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Amal Hammami, Nahed Fakhfakh, Ola Abdelhedi, Moncef Nasri, Ahmed Bayoudh
The present work aims to study the simultaneous production of highly alkaline proteases and thermostable α-amylases by a newly isolated bacterium Bacillus mojavensis SA. The optimum pH and temperature of amylase activity were 9.0 and 55°C, respectively, while those of the proteolytic activity were 12.0 and 60°C, respectively. Both α-amylase and protease enzymes showed a high stability towards a wide range of pH and temperature. Furthermore, SA crude enzymes were relatively stable towards non-ionic (Tween 20, Tween 80 and Triton X-100) and anionic (SDS) surfactants, as well as oxidizing agents...
November 24, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Noomen Hmidet, Hanen Ben Ayed, Philippe Jacques, Moncef Nasri
This work concerns the study of the enhancement of surfactin and fengycin production by B. mojavensis A21 and application of the produced product in diesel biodegradation. The influences of the culture medium and cells immobilization were studied. The highest lipopeptides production was achieved after 72 hours of incubation in a culture medium containing 30 g/L glucose as carbon source and a combination of yeast extract (1 g/L) and glutamic acid (5 g/L) as nitrogen sources with initial pH 7.0 at 30°C and 90% volumetric aeration...
2017: BioMed Research International
Daniel Cázarez-García, Mariana Ramírez Loustalot-Laclette, Therese Ann Markow, Robert Winkler
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with serious diseases and represents an important threat for global public health. The common fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) has served as a model organism to study physiological processes of the MetS, because central metabolic pathways are conserved among species, and because the flies are easy to cultivate in a laboratory. In nature, D. melanogaster is a fruit generalist, feeding on diets rich in simple carbohydrates. Other Drosophilids, however, have specialized on distinct resources...
November 13, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
Nestor O Nazario-Yepiz, Mariana Ramirez Loustalot-Laclette, Javier Carpinteyro-Ponce, Cei Abreu-Goodger, Therese Ann Markow
We utilized three ecologically diverse Drosophila species to explore the influence of ecological adaptation on transcriptomic responses to isocaloric diets differing in their relative proportions of protein to sugar. Drosophila melanogaster, a cosmopolitan species that breeds in decaying fruit, exemplifies individuals long exposed to a Western diet higher in sugar, while the natural diet of the cactophilic D. mojavensis, is much lower in carbohydrates. Drosophila arizonae, the sister species of D. mojavensis, is largely cactophilic, but also utilizes rotting fruits that are higher in sugars than cacti...
2017: PloS One
Ni Xiang, Kathy S Lawrence, Joseph W Kloepper, Patricia A Donald, John A McInroy
Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode, is the most economically important plant-parasitic nematode on soybean production in the U.S. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the potential of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains for mortality of H. glycines J2 in vitro and for reducing nematode population density on soybean in greenhouse, microplot, and field trials. The major group causing mortality to H. glycines in vitro was the genus Bacillus that consisted of 92.6% of the total 663 PGPR strains evaluated...
2017: PloS One
Amber Crowley-Gall, Priya Date, Clair Han, Nicole Rhodes, Peter Andolfatto, John E Layne, Stephanie M Rollmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Karina López-Olmos, Therese Ann Markow, Carlos A Machado
GSTD1 is an insect glutathione S-transferase that has received considerable attention because of its role in detoxification of xenobiotic compounds, specifically pesticides and plant allelochemicals involved in detoxification, or in the use of some substrates as a nutritional source. GSTD1 has been implicated in the adaptation to a new cactus host in Drosophila mojavensis and thus constitutes an interesting candidate to study ecological genetics of adaptation in Drosophila. We conducted population genetic and molecular evolution analyses of the GstD1 gene in the context of association with different cactus hosts (Opuntia sp...
June 2017: Journal of Molecular Evolution
Leonardo G de Lima, Marta Svartman, Gustavo C S Kuhn
Eukaryote genomes are replete with repetitive DNAs. This class includes tandemly repeated satellite DNAs (satDNA) which are among the most abundant, fast evolving (yet poorly studied) genomic components. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing data from three cactophilic Drosophila species, D. buzzatii, D. seriema, and D. mojavensis, to access and study their whole satDNA landscape. In total, the RepeatExplorer software identified five satDNAs, three previously described (pBuM, DBC-150 and CDSTR198) and two novel ones (CDSTR138 and CDSTR130)...
August 7, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
S Eskandary, A Tahmourespour, M Hoodaji, A Abdollahi
BACKGROUND: Biological methods of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) contamination elimination typically involve the transformation of contaminants to non-toxic materials by microorganisms and plants and appear to be the most effective methods available. METHODS: In this study, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus mojavensis isolated from oil-contaminated soils were inoculated onto Festuca arundinacea seeds before planting in the pot and 3 weeks after planting by syringe injection into the rhizospheric zone in order to study the elimination of PAHs from Festuca's rhizosphere in the greenhouse...
2017: Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering
Priya Date, Amber Crowley-Gall, Aaron F Diefendorf, Stephanie M Rollmann
Divergent selection between environments can result in changes to the behavior of an organism. In many insects, volatile compounds are a primary means by which host plants are recognized and shifts in plant availability can result in changes to host preference. Both the plant substrate and microorganisms can influence this behavior, and host plant choice can have an impact on the performance of the organism. In Drosophila mojavensis, four geographically isolated populations each use different cacti as feeding and oviposition substrates and identify those cacti by the composition of the volatile odorants emitted...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Tera C Levin, Harmit S Malik
Animal Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have evolved through a pattern of duplication and divergence. Whereas mammalian TLRs directly recognize microbial ligands, Drosophila Tolls bind endogenous ligands downstream of both developmental and immune signaling cascades. Here, we find that most Toll genes in Drosophila evolve slowly with little gene turnover (gains/losses), consistent with their important roles in development and indirect roles in microbial recognition. In contrast, we find that the Toll-3/4 genes have experienced an unusually rapid rate of gene gains and losses, resulting in lineage-specific Toll-3/4s and vastly different gene repertoires among Drosophila species, from zero copies (e...
September 1, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
B Jasim, S Sreelakshmi, Jyothis Mathew, E K Radhakrishnan
Biosynthetic adaptation of endophytic bacteria to chemically support host plant is very remarkable. Hence these organisms from medicinal plants are considered as highly valuable sources for natural products with diverse bioactivity. Their metabolite diversity and biosynthetic versatility have been increasingly explored for drug discovery. In this study, an endophytic Bacillus mojavensis with broad spectrum antibacterial properties has been analyzed for the chemical basis of its activity. By LC-MS/MS the organism was identified to have the biosynthetic ability to produce lipopeptides surfactin and fengycin...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
Carsten Jers, Mikael L Strube, Mette D Cantor, Bea K K Nielsen, Ole B Sørensen, Mette Boye, Anne S Meyer
We have previously shown that galacto-rhamnogalacturonan fibers can be enzymatically extracted from potato pulp and that these fibers have potential for exerting a prebiotic effect in piglets. The spore-forming Bacillus species are widely used as probiotics in feed supplements for pigs. In this study, we evaluated the option for further functionalizing Bacillus feed supplements by selecting strains possessing the enzymes required for extraction of the potentially prebiotic fibers. We established that it would require production and secretion of pectin lyase and/or polygalacturonase but no or limited secretion of galactanase and β-galactosidase...
May 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
William J Etges, Cássia C de Oliveira, Subhash Rajpurohit, Allen G Gibbs
We assessed the effects of temperature differences on gene expression using whole-transcriptome microarrays and cuticular hydrocarbon variation in populations of cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis. Four populations from Baja California and mainland Mexico and Arizona were each reared on two different host cacti, reared to sexual maturity on laboratory media, and adults were exposed for 12 hr to 15, 25, or 35°C. Temperature differences influenced the expression of 3,294 genes, while population differences and host plants affected >2,400 each in adult flies...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Hélène Lopez-Maestre, Elias A G Carnelossi, Vincent Lacroix, Nelly Burlet, Bruno Mugat, Séverine Chambeyron, Claudia M A Carareto, Cristina Vieira
Crosses between close species can lead to genomic disorders, often considered to be the cause of hybrid incompatibility, one of the initial steps in the speciation process. How these incompatibilities are established and what are their causes remain unclear. To understand the initiation of hybrid incompatibility, we performed reciprocal crosses between two species of Drosophila (D. mojavensis and D. arizonae) that diverged less than 1 Mya. We performed a genome-wide transcriptomic analysis on ovaries from parental lines and on hybrids from reciprocal crosses...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Sadin Özdemir, M Kadir Oduncu, Ersin Kilinc, Mustafa Soylak
In this study, uranium(VI) tolerance and bioaccumulation were investigated by using thermo -tolerant Bacillus mojavensis. The level of U(VI) was measured by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) value of U(VI) was experimented. Bacterial growth was not affected in the presence of 1.0 and 2.5 mg/L U(VI) at 36 h and the growth was partially affected in the presence of 5 mg/L U(VI) at 24 h. What was obtained from this study is that there was diversity in the various periods of the growth phases of metal bioaccumulation capacity, which was shown by B...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Hazem S Elshafie, Shimaa Sakr, Stefania M Mang, Sandra Belviso, Vincenzo De Feo, Ippolito Camele
There is a growing interest in essential oils (EOs) as possible alternatives for traditional chemical pesticides. This study was carried out to characterize the chemical composition of the three EOs extracted from Verbena officinalis, Majorana hortensis, and Salvia officinalis using gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and to evaluate in vitro their efficacy against some phyto or human pathogens. The antifungal activity was investigated against Colletotrichum acutatum and Botrytis cinerea in comparison with Azoxystrobin as a large spectrum fungicide...
November 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
Malee Kallbach, Sonja Horn, Anja Kuenz, Ulf Prüße
Biotechnologically produced 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO) is a potential starting material for industrial bulk chemicals such as butadiene or methyl ethyl ketone which are currently produced from fossil feedstocks. So far, the highest 2,3-BDO concentrations have been obtained with risk group 2 microorganisms. In this study, three risk group 1 microorganisms are presented that are so far unknown for an efficient production of 2,3-BDO. The strains Bacillus atrophaeus NRS-213, Bacillus mojavensis B-14698, and Bacillus vallismortis B-14891 were evaluated regarding their ability to produce high 2,3-BDO concentrations with a broad range of different carbon sources...
February 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Amber Crowley-Gall, Priya Date, Clair Han, Nicole Rhodes, Peter Andolfatto, John E Layne, Stephanie M Rollmann
Evolutionary shifts in plant-herbivore interactions provide a model for understanding the link among the evolution of behaviour, ecological specialization and incipient speciation. Drosophila mojavensis uses different host cacti across its range, and volatile chemicals emitted by the host are the primary cue for host plant identification. In this study, we show that changes in host plant use between distinct D. mojavensis populations are accompanied by changes in the olfactory system. Specifically, we observe differences in olfactory receptor neuron specificity and sensitivity, as well as changes in sensillar subtype abundance, between populations...
August 31, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
A A Blacutt, T R Mitchell, C W Bacon, S E Gold
The mycotoxigenic pathogen Fusarium verticillioides threatens the quality and utility of maize across industrial and agricultural purposes. Chemical control is complicated by the intimate endophytic lifestyle of the pathogen with its host. Bacillus mojavensis RRC101, a maize-endophytic bacterium, has been observed to reduce F. verticillioides disease severity and fumonisin accumulation when coinoculated to maize. Genome sequencing and annotation identified a number of biocontrol-relevant pathways in RRC101...
October 4, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
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