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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895901/prevention-of-hospital-acquired-pneumonia-in-non-ventilated-adult-patients-a-narrative-review
#1
REVIEW
Leonor Pássaro, Stephan Harbarth, Caroline Landelle
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is one of the leading hospital-acquired infections worldwide and has an important impact. Although preventive measures for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are well known, less is known about appropriate measures for prevention of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP). AIM: The purpose of this narrative review is to provide an overview of the current standards for preventing HAP in non-ventilated adult patients. METHODS: A search of the literature up to May 2015 was conducted using Medline for guidelines published by national professional societies or professional medical associations...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890714/a-randomized-trial-of-the-amikacin-fosfomycin-inhalation-system-for-the-adjunctive-therapy-of-gram-negative-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-iasis-trial
#2
Marin H Kollef, Jean-Damien Ricard, Damien Roux, Bruno Francois, Eleni Ischaki, Zsolt Rozgonyi, Thierry Boulain, Zsolt Ivanyi, Gál János, Denis Garot, Firas Koura, Epaminondas Zakynthinos, George Dimopoulos, Antonio Torres, Wayne Danker, A Bruce Montgomery
BACKGROUND: Clinical failures in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by Gram-negative bacteria are common and associated with substantial morbidity, mortality, and resource utilization. METHODS: We assessed the safety and efficacy of the amikacin fosfomycin inhalation system (AFIS) for the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial VAP in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group, phase 2 study between May 2013 and March 2016. We compared standard of care in each arm plus 300 mg amikacin/120 mg fosfomycin or placebo (saline), delivered by aerosol twice daily for 10 days (or to extubation if <10 days) via the investigational eFlow Inline System (PARI GmbH, Germany)...
November 24, 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850355/717-ultrashort-course-antibiotics-for-suspected-vap-with-minimal-and-stable-ventilator-settings
#3
Michael Klompas, Lingling Li, John Menchaca, Susan Gruber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790437/ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-an-infant-caused-by-stenotrophomonas-maltophila-a-case-report
#4
Neelima Angaali, Nina Dutta Roy, Sudharshan Raj Chitgupikar, Preeti Subramanian, Jaya Lakshmi Pabbati
Stenotrophomonas maltophila (S.maltophila) is an aerobic Gram-negative bacillus that is a frequent colonizer of fluids used in the hospital setting. The organism is known to cause life threatening infections in immuno-compromised patients especially in those who are neutropenic, on chemotherapy or on broad spectrum antibiotics. We report a case of ventilator associated pneumonia caused by Stenotrophomonas maltophila in a two-month old infant who later developed multi organ dysfunction syndrome. In seriously ill paediatric patients, S...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782809/clinical-and-molecular-characteristics-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-mainland-china
#5
Si Guo, JingJing Xu, YanShuan Wei, JunHong Xu, Yi Li, Rui Xue
BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a prominent nosocomial pathogen that accounts for up to 10 % of all hospital-acquired infections. It is a frequent cause of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of K. pneumoniae-associated VAP and the molecular characteristics of K. pneumoniae strains. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 70 mechanically ventilated patients with K. pneumoniae isolated...
October 26, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778318/oral-hygiene-care-for-critically-ill-patients-to-prevent-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#6
REVIEW
Fang Hua, Huixu Xie, Helen V Worthington, Susan Furness, Qi Zhang, Chunjie Li
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is defined as pneumonia developing in people who have received mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours. VAP is a potentially serious complication in these patients who are already critically ill. Oral hygiene care (OHC), using either a mouthrinse, gel, toothbrush, or combination, together with aspiration of secretions, may reduce the risk of VAP in these patients. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of oral hygiene care on incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation in hospital intensive care units (ICUs)...
October 25, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771978/challenges-and-opportunities-in-the-treatment-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#7
Matthew P Schreiber, Andrew F Shorr
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a distinct clinical entity characterized by an onset after 48 hours of the application of mechanical ventilation (MV). Protocols exist to aid in the prevention of VAP, but this infection carries a devastating impact on patient morbidity and potentially mortality. Areas covered: In this review we present key concepts from existing guidelines to aid clinicians. Challenges remain in defining this disease and, most importantly appropriate empiric antimicrobial treatment is the main determinant of outcome...
October 24, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763732/antibiotics-for-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#8
REVIEW
Lauren E Arthur, Russell S Kizor, Adrian G Selim, Mieke L van Driel, Leonardo Seoane
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, complicating the medical course of approximately 10% of mechanically-ventilated patients, with an estimated attributable mortality of 13%. To treat VAP empirically, the American Thoracic Society currently recommends antibiotic therapy based on the patients' risk of colonisation by an organism with multidrug resistance. The selection of initial antibiotic therapy in VAP is important, as inappropriate initial antimicrobial treatment is associated with higher mortality and longer hospital stay in intensive care unit (ICU) patients...
October 20, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729350/prevalence-of-gram-negative-bacteria-in-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-neonatal-intensive-care-units-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-protocol
#9
Yousef Erfani, Arezoo Rasti, Leila Janani
INTRODUCTION: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common and potentially lethal problem among mechanically ventilated neonates in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The main pathogenic bacteria of VAP in NICUs are Gram-negative pathogens, which show a general decline in sensitivities to commonly used antibiotics, but their true prevalence is not known. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We aim to provide a systematic review of studies measuring the prevalence of Gram-negative bacteria in VAP in NICUs...
October 11, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714594/rapid-diagnostic-test-and-use-of-antibiotic-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-adult-intensive-care-unit
#10
A-F Dureau, G Duclos, F Antonini, D Boumaza, N Cassir, J Alingrin, C Vigne, E Hammad, L Zieleskiewicz, M Leone
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is associated with excess mortality and costs. Molecular biology test allows rapid identification of MRSA in sputum with high negative predictive value. We hypothesized that use of a rapid diagnostic test in patients with suspected VAP was associated with reduced use of antibiotics directed against MRSA. This retrospective, observational study was conducted in a polyvalent intensive care unit (ICU) of a university hospital...
October 7, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680980/pre-emptive-antibiotic-therapy-to-reduce-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-thinking-outside-the-box
#11
Donald E Craven, Jana Hudcova, Yuxiu Lei, Kathleen A Craven, Ahsan Waqas
Mechanically ventilated, intubated patients are at increased risk for tracheal colonization with bacterial pathogens that may progress to heavy bacterial colonization, ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT), and/or ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Previous studies report that 10 to 30 % of patients with VAT progress to VAP, resulting in increased morbidity and significant acute and chronic healthcare costs. Several natural history studies, randomized, controlled trials, and a meta-analysis have reported antibiotic treatment for VAT can reduce VAP, ventilator days, length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and patient morbidity and mortality...
September 29, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642332/annual-antibiotic-related-economic-burden-of-healthcare-associated-infections-a-cross-sectional-population-based-study
#12
Maryam Karkhane, Mohamad Amin Pourhosiengholi, Mohammad Reza Akbariyan Torkabad, Zahra Kimiia, Seyed Mehdi Mortazavi, Seyed Karim Hossieni Aghdam, Abdolrazagh Marzban, Mohammad Reza Zali
So far, too little attention has been paid to total burden of healthcare associated infections (HAIs) in Iran. In the present study, we aimed to assess the rate of HAIs, as well as economic burden of hospitalization and antibiotic related cost associated with HAIs in ICU at training Taleghani hospital in Iran and to compare our results with national nosocomial infections surveillance (NNIS) system. This research to date for the first time has tended to focus on the economic burden of HAIs rather than epidemiology of HAIs evaluation...
2016: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588017/is-helics-the-right-way-lack-of-chest-radiography-limits-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-surveillance-in-wales
#13
Richard Pugh, Wendy Harrison, Susan Harris, Hywel Roberts, Gareth Scholey, Tamas Szakmany
INTRODUCTION: The reported incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in Wales is low compared with surveillance data from other European regions. It is unclear whether this reflects success of the Welsh healthcare-associated infection prevention measures or limitations in the application of European VAP surveillance methods. Our primary aim was to investigate episodes of ventilator-associated respiratory tract infection (VARTI), to identify episodes that met established criteria for VAP, and to explore reasons why others did not, according to the Hospitals in Europe Link for Infection Control through Surveillance (HELICS) definitions...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542315/clinical-epidemiology-treatment-and-prognostic-factors-of-extensively-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-critically-ill-patients
#14
Constantinos Tsioutis, Evangelos I Kritsotakis, Spyridon A Karageorgos, Soultana Stratakou, Charalambos Psarologakis, Sofia Kokkini, Achilleas Gikas
Limited data exist regarding prognostic factors and optimal antimicrobial treatment of infections caused by extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDR-AB). This retrospective cohort study included 93 adult patients who developed ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to XDR-AB in the ICU of the University Hospital of Heraklion, Greece, from October 2012 to April 2015. XDR-AB isolates were mainly susceptible to colistin (93.5%) and tigecycline (25.8%), whereas 6 (6.5%) were pandrug-resistant...
August 12, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525016/antibiotic-utilization-patterns-in-patients-with-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-a-canadian-context
#15
Tracy Chin, Barry Kushner, Deonne Dersch-Mills, Danny J Zuege
This retrospective cohort study describes the patterns of antibiotic use for the treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in the Calgary Zone of Alberta Health Services. Timing, appropriateness, and duration of antibiotics were evaluated in two hundred consecutive cases of VAP derived from 4 adult intensive care units (ICU). Antibiotic therapy was initiated in less than 24 hours from VAP diagnosis in 83% of cases. Although most patients (89%) received empiric therapy that demonstrated in vitro sensitivity to the identified pathogens, only 24% of cases were congruent with the 2008 Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease (AMMI) guidelines...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473893/ventilator-associated-pneumonia-the-influence-of-bacterial-resistance-prescription-errors-and-de-escalation-of-antimicrobial-therapy-on-mortality-rates
#16
Ana Carolina Souza-Oliveira, Thúlio Marquez Cunha, Liliane Barbosa da Silva Passos, Gustavo Camargo Lopes, Fabiola Alves Gomes, Denise Von Dolinger de Brito Röder
UNLABELLED: Ventilator-associated pneumonia is the most prevalent nosocomial infection in intensive care units and is associated with high mortality rates (14-70%). AIM: This study evaluated factors influencing mortality of patients with Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), including bacterial resistance, prescription errors, and de-escalation of antibiotic therapy. METHODS: This retrospective study included 120 cases of Ventilator-associated pneumonia admitted to the adult adult intensive care unit of the Federal University of Uberlândia...
September 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27422026/effectiveness-of-biomarker-based-exclusion-of-ventilator-acquired-pneumonia-to-reduce-antibiotic-use-vaprapid-2-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#17
Thomas P Hellyer, Niall H Anderson, Jennie Parker, Paul Dark, Tina Van Den Broeck, Suveer Singh, Ronan McMullan, Ashley M Agus, Lydia M Emerson, Bronagh Blackwood, Savita Gossain, Tim S Walsh, Gavin D Perkins, Andrew Conway Morris, Daniel F McAuley, A John Simpson
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-acquired pneumonia (VAP) is a common reason for antimicrobial therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU). Biomarker-based diagnostics could improve antimicrobial stewardship through rapid exclusion of VAP. Bronchoalveloar lavage (BAL) fluid biomarkers have previously been shown to allow the exclusion of VAP with high confidence. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a prospective, multi-centre, randomised, controlled trial to determine whether a rapid biomarker-based exclusion of VAP results in fewer antibiotics and improved antimicrobial management...
2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27404367/molecular-quantification-of-bacteria-from-respiratory-samples-in-patients-with-suspected-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#18
Marc Clavel, Olivier Barraud, Virginie Moucadel, Faustine Meynier, Elias Karam, Marie-Cécile Ploy, Bruno François
OBJECTIVES: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common infection in critically ill patients. Initial antibiotic therapy is often broad spectrum which promotes antibiotic resistance. New techniques are thus experimented to obtain early microbiological identification and quantification. This trial aimed at comparing the performance of a new real-time quantitative molecular-based method with conventional culture in patients with a VAP suspicion. METHODS: Patients with suspected VAP and ventilated for at least 48 hours were eligible...
July 9, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27367002/device-associated-infections-in-the-pediatric-intensive-care-unit-at-the-american-university-of-beirut-medical-center
#19
Ali Ismail, Abdul-Karim El-Hage-Sleiman, Marianne Majdalani, Rima Hanna-Wakim, Souha Kanj, Rana Sharara-Chami
INTRODUCTION: Device-associated healthcare-associated infections (DA-HAIs) are the principal threat to patient safety in intensive care units (ICUs).  The primary objective of this study was to identify the most common DA-HAIs in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) at the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC). Length of stay (LOS) and mortality, antimicrobial resistance patterns, and suitability of empiric antibiotic choices for DA-HAIs according to the local resistance patterns were also studied...
2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347712/emerging-drugs-for-nosocomial-pneumonia
#20
Adamantia Liapikou, Antoni Torres
INTRODUCTION: Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is one of the leading nosocomial infections worldwide and is associated with an elevated morbidity and mortality and increased hospital costs. Nevertheless, prompt and adequate antimicrobial treatment is mandatory following VAP development, especially in the face of multidrug resistant pathogens. AREAS COVERED: We searched Pubmed and ClinicalTrials.gov site reports in English language of phase III clinical trials, between 2000-2016 referring to the antibiotic treatment of nosocomial pneumonia...
September 2016: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
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