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Malee Kallbach, Sonja Horn, Anja Kuenz, Ulf Prüße
Biotechnologically produced 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO) is a potential starting material for industrial bulk chemicals such as butadiene or methyl ethyl ketone which are currently produced from fossil feedstocks. So far, the highest 2,3-BDO concentrations have been obtained with risk group 2 microorganisms. In this study, three risk group 1 microorganisms are presented that are so far unknown for an efficient production of 2,3-BDO. The strains Bacillus atrophaeus NRS-213, Bacillus mojavensis B-14698, and Bacillus vallismortis B-14891 were evaluated regarding their ability to produce high 2,3-BDO concentrations with a broad range of different carbon sources...
September 29, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Amber Crowley-Gall, Priya Date, Clair Han, Nicole Rhodes, Peter Andolfatto, John E Layne, Stephanie M Rollmann
Evolutionary shifts in plant-herbivore interactions provide a model for understanding the link among the evolution of behaviour, ecological specialization and incipient speciation. Drosophila mojavensis uses different host cacti across its range, and volatile chemicals emitted by the host are the primary cue for host plant identification. In this study, we show that changes in host plant use between distinct D. mojavensis populations are accompanied by changes in the olfactory system. Specifically, we observe differences in olfactory receptor neuron specificity and sensitivity, as well as changes in sensillar subtype abundance, between populations...
August 31, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
A A Blacutt, T R Mitchell, C W Bacon, S E Gold
The mycotoxigenic pathogen Fusarium verticillioides threatens the quality and utility of maize across industrial and agricultural purposes. Chemical control is complicated by the intimate endophytic lifestyle of the pathogen with its host. Bacillus mojavensis RRC101, a maize-endophytic bacterium, has been observed to reduce F. verticillioides disease severity and fumonisin accumulation when coinoculated to maize. Genome sequencing and annotation identified a number of biocontrol-relevant pathways in RRC101...
October 4, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
J C Fogleman, S M Duperret, H W Kircher
The Cactus-Drosophila Model System of the Sonoran Desert consists of four endemic species ofDrosophila (D. mojavensis, D. nigrospiracula, D. mettleri andD. pachea) and five species of columnar cacti (agria, organpipe, saguaro, cardón and senita). Extensive collection records indicate that each cactus species has only one species ofDrosophila as the primary resident. The elimination of six of the twenty possible random combinations ofDrosophila species and cactus species can be attributed directly to phytosterols...
January 1986: Lipids
Zain A Alvi, Tin-Chun Chu, Valerie Schawaroch, Angela V Klaus
The current study was aimed at analyzing putative protein sequences of the transition protein-like proteins in 12 Drosophila species based on the reference sequences of transition protein-like protein (Tpl (94D) ) expressed in Drosophila melanogaster sperm nuclei. Transition proteins aid in transforming chromatin from a histone-based nucleosome structure to a protamine-based structure during spermiogenesis - the post-meiotic stage of spermatogenesis. Sequences were obtained from NCBI Ref-Seq database using NCBI ORF-Finder (PSI-BLAST)...
September 2015: Spermatogenesis
Alejandro Sanchez-Flores, Fernando Peñaloza, Javier Carpinteyro-Ponce, Nestor Nazario-Yepiz, Cei Abreu-Goodger, Carlos A Machado, Therese Ann Markow
We report genomes of two species of cactophilic Drosophila: Drosophila arizonae and D. navojoa These two are the closest relatives of D. mojavensis, forming the D. mojavensis cluster. D. mojavensis and D. arizonae diverged from D. navojoa ∼5.8 Mya, while the split between D. arizonae and D. mojavensis is more recent, at 1.5 Mya. Together the three genomes provide opportunities to examine genomic changes associated with speciation and host shifts in this ecologically defined group of flies. The three species are also separated by fixed inversion differences in three of their six chromosomes...
October 13, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Yuriy Kryachko, Diana Semler, John Vogrinetz, Markus Lemke, Matthew G Links, E Luke McCarthy, Brenda Haug, Sean M Hemmingsen
Microorganisms indigenous to an oil reservoir were grown in media containing either sucrose or proteins in four steel vessels under anoxic conditions at 30°C and 8.3MPa for 30days, to enrich biosurfactant producers. Fermentation of substrate was possible in the protein-containing medium and either fermentation or respiration through reduction of sulfate occurred in the sucrose-containing medium. Growth of microorganisms led to 3.4-5.4-fold surface tension reduction indicating production of biosurfactants in amounts sufficient for enhancement of gas-driven oil recovery...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
Nuria Rius, Yolanda Guillén, Alejandra Delprat, Aurélie Kapusta, Cédric Feschotte, Alfredo Ruiz
BACKGROUND: Many new Drosophila genomes have been sequenced in recent years using new-generation sequencing platforms and assembly methods. Transposable elements (TEs), being repetitive sequences, are often misassembled, especially in the genomes sequenced with short reads. Consequently, the mobile fraction of many of the new genomes has not been analyzed in detail or compared with that of other genomes sequenced with different methods, which could shed light into the understanding of genome and TE evolution...
2016: BMC Genomics
C Cosentino, C Labella, H S Elshafie, I Camele, M Musto, R Paolino, C D'Adamo, P Freschi
Thermal treatments are used to improve milk microbial safety, shelf life, and biological activity of some of its components. However, thermal treatments can reduce the nutritional quality of milk, affecting the molecular structure of milk proteins, such as lysozyme, which is a very important milk component due to its antimicrobial effect against gram-positive bacteria. Jenny milk is characterized by high lysozyme content. For this reason, in the last few years, it has been used as an antimicrobial additive in dairy products as an alternative to hen egg white lysozyme, which can cause allergic reactions...
July 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Harish Suthar, Anuradha Nerurkar
Bacillus licheniformis TT42 produced a low-molecular weight anionic biosurfactant that reduced the surface tension of water from 72 to 27 mN/m and the interfacial tension from 12 to 0.05 mN/m against crude oil. We have earlier reported significant enhancement in oil recovery in laboratory sand pack columns and core flood studies, by biosurfactant-TT42 compared to standard strain, Bacillus mojavensis JF2. In the context of this application of the biosurfactant-TT42, its characterization was deemed important...
September 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Miray Etyemez, Jose Luis Balcazar
One hundred and twenty bacterial isolates were obtained from the intestinal mucus of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and screened for antagonistic activity and adherence abilities. Based on in vitro antagonism against two pathogens (Streptococcus iniae and Edwardsiella piscicida), five isolates were selected and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. All antagonistic isolates were affiliated to the genus Bacillus, which showed inhibitory activity against S. iniae. Only the isolate B191 (closely related to Bacillus mojavensis) inhibited the growth of both pathogens...
April 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
Christopher A Dunlap, Michael J Bowman, David A Schisler, Alejandro P Rooney
Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis were previously reported to be later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus mojavensis, based primarily on DNA-DNA relatedness values. We have sequenced draft genomes of Bacillus axarquiensis NRRL B-41617T and Bacillus malacitensis NRRL B-41618T. Comparative genomics and DNA-DNA relatedness calculations showed that while Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis are synonymous with each other, they are not synonymous with Bacillus mojavensis. In addition, a draft genome was completed for Brevibacterium halotolerans, a strain long suspected of being a Bacillus subtilis group member based on 16S rRNA similarities (99...
June 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
E Dambroise, L Monnier, L Ruisheng, H Aguilaniu, J-S Joly, H Tricoire, M Rera
Aging's most obvious characteristic is the time dependent increase of an individual's probability to die. This lifelong process is accompanied by a large number of molecular and physiological changes. Although numerous genes involved in aging have been identified in the past decades its leading factors have yet to be determined. To identify the very processes driving aging we have developed in the past years an assay to identify physiologically old individuals in a synchronized population of Drosophila melanogaster...
2016: Scientific Reports
Sandeep Chakraborty, Monica Britton, P J Martínez-García, Abhaya M Dandekar
Deep RNA-Seq profiling, a revolutionary method used for quantifying transcriptional levels, often includes non-specific transcripts from other co-existing organisms in spite of stringent protocols. Using the recently published walnut genome sequence as a filter, we present a broad analysis of the RNA-Seq derived transcriptome profiles obtained from twenty different tissues to extract the biodiversity and possible plant-microbe interactions in the walnut ecosystem in California. Since the residual nature of the transcripts being analyzed does not provide sufficient information to identify the exact strain, inferences made are constrained to the genus level...
March 2016: AMB Express
Hazem Salaheldin Elshafie, Nadia Ghanney, Stefania Mirela Mang, Ali Ferchichi, Ippolito Camele
Growing concerns about food safety and environmental protection enhanced the need for new and safe plant disease control strategies. The chemical composition of the three essential oils (EOs) extracted from leaves and fruits of Schinus terebinthifolius and leaves of Schinus molle, growing in Tunisia, was studied by GC and GC-MS. In all, 12 compounds were identified. The oils were mainly composed of terpene compounds. α-Pinene, α-phellandrene, and D-limonene were the major constituents. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial effectiveness of three EOs derived from plants of genus Schinus and extracted from leaves and fruits of S...
March 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
G V Gladka, V A Romanovskaya, H O Tashyreva, O B Tashyrev
Multi-resistant to extreme factors spore-forming bacteria of Bacillus genus are isolated from hypersaline environments of the Crimea (Ukraine) and the Dead Sea (Israel). Phylogenetic analysis showed distinction of dominating extremophilic culturable species in studied regions. In Crimean environments they are B. mojavensis and B. simplex, in the Dead Sea ecosystem--B. subtilis subsp. spizizenii, B. subtilis subsp. subtilis, B. licheniformis and B. simplex. Isolates are simultaneously halotolerant and resistant to UV radiation...
November 2015: Mikrobiolohichnyĭ Zhurnal., Mikrobiologichny Zhurnal
William J Etges, Cássia de Oliveira, Subhash Rajpurohit, Allen G Gibbs
Preadult determinants of adult fitness and behaviour have been documented in a variety of organisms with complex life cycles, but little is known about expression patterns of genes underlying these adult traits. We explored the effects of differences in egg-to-adult development time on adult transcriptome and cuticular hydrocarbon variation in order to understand the nature of the genetic correlation between preadult development time and premating isolation between populations of Drosophila mojavensis reared in different host cactus environments...
February 2016: Molecular Ecology
Imen Ghazala, Nadhem Sayari, Molka Ben Romdhane, Semia Ellouz-Chaabouni, Anissa Haddar
Carrot (Daucus carota) peels, local agricultural waste product, is rich in lignocellulolytic material, including pectin which can act as an inducer of pectinase production. Pectinolytic enzymes production by Bacillus mojavensis I4 was studied in liquid state fermentation using carrot peel as a substrate. Medium composition and culture conditions for the pectinase production by I4 were optimized using two statistical methods: Taguchi design was applied to find the key ingredients and conditions for the best yield of enzyme production and The Box-Behnken design was used to optimize the value of the four significant variables: carrot peels powder, NH4Cl, inoculum size and incubation time...
December 2015: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Ahlem Hamza, Kais Fdhila, Dora Zouiten, Ahmed Sleheddine Masmoudi
This study examined the effects of two probiotics (Virgibacillus proomii and Bacillus mojavensis) on the digestive enzyme activity, survival and growth of Dicentrarchus labrax at various ontogenetic stages in three separate experiments. These probiotics were incorporated as single or mixed into fish feed for a period of 60 days. The growth parameters, proximate composition of whole body, digestive enzymes and gut microbiology were monitored at regular. The increments in length and weight and the survival were significantly higher (P < 0...
April 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Zongwang Ma, Jiangchun Hu
Bacillus mojavensis B0621A was isolated from the mantle of a pearl oyster Pinctada martensii collected from South China Sea. Semi-purified surfactins (225 mg L(-1)) were obtained by acid precipitation and vacuum flash chromatography. The component of the semi-purified surfactins was preliminarily analyzed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometer system, and the results showed that all these surfactins could be a group of homologues. Eight surfactin homologues were isolated and afforded by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography...
December 2015: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
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