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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306825/selecting-appropriate-wastewater-treatment-technologies-using-a-choosing-by-advantages-approach
#1
Paz Arroyo, María Molinos-Senante
Selecting the most sustainable wastewater treatment (WWT) technology among possible alternatives is a very complex task because the choice must integrate economic, environmental, and social criteria. Traditionally, several multi-criteria decision-making approaches have been applied, with the most often used being the analytical hierarchical process (AHP). However, AHP allows users to offset poor environmental and/or social performance with low cost. To overcome this limitation, our study examines a choosing-by-advantages (CBA) approach to rank seven WWT technologies for secondary WWT...
January 4, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288323/impact-of-holistic-review-on-student-interview-pool-diversity
#2
Christina J Grabowski
Diversity in the physician workforce lags behind the rapidly changing US population. Since the gateway to becoming a physician is medical school, diversity must be addressed in the admissions process. The Association of American Medical Colleges has implemented a Holistic Review Initiative aimed at assisting medical schools with broadening admission criteria to include relevant, mission-driven attributes and experiences in addition to academic preparation to identify applicants poised to meet the needs of a diverse patient population...
December 29, 2017: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261708/delayed-processing-of-global-shape-information-in-developmental-prosopagnosia
#3
Christian Gerlach, Solja K Klargaard, Anders Petersen, Randi Starrfelt
There is accumulating evidence suggesting that a central deficit in developmental prosopagnosia (DP), a disorder characterized by profound and lifelong difficulties with face recognition, concerns impaired holistic processing. Some of this evidence comes from studies using Navon's paradigm where individuals with DP show a greater local or reduced global bias compared with controls. However, it has not been established what gives rise to this altered processing bias. Is it a reduced global precedence effect, changes in susceptibility to interference effects or both? By analyzing the performance of 10 individuals with DP in Navon's paradigm we find evidence of a reduced global precedence effect: The DPs are slower than controls to process global but not local shape information...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258455/motivations-and-barriers-to-uptake-and-use-of-female-initiated-biomedical-hiv-prevention-products-in-sub-saharan-africa-an-adapted-meta-ethnography
#4
Robyn Eakle, Adam Bourne, Caitlin Jarrett, Jonathan Stadler, Heidi Larson
BACKGROUND: Women bear a disproportionate burden of HIV throughout the world prompting extensive research into HIV prevention products for women which has met with varied success. With an aim of informing future policy and programming, this review examines the barriers and motivations to the uptake and use of female initiated products in sub-Saharan countries. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review as an adapted meta-ethnography of qualitative data focused on actual use of products...
December 19, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196862/voluntary-exposure-to-a-toxin-the-genetic-influence-on-ethanol-consumption
#5
Paula L Hoffman, Laura M Saba, Lauren A Vanderlinden, Boris Tabakoff
Ethyl alcohol is a toxin that, when consumed at high levels, produces organ damage and death. One way to prevent or ameliorate this damage in humans is to reduce the exposure of organs to alcohol by reducing alcohol ingestion. Both the propensity to consume large volumes of alcohol and the susceptibility of human organs to alcohol-induced damage exhibit a strong genetic influence. We have developed an integrative genetic/genomic approach to identify transcriptional networks that predispose complex traits, including propensity for alcohol consumption and propensity for alcohol-induced organ damage...
December 1, 2017: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154724/understanding-how-a-palliative-specific-patient-reported-outcome-intervention-works-to-facilitate-patient-centred-care-in-advanced-heart-failure-a-qualitative-study
#6
Pauline M Kane, Clare I Ellis-Smith, Barbara A Daveson, Karen Ryan, Niall G Mahon, Brendan McAdam, Regina McQuillan, Cecelia Tracey, Christine Howley, Geraldine O'Gara, Caroline Raleigh, Irene J Higginson, Fliss Em Murtagh, Jonathan Koffman
BACKGROUND: Palliative care needs of patients with chronic heart failure are poorly recognised. Policy makers advise a patient-centred approach to holistically assess patients' needs and care goals. Patient-reported outcome measures are proposed to facilitate patient-centred care. AIM: To explore whether and how a palliative care-specific patient-reported outcome intervention involving the Integrated Palliative care Outcome Scale influences patients' experience of patient-centred care in nurse-led chronic heart failure disease management clinics...
November 1, 2017: Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141643/integrative-medicine-primary-care-assessing-the-practice-model-through-patients-experiences
#7
Robert L Crocker, Amy J Grizzle, Jason T Hurwitz, Rick A Rehfeld, Ivo Abraham, Randy Horwitz, Andrew Weil, Victoria Maizes
BACKGROUND: The University of Arizona Integrative Health Center (UAIHC) was an innovative integrative medicine (IM) adult primary care clinic in Phoenix, Arizona. UAIHC used a hybrid payment model to deliver comprehensive healthcare that includes conventional and complementary medical treatments. METHODS: Fidelity measures were collected to evaluate how well the IM care delivery process matched ideals for IM. Patient experiences are presented here. Patients visiting UAIHC on 1 of 10 randomly selected days between September 2013 and February 2015 were surveyed...
November 15, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096198/face-inversion-reveals-holistic-processing-of-peripheral-faces
#8
Petra Kovács, Balázs Knakker, Petra Hermann, Gyula Kovács, Zoltán Vidnyánszky
Face perception is accomplished by face-selective neural processes, involving holistic processing that enables highly efficient integration of facial features into a whole-face representation. It has been shown that in face-selective regions of the ventral temporal cortex (VTC), neural resources involved in holistic processing are primarily dedicated to the central portion of the visual field. These findings raise the intriguing possibility that holistic processing might be the privilege of centrally presented faces and could be strongly diminished in the case of peripheral faces...
October 6, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095858/phospholipase-a2-is-involved-in-galactosylsphingosine-induced-astrocyte-toxicity-neuronal-damage-and-demyelination
#9
Cedric Misslin, Maria Velasco-Estevez, Marie Albert, Sinead A O'Sullivan, Kumlesh K Dev
Krabbe disease is a fatal rare inherited lipid storage disorder affecting 1:100,000 births. This illness is caused by mutations in the galc gene encoding for the enzyme galactosylceramidase (GALC). Dysfunction of GALC has been linked to the toxic build-up of the galactolipid, galactosylsphingosine (psychosine), which induces cell death of oligodendrocytes. Previous studies show that phospholipase A2 (PLA2) may play a role in psychosine induce cell death. Here, we demonstrate that non-selective inhibition of cPLA2/sPLA2 and selective inhibition of cPLA2, but not sPLA2, also attenuates psychosine-induced cell death of human astrocytes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089880/on-response-bias-in-the-face-congruency-effect-for-internal-and-external-features
#10
Günter Meinhardt, Bozana Meinhardt-Injac, Malte Persike
Some years ago Cheung et al. (2008) proposed the complete design (CD) for measuring the failure of selective attention in composite objects. Since the CD is a fully balanced design, analysis of response bias may reveal potential effects of the experimental manipulation, the stimulus material, and/or attributes of the observers. Here we used the CD to prove whether external features modulate perception of internal features with the context congruency paradigm (Nachson et al., 1995; Meinhardt-Injac et al., 2010) in a larger sample of N = 303 subjects...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035006/applying-systems-thinking-to-inform-studies-of-wildlife-trade-in-primates
#11
Mary E Blair, Minh D Le, Hoàng M Thạch, Anna Panariello, Ngọc B Vũ, Mark G Birchette, Gautam Sethi, Eleanor J Sterling
Wildlife trade presents a major threat to primate populations, which are in demand from local to international scales for a variety of uses from food and traditional medicine to the exotic pet trade. We argue that an interdisciplinary framework to facilitate integration of socioeconomic, anthropological, and biological data across multiple spatial and temporal scales is essential to guide the study of wildlife trade dynamics and its impacts on primate populations. Here, we present a new way to design research on wildlife trade in primates using a systems thinking framework...
November 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993490/two-sides-of-a-coin-ecological-and-chronobiological-perspectives-of-timing-in-the-wild
#12
REVIEW
Barbara Helm, Marcel E Visser, William Schwartz, Noga Kronfeld-Schor, Menno Gerkema, Theunis Piersma, Guy Bloch
Most processes within organisms, and most interactions between organisms and their environment, have distinct time profiles. The temporal coordination of such processes is crucial across levels of biological organization, but disciplines differ widely in their approaches to study timing. Such differences are accentuated between ecologists, who are centrally concerned with a holistic view of an organism in relation to its external environment, and chronobiologists, who emphasize internal timekeeping within an organism and the mechanisms of its adjustment to the environment...
November 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941401/effect-based-assessment-of-toxicity-removal-during-wastewater-treatment
#13
Pia Välitalo, Riccardo Massei, Ilse Heiskanen, Peter Behnisch, Werner Brack, Andrew J Tindall, David Du Pasquier, Eberhard Küster, Anna Mikola, Tobias Schulze, Markus Sillanpää
Wastewaters contain complex mixtures of chemicals, which can cause adverse toxic effects in the receiving environment. In the present study, the toxicity removal during wastewater treatment at seven municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) was investigated using an effect-based approach. A battery of eight bioassays was applied comprising of cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, endocrine disruption and fish embryo toxicity assays. Human cell-based CALUX assays, transgenic larval models and the fish embryo toxicity test were particularly sensitive to WWTP effluents...
December 1, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916329/ecological-extension-of-the-theory-of-evolution-by-natural-selection-from-a-perspective-of-western-and-eastern-holistic-philosophy
#14
REVIEW
Toshiyuki Nakajima
Evolution by natural selection requires the following conditions: (1) a particular selective environment; (2) variation of traits in the population; (3) differential survival/reproduction among the types of organisms; and (4) heritable traits. However, the traditional (standard) model does not clearly explain how and why these conditions are generated or determined. What generates a selective environment? What generates new types? How does a certain type replace, or coexist with, others? In this paper, based on the holistic philosophy of Western and Eastern traditions, I focus on the ecosystem as a higher-level system and generator of conditions that induce the evolution of component populations; I also aim to identify the ecosystem processes that generate those conditions...
September 12, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899763/provoking-an-end-to-end-continuous-direct-compression-line-with-raw-materials-prone-to-segregation
#15
Satu Lakio, Tuomas Ervasti, Pirjo Tajarobi, Håkan Wikström, Magnus Fransson, Anssi-Pekka Karttunen, Jarkko Ketolainen, Staffan Folestad, Susanna Abrahmsén-Alami, Ossi Korhonen
Continuous manufacturing of solid oral dosage forms is promising for increasing the efficiency and quality of pharmaceutical production and products. In this study a whole train continuous direct compression (CDC) line has been provoked using challenging formulations typically prone to segregation in batch powder processing. Industrial compositions including components with variable size, bulk density and cohesive nature were selected. An experimental design, including variables such as API/mannitol particle size, API amount, powder feed rate and mixer speed, enabled the output quality of the provoked process to be assessed...
September 9, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870009/comprehensive-analysis-of-proteomic-differences-between-escherichia-coli-k-12-and-b-strains-using-multiplexed-isobaric-tandem-mass-tag-tmt-labeling
#16
Mee-Jung Han
The Escherichia coli K-12 and B strains are among the most frequently used bacterial hosts for scientific research and biotechnological applications. However, omics analyses have revealed that E. coli K-12 and B exhibit notably different genotypic and phenotypic attributes, even though they were derived from the same ancestor. In a previous study, we identified a limited number of proteins from the two strains using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). In this study, an in-depth analysis of the physiological behavior of the E...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866575/treepod-sensitivity-aware-selection-of-pareto-optimal-decision-trees
#17
Thomas Muhlbacher, Lorenz Linhardt, Torsten Moller, Harald Piringer
Balancing accuracy gains with other objectives such as interpretability is a key challenge when building decision trees. However, this process is difficult to automate because it involves know-how about the domain as well as the purpose of the model. This paper presents TreePOD, a new approach for sensitivity-aware model selection along trade-offs. TreePOD is based on exploring a large set of candidate trees generated by sampling the parameters of tree construction algorithms. Based on this set, visualizations of quantitative and qualitative tree aspects provide a comprehensive overview of possible tree characteristics...
August 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859556/the-perceptions-of-first-nation-participants-in-a-community-oral-health-initiative
#18
Kavita R Mathu-Muju, James McLeod, Leeann Donnelly, Rosamund Harrison, Michael I MacEntee
The Children's Oral Health Initiative (COHI) is a federally funded community-based preventive dental program for children and their caregivers living in geographically isolated Canadian Aboriginal communities. The goal of the program is to improve access to preventive dental services for children of 0-7 years of age. It utilises community health workers in collaboration with dental therapists to promote and deliver the program. Almost half of the province of Manitoba's (n=27) First Nations communities have implemented COHI since 2005...
2017: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858144/exploring-an-unknown-territory-sleeping-beauties-in-the-nursing-research-literature
#19
Peter Kokol, Helena Blažun Vošner, Joeri Vermeulen
BACKGROUND: Sleeping Beauties (SBs) are publications that are scarcely cited in the years immediately following publication but then suddenly become highly cited later. Such publications have unique citation patterns and can reveal important developments in the field in which they appear. OBJECTIVES: No holistic analysis of nursing SBs has been done yet. The aim of this study was to identify and analyze the SB phenomenon in the nursing research literature. METHOD: The corpus for the nursing SB identification was harvested from the Web of Science Core Collection (Thomas Reuters) for the period 1934-2015...
September 2017: Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742816/a-mixture-of-sparse-coding-models-explaining-properties-of-face-neurons-related-to-holistic-and-parts-based-processing
#20
Haruo Hosoya, Aapo Hyvärinen
Experimental studies have revealed evidence of both parts-based and holistic representations of objects and faces in the primate visual system. However, it is still a mystery how such seemingly contradictory types of processing can coexist within a single system. Here, we propose a novel theory called mixture of sparse coding models, inspired by the formation of category-specific subregions in the inferotemporal (IT) cortex. We developed a hierarchical network that constructed a mixture of two sparse coding submodels on top of a simple Gabor analysis...
July 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
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