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Selection process holistic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916329/ecological-extension-of-the-theory-of-evolution-by-natural-selection-from-a-perspective-of-western-and-eastern-holistic-philosophy
#1
REVIEW
Toshiyuki Nakajima
Evolution by natural selection requires the following conditions: (1) a particular selective environment, (2) variation of traits in the population; (3) differential survival/reproduction among types of organisms; and (4) heritable traits. However, the traditional (standard) model does not unclearly explain how and why these conditions are generated or determined. What generates a selective environment? What generates new types? How does a certain type replace, or coexist, with others? In this paper, based on the holistic philosophy in Western and Eastern traditions, I focus on the ecosystem as a higher-level system and generator of conditions that induce the evolution of local populations; I also aim to identify the ecosystem processes that generate those conditions...
September 12, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899763/provoking-an-end-to-end-continuous-direct-compression-line-with-raw-materials-prone-to-segregation
#2
Satu Lakio, Tuomas Ervasti, Pirjo Tajarobi, Håkan Wikström, Magnus Fransson, Anssi-Pekka Karttunen, Jarkko Ketolainen, Staffan Folestad, Susanna Abrahmsén-Alami, Ossi Korhonen
Continuous manufacturing of solid oral dosage forms is promising for increasing the efficiency and quality of pharmaceutical production and products. In this study a whole train continuous direct compression (CDC) line has been provoked using challenging formulations typically prone to segregation in batch powder processing. Industrial compositions including components with variable size, bulk density and cohesive nature were selected. An experimental design, including variables such as API/mannitol particle size, API amount, powder feed rate and mixer speed, enabled the output quality of the provoked process to be assessed...
September 9, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870009/comprehensive-analysis-of-proteomic-differences-between-escherichia-coli-k-12-and-b-strains-using-multiplexed-isobaric-tandem-mass-tag-tmt-labeling
#3
Mee-Jung Han
The Escherichia coli K-12 and B strains are among the most frequently used bacterial hosts for scientific research and biotechnological applications. However, omics analyses have revealed that E. coli K-12 and B exhibit notably different genotypic and phenotypic attributes, even though they were derived from the same ancestor. In a previous study, we identified a limited number of proteins from the two strains using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). In this study, an in-depth analysis of the physiological behavior of the E...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866575/treepod-sensitivity-aware-selection-of-pareto-optimal-decision-trees
#4
Thomas Muhlbacher, Lorenz Linhardt, Torsten Moller, Harald Piringer
Balancing accuracy gains with other objectives such as interpretability is a key challenge when building decision trees. However, this process is difficult to automate because it involves know-how about the domain as well as the purpose of the model. This paper presents TreePOD, a new approach for sensitivity-aware model selection along trade-offs. TreePOD is based on exploring a large set of candidate trees generated by sampling the parameters of tree construction algorithms. Based on this set, visualizations of quantitative and qualitative tree aspects provide a comprehensive overview of possible tree characteristics...
August 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859556/the-perceptions-of-first-nation-participants-in-a-community-oral-health-initiative
#5
Kavita R Mathu-Muju, James McLeod, Leeann Donnelly, Rosamund Harrison, Michael I MacEntee
The Children's Oral Health Initiative (COHI) is a federally funded community-based preventive dental program for children and their caregivers living in geographically isolated Canadian Aboriginal communities. The goal of the program is to improve access to preventive dental services for children of 0-7 years of age. It utilises community health workers in collaboration with dental therapists to promote and deliver the program. Almost half of the province of Manitoba's (n=27) First Nations communities have implemented COHI since 2005...
2017: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858144/exploring-an-unknown-territory-sleeping-beauties-in-the-nursing-research-literature
#6
Peter Kokol, Helena Blažun Vošner, Joeri Vermeulen
BACKGROUND: Sleeping Beauties (SBs) are publications that are scarcely cited in the years immediately following publication but then suddenly become highly cited later. Such publications have unique citation patterns and can reveal important developments in the field in which they appear. OBJECTIVES: No holistic analysis of nursing SBs has been done yet. The aim of this study was to identify and analyze the SB phenomenon in the nursing research literature. METHOD: The corpus for the nursing SB identification was harvested from the Web of Science Core Collection (Thomas Reuters) for the period 1934-2015...
September 2017: Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742816/a-mixture-of-sparse-coding-models-explaining-properties-of-face-neurons-related-to-holistic-and-parts-based-processing
#7
Haruo Hosoya, Aapo Hyvärinen
Experimental studies have revealed evidence of both parts-based and holistic representations of objects and faces in the primate visual system. However, it is still a mystery how such seemingly contradictory types of processing can coexist within a single system. Here, we propose a novel theory called mixture of sparse coding models, inspired by the formation of category-specific subregions in the inferotemporal (IT) cortex. We developed a hierarchical network that constructed a mixture of two sparse coding submodels on top of a simple Gabor analysis...
July 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727993/how-do-nurse-practitioners-work-in-primary-health-care-settings-a-scoping-review
#8
REVIEW
Julian Grant, Lauren Lines, Philip Darbyshire, Yvonne Parry
OBJECTIVES: This scoping review explores the work of nurse practitioners in primary health care settings in developed countries and critiques their contribution to improved health outcomes. DESIGN: A scoping review design was employed and included development of a research question, identification of potentially relevant studies, selection of relevant studies, charting data, collating, summarising and reporting findings. An additional step was added to evaluate the methodological rigor of each study...
June 28, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710639/downstream-process-synthesis-for-microbial-steroids
#9
Fabian B Thygs, Juliane Merz
Systematic and holistic process development, considering upstream and downstream processing simultaneously, is crucial for designing effective and economical production processes. Based on a multiphasic fermentation process, where oil is added to improve substrate solubility, a systematic approach for the purification of microbial steroids is presented. The design methodology incorporates expert knowledge in the form of heuristics to generate different downstream processing alternatives for processing the complex, multiphasic fermentation broth, and recovering the target steroid precursor androst-4-ene-3,17-dione (androstenedione; AD)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691151/integrated-and-global-pseudotargeted-metabolomics-strategy-applied-to-screening-for-quality-control-markers-of-citrus-tcms
#10
Yisong Shu, Zhenli Liu, Siyu Zhao, Zhiqian Song, Dan He, Menglei Wang, Honglian Zeng, Cheng Lu, Aiping Lu, Yuanyan Liu
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) exerts its therapeutic effect in a holistic fashion with the synergistic function of multiple characteristic constituents. The holism philosophy of TCM is coincident with global and systematic theories of metabolomics. The proposed pseudotargeted metabolomics methodologies were employed for the establishment of reliable quality control markers for use in the screening strategy of TCMs. Pseudotargeted metabolomics integrates the advantages of both targeted and untargeted methods...
July 10, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682298/wound-care-centers-critical-thinking-and-treatment-strategies-for-wounds
#11
Jean de Leon, Gregory A Bohn, Lawrence DiDomenico, Regina Fearmonti, H David Gottlieb, Katherine Lincoln, Jayesh B Shah, Mark Shaw, Horatio S Taveau Iv, Kerry Thibodeaux, John D Thomas, Terry A Treadwell
Many wound care centers (WCCs) provide a specialized level of care using various wound care therapies and are managed by quali ed healthcare professionals (QHPs) from di erent specialty backgrounds such as family medicine, podiatry, and plastic surgery. However, these QHPs are sometimes challenged by reimbursement issues, limited therapy and dressing options, reduced access to multidisciplinary team members, and cost-driven factors unique to WCCs. To help address these issues, a meeting was convened by an expert panel of WCC physicians to discuss best practices for treating complex patients in a WCC...
October 2016: Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651000/assessing-the-impact-of-benzo-a-pyrene-on-marine-mussels-application-of-a-novel-targeted-low-density-microarray-complementing-classical-biomarker-responses
#12
Mohamed Banni, Susanna Sforzini, Volker M Arlt, Audrey Barranger, Lorna J Dallas, Caterina Oliveri, Yann Aminot, Beniamina Pacchioni, Caterina Millino, Gerolamo Lanfranchi, James W Readman, Michael N Moore, Aldo Viarengo, Awadhesh N Jha
Despite the increasing use of mussels in environmental monitoring and ecotoxicological studies, their genomes and gene functions have not been thoroughly explored. Several cDNA microarrays were recently proposed for Mytilus spp., but putatively identified partial transcripts have rendered the generation of robust transcriptional responses difficult in terms of pathway identification. We developed a new low density oligonucleotide microarray with 465 probes covering the same number of genes. Target genes were selected to cover most of the well-known biological processes in the stress response documented over the last decade in bivalve species at the cellular and tissue levels...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647847/the-processing-of-price-comparison-is-not-holistic-but-componential
#13
Pedro Macizo, Fernando Ojedo
In three experiments, we evaluate whether the processing of prices is holistic or componential. When participants receive two prices and they select the higher price, distance effects are found when the distances between the two prices are defined holistically but not when they are defined in terms of digits (Experiment 1). This result suggests that prices are processed holistically. However, we show that the holistic distance effect can be explained by the compatibility between the digits and the monetary category of prices (euro and cent)...
June 24, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621012/supporting-people-with-aphasia-to-settle-into-a-new-way-to-be-speech-and-language-therapists-views-on-providing-psychosocial-support
#14
Sarah Northcott, Alan Simpson, Becky Moss, Nafiso Ahmed, Katerina Hilari
BACKGROUND: People with aphasia are at risk of becoming depressed and isolated. Online surveys have found that the majority of speech and language therapists (SLTs) lack confidence in addressing the psychological needs of people with aphasia. AIMS: To explore how SLTs conceptualize the scope of their role; barriers and facilitators to SLTs addressing psychosocial needs; and SLTs' experiences of specialist training and support, and working with mental health professionals (MHPs)...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552781/dissociated-neural-basis-of-two-behavioral-hallmarks-of-holistic-face-processing-the-whole-part-effect-and-composite-face-effect
#15
Jin Li, Lijie Huang, Yiying Song, Jia Liu
It has been long proposed that our extraordinary face recognition ability stems from holistic face processing. Two widely-used behavioral hallmarks of holistic face processing are the whole-part effect (WPE) and composite-face effect (CFE). However, it remains unknown whether these two effects reflect similar or different aspects of holistic face processing. Here we investigated this question by examining whether the WPE and CFE involved shared or distinct neural substrates in a large sample of participants (N=200)...
May 25, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552207/clinical-perspective-on-antihypertensive-drug-treatment-in-adults-with-grade-1-hypertension-and-low-to-moderate-cardiovascular-risk-an-international-expert-consultation
#16
REVIEW
Alberto Morales Salinas, Antonio Coca, Michael H Olsen, Ramiro A Sanchez, Weimar K Sebba-Barroso, Richard Kones, Vicente Bertomeu-Martinez, Javier Sobrino, Luis Alcocer, Daniel J Pineiro, Fernando Lanas, Carlos A Machado, Fernando Aguirre-Palacios, Jose Ortellado, Gonzalo Perez, Rodrigo Sabio, Orlando Landrove, Delfin Rodriguez-Leyva, Alfredo Duenas-Herrera, Ayelen Rodriguez Portelles, Jose Z Parra-Carrillo, Daniel L Piskorz, Alfonso Bryce-Moncloa, Gabriel Waisman, Yuichiro Yano, Hector Ventura, Marcelo Orias, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, J Sundström, Jiguang Wang, Louise M Burrell, Alta E Schutte, Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo, Eduardo Barbosa, Josep Redon, Michael A Weber, Carl J Lavie, Agustin Ramirez, Pedro Ordunez, Salim Yusuf, Alberto Zanchetti
Hypertension is a leading risk factor for disease burden globally. An unresolved question is whether grade 1 hypertension (140-159/90-99mmHg) with low (cardiovascular mortality <1% at 10 years) to moderate (cardiovascular mortality ≥1% and <5% at 10 years) absolute total cardiovascular risk (CVR) should be treated with antihypertensive agents. A virtual international consultation process was undertaken to summarize the opinions of select experts. After holistic analysis of all epidemiological, clinical, psychosocial, and public health elements, this consultation process reached the following consensus in hypertensive adults aged <80 years: (1) The question of whether drug treatment in grade 1 should be preceded by a period of some weeks or months during which only lifestyle measures are recommended cannot be evidence based, but the consensus opinion is to have a period of lifestyle alone reserved only to patients with grade 1 "isolated" hypertension (grade 1 uncomplicated hypertension with low absolute total CVR, and without other major CVR factors and risk modifiers)...
July 2017: Current Problems in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538045/donor-derived-infections-in-solid-organ-transplant-patients-toward-a-holistic-approach
#17
Esther Benamu, Cameron R Wolfe, José G Montoya
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Solid organ demand far exceeds organ supply. Strategies to increase the donor pool include the liberalization of selection criteria without increasing the risk of unexpected donor-derived infection (DDI), a rare complication of transplantation carrying high morbidity and mortality. We review the challenging aspects in the prevention of DDI, focusing on the complexities of data sharing and efficient communication and the role infectious diseases specialists play in the process...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470137/waste-in-health-information-systems-a-systematic-review
#18
Nadia Awang Kalong, Maryati Yusof
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to discuss a systematic review on waste identification related to health information systems (HIS) in Lean transformation. Design/methodology/approach A systematic review was conducted on 19 studies to evaluate Lean transformation and tools used to remove waste related to HIS in clinical settings. Findings Ten waste categories were identified, along with their relationships and applications of Lean tool types related to HIS. Different Lean tools were used at the early and final stages of Lean transformation; the tool selection depended on the waste characteristic...
May 8, 2017: International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419175/talent-identification-and-recruitment-in-youth-soccer-recruiter-s-perceptions-of-the-key-attributes-for-player-recruitment
#19
Paul Larkin, Donna O'Connor
Using the modified Delphi method, we aimed to understand the attributes youth coaches and recruiters perceive as important when identifying skilled youth performance at the entry level of representative soccer in Australia (i.e., Under 13 years). Furthermore, we also aimed to describe the current methods youth coaches and recruiters use to assess and identify these attributes in youth players. Australian regional youth technical directors and coaches (n = 20) completed a three stage process, including an initial interview and two subsequent questionnaires, whereby attributes and qualities associated with talent identification were rated and justified according to the importance for youth player performance and talent identification...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323435/quantifying-selection-pressure
#20
Evert Haasdijk, Jacqueline Heinerman
Selection is an essential component of any evolutionary system and analysing this fundamental force in evolution can provide relevant insights into the evolutionary development of a population. The 1990s and early 2000s saw a substantial number of publications that investigated selection pressure through methods such as takeover time and Markov chain analysis. Over the last decade, however, interest in the analysis of selection in evolutionary computing has waned. The established methods for analysis of selection pressure provide little insight when selection is based on more than comparison-of-fitness values...
March 21, 2017: Evolutionary Computation
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