics and chemistry of the systems studied. Realizing this potential, however, requires integrating the experimental data with a new generation of modelling software...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Crystallography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974625/kinetic-modeling-of-the-release-of-ethylene-oxide-from-sterilized-plastic-containers-and-its-interaction-with-monoclonal-antibodies
#16
Bryan Lei Yu, Jun Han, Matthew Hammond, Xuemei Wang, Qingchun Zhang, Andrew Clausen, Ronald Forster, Mingda Eu
Ethylene oxide (ETO) is commonly used to sterilize plastic containers, but the effects of residual amounts left after sterilization on protein therapeutics are still not well understood. Here we focus primarily on the factors that influence concentrations of ETO migrating from ETO-treated plastic containers. A study was designed to investigate the kinetics of this process at various temperatures, and the kinetic data could be fit with a model based on a combination of Fickean diffusion and first order chemical reaction (to account for observed hydrolysis of ETO)...
December 14, 2016: PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933180/serum-levels-of-immunoglobulins-and-severity-of-community-acquired-pneumonia
#17
Mari C de la Torre, Pere Torán, Mateu Serra-Prat, Elisabet Palomera, Estel Güell, Ester Vendrell, Joan Carles Yébenes, Antoni Torres, Jordi Almirall
INSTRUCTION: There is evidence of a relationship between severity of infection and inflammatory response of the immune system. The objective is to assess serum levels of immunoglobulins and to establish its relationship with severity of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and clinical outcome. METHODS: This was an observational and cross-sectional study in which 3 groups of patients diagnosed with CAP were compared: patients treated in the outpatient setting (n=54), patients requiring in-patient care (hospital ward) (n=173), and patients requiring admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) (n=191)...
2016: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929752/efficient-production-of-bispecific-igg-of-different-isotypes-and-species-of-origin-in-single-mammalian-cells
#18
Michael Dillon, Yiyuan Yin, Jianhui Zhou, Luke McCarty, Diego Ellerman, Dionysos Slaga, Teemu T Junttila, Guanghui Han, Wendy Sandoval, Meric A Ovacik, Kedan Lin, Zhilan Hu, Amy Shen, Jacob E Corn, Christoph Spiess, Paul J Carter
Bispecific IgG production in single host cells has been a much sought-after goal to support the clinical development of these complex molecules. Current routes to single cell production of bispecific IgG include engineering heavy chains for heterodimerization and redesign of Fab arms for selective pairing of cognate heavy and light chains. Here, we describe novel designs to facilitate selective Fab arm assembly in conjunction with previously described knobs-into-holes mutations for preferential heavy chain heterodimerization...
December 8, 2016: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923052/filariae-retrovirus-co-infection-in-mice-is-associated-with-suppressed-virus-specific-igg-immune-response-and-higher-viral-loads
#19
Kirsten Katrin Dietze, Ulf Dittmer, Daniel Karim Koudaimi, Simone Schimmer, Martina Reitz, Minka Breloer, Wiebke Hartmann
Worldwide more than 2 billion people are infected with helminths, predominantly in developing countries. Co-infections with viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are common due to the geographical overlap of these pathogens. Helminth and viral infections induce antagonistic cytokine responses in their hosts. Helminths shift the immune system to a type 2-dominated immune response, while viral infections skew the cytokine response towards a type 1 immune response. Moreover, chronic helminth infections are often associated with a generalized suppression of the immune system leading to prolonged parasite survival, and also to a reduced defence against unrelated pathogens...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916388/application-of-dual-protease-column-for-hdx-ms-analysis-of-monoclonal-antibodies
#20
Sasidhar N Nirudodhi, Justin B Sperry, Jason C Rouse, James A Carroll
A co-immobilized, dual protease column was developed and implemented to more efficiently digest IgG molecules for hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS). The low-pH proteolytic enzymes pepsin and type XIII protease from Aspergillus were packed into a single column to most effectively combine the complementary specificities. The method was optimized using an IgG2 monoclonal antibody as a substrate because they are known to be more difficult to efficiently digest. The general applicability of the method was then demonstrated using IgG1 and IgG4 mAbs...
February 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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