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B Jasim, S Sreelakshmi, Jyothis Mathew, E K Radhakrishnan
Biosynthetic adaptation of endophytic bacteria to chemically support host plant is very remarkable. Hence these organisms from medicinal plants are considered as highly valuable sources for natural products with diverse bioactivity. Their metabolite diversity and biosynthetic versatility have been increasingly explored for drug discovery. In this study, an endophytic Bacillus mojavensis with broad spectrum antibacterial properties has been analyzed for the chemical basis of its activity. By LC-MS/MS the organism was identified to have the biosynthetic ability to produce lipopeptides surfactin and fengycin...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
Carsten Jers, Mikael L Strube, Mette D Cantor, Bea K K Nielsen, Ole B Sørensen, Mette Boye, Anne S Meyer
We have previously shown that galacto-rhamnogalacturonan fibers can be enzymatically extracted from potato pulp and that these fibers have potential for exerting a prebiotic effect in piglets. The spore-forming Bacillus species are widely used as probiotics in feed supplements for pigs. In this study, we evaluated the option for further functionalizing Bacillus feed supplements by selecting strains possessing the enzymes required for extraction of the potentially prebiotic fibers. We established that it would require production and secretion of pectin lyase and/or polygalacturonase but no or limited secretion of galactanase and β-galactosidase...
February 15, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
William J Etges, Cássia C de Oliveira, Subhash Rajpurohit, Allen G Gibbs
We assessed the effects of temperature differences on gene expression using whole-transcriptome microarrays and cuticular hydrocarbon variation in populations of cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis. Four populations from Baja California and mainland Mexico and Arizona were each reared on two different host cacti, reared to sexual maturity on laboratory media, and adults were exposed for 12 hr to 15, 25, or 35°C. Temperature differences influenced the expression of 3,294 genes, while population differences and host plants affected >2,400 each in adult flies...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Hélène Lopez-Maestre, Elias A G Carnelossi, Vincent Lacroix, Nelly Burlet, Bruno Mugat, Séverine Chambeyron, Claudia M A Carareto, Cristina Vieira
Crosses between close species can lead to genomic disorders, often considered to be the cause of hybrid incompatibility, one of the initial steps in the speciation process. How these incompatibilities are established and what are their causes remain unclear. To understand the initiation of hybrid incompatibility, we performed reciprocal crosses between two species of Drosophila (D. mojavensis and D. arizonae) that diverged less than 1 Mya. We performed a genome-wide transcriptomic analysis on ovaries from parental lines and on hybrids from reciprocal crosses...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Sadin Özdemir, M Kadir Oduncu, Ersin Kilinc, Mustafa Soylak
In this study, uranium(VI) tolerance and bioaccumulation were investigated by using thermo -tolerant Bacillus mojavensis. The level of U(VI) was measured by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) value of U(VI) was experimented. Bacterial growth was not affected in the presence of 1.0 and 2.5 mg/L U(VI) at 36 h and the growth was partially affected in the presence of 5 mg/L U(VI) at 24 h. What was obtained from this study is that there was diversity in the various periods of the growth phases of metal bioaccumulation capacity, which was shown by B...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Hazem S Elshafie, Shimaa Sakr, Stefania M Mang, Sandra Belviso, Vincenzo De Feo, Ippolito Camele
There is a growing interest in essential oils (EOs) as possible alternatives for traditional chemical pesticides. This study was carried out to characterize the chemical composition of the three EOs extracted from Verbena officinalis, Majorana hortensis, and Salvia officinalis using gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and to evaluate in vitro their efficacy against some phyto or human pathogens. The antifungal activity was investigated against Colletotrichum acutatum and Botrytis cinerea in comparison with Azoxystrobin as a large spectrum fungicide...
November 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
Malee Kallbach, Sonja Horn, Anja Kuenz, Ulf Prüße
Biotechnologically produced 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO) is a potential starting material for industrial bulk chemicals such as butadiene or methyl ethyl ketone which are currently produced from fossil feedstocks. So far, the highest 2,3-BDO concentrations have been obtained with risk group 2 microorganisms. In this study, three risk group 1 microorganisms are presented that are so far unknown for an efficient production of 2,3-BDO. The strains Bacillus atrophaeus NRS-213, Bacillus mojavensis B-14698, and Bacillus vallismortis B-14891 were evaluated regarding their ability to produce high 2,3-BDO concentrations with a broad range of different carbon sources...
February 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Amber Crowley-Gall, Priya Date, Clair Han, Nicole Rhodes, Peter Andolfatto, John E Layne, Stephanie M Rollmann
Evolutionary shifts in plant-herbivore interactions provide a model for understanding the link among the evolution of behaviour, ecological specialization and incipient speciation. Drosophila mojavensis uses different host cacti across its range, and volatile chemicals emitted by the host are the primary cue for host plant identification. In this study, we show that changes in host plant use between distinct D. mojavensis populations are accompanied by changes in the olfactory system. Specifically, we observe differences in olfactory receptor neuron specificity and sensitivity, as well as changes in sensillar subtype abundance, between populations...
August 31, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
A A Blacutt, T R Mitchell, C W Bacon, S E Gold
The mycotoxigenic pathogen Fusarium verticillioides threatens the quality and utility of maize across industrial and agricultural purposes. Chemical control is complicated by the intimate endophytic lifestyle of the pathogen with its host. Bacillus mojavensis RRC101, a maize-endophytic bacterium, has been observed to reduce F. verticillioides disease severity and fumonisin accumulation when coinoculated to maize. Genome sequencing and annotation identified a number of biocontrol-relevant pathways in RRC101...
October 4, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
J C Fogleman, S M Duperret, H W Kircher
The Cactus-Drosophila Model System of the Sonoran Desert consists of four endemic species ofDrosophila (D. mojavensis, D. nigrospiracula, D. mettleri andD. pachea) and five species of columnar cacti (agria, organpipe, saguaro, cardón and senita). Extensive collection records indicate that each cactus species has only one species ofDrosophila as the primary resident. The elimination of six of the twenty possible random combinations ofDrosophila species and cactus species can be attributed directly to phytosterols...
January 1986: Lipids
Zain A Alvi, Tin-Chun Chu, Valerie Schawaroch, Angela V Klaus
The current study was aimed at analyzing putative protein sequences of the transition protein-like proteins in 12 Drosophila species based on the reference sequences of transition protein-like protein (Tpl (94D) ) expressed in Drosophila melanogaster sperm nuclei. Transition proteins aid in transforming chromatin from a histone-based nucleosome structure to a protamine-based structure during spermiogenesis - the post-meiotic stage of spermatogenesis. Sequences were obtained from NCBI Ref-Seq database using NCBI ORF-Finder (PSI-BLAST)...
September 2015: Spermatogenesis
Alejandro Sanchez-Flores, Fernando Peñaloza, Javier Carpinteyro-Ponce, Nestor Nazario-Yepiz, Cei Abreu-Goodger, Carlos A Machado, Therese Ann Markow
We report genomes of two species of cactophilic Drosophila: Drosophila arizonae and D. navojoa These two are the closest relatives of D. mojavensis, forming the D. mojavensis cluster. D. mojavensis and D. arizonae diverged from D. navojoa ∼5.8 Mya, while the split between D. arizonae and D. mojavensis is more recent, at 1.5 Mya. Together the three genomes provide opportunities to examine genomic changes associated with speciation and host shifts in this ecologically defined group of flies. The three species are also separated by fixed inversion differences in three of their six chromosomes...
October 13, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Yuriy Kryachko, Diana Semler, John Vogrinetz, Markus Lemke, Matthew G Links, E Luke McCarthy, Brenda Haug, Sean M Hemmingsen
Microorganisms indigenous to an oil reservoir were grown in media containing either sucrose or proteins in four steel vessels under anoxic conditions at 30°C and 8.3MPa for 30days, to enrich biosurfactant producers. Fermentation of substrate was possible in the protein-containing medium and either fermentation or respiration through reduction of sulfate occurred in the sucrose-containing medium. Growth of microorganisms led to 3.4-5.4-fold surface tension reduction indicating production of biosurfactants in amounts sufficient for enhancement of gas-driven oil recovery...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
Nuria Rius, Yolanda Guillén, Alejandra Delprat, Aurélie Kapusta, Cédric Feschotte, Alfredo Ruiz
BACKGROUND: Many new Drosophila genomes have been sequenced in recent years using new-generation sequencing platforms and assembly methods. Transposable elements (TEs), being repetitive sequences, are often misassembled, especially in the genomes sequenced with short reads. Consequently, the mobile fraction of many of the new genomes has not been analyzed in detail or compared with that of other genomes sequenced with different methods, which could shed light into the understanding of genome and TE evolution...
2016: BMC Genomics
C Cosentino, C Labella, H S Elshafie, I Camele, M Musto, R Paolino, C D'Adamo, P Freschi
Thermal treatments are used to improve milk microbial safety, shelf life, and biological activity of some of its components. However, thermal treatments can reduce the nutritional quality of milk, affecting the molecular structure of milk proteins, such as lysozyme, which is a very important milk component due to its antimicrobial effect against gram-positive bacteria. Jenny milk is characterized by high lysozyme content. For this reason, in the last few years, it has been used as an antimicrobial additive in dairy products as an alternative to hen egg white lysozyme, which can cause allergic reactions...
July 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Harish Suthar, Anuradha Nerurkar
Bacillus licheniformis TT42 produced a low-molecular weight anionic biosurfactant that reduced the surface tension of water from 72 to 27 mN/m and the interfacial tension from 12 to 0.05 mN/m against crude oil. We have earlier reported significant enhancement in oil recovery in laboratory sand pack columns and core flood studies, by biosurfactant-TT42 compared to standard strain, Bacillus mojavensis JF2. In the context of this application of the biosurfactant-TT42, its characterization was deemed important...
September 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Miray Etyemez, Jose Luis Balcazar
One hundred and twenty bacterial isolates were obtained from the intestinal mucus of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and screened for antagonistic activity and adherence abilities. Based on in vitro antagonism against two pathogens (Streptococcus iniae and Edwardsiella piscicida), five isolates were selected and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. All antagonistic isolates were affiliated to the genus Bacillus, which showed inhibitory activity against S. iniae. Only the isolate B191 (closely related to Bacillus mojavensis) inhibited the growth of both pathogens...
April 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
Christopher A Dunlap, Michael J Bowman, David A Schisler, Alejandro P Rooney
Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis were previously reported to be later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus mojavensis, based primarily on DNA-DNA relatedness values. We have sequenced draft genomes of Bacillus axarquiensis NRRL B-41617T and Bacillus malacitensis NRRL B-41618T. Comparative genomics and DNA-DNA relatedness calculations showed that while Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis are synonymous with each other, they are not synonymous with Bacillus mojavensis. In addition, a draft genome was completed for Brevibacterium halotolerans, a strain long suspected of being a Bacillus subtilis group member based on 16S rRNA similarities (99...
June 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
E Dambroise, L Monnier, L Ruisheng, H Aguilaniu, J-S Joly, H Tricoire, M Rera
Aging's most obvious characteristic is the time dependent increase of an individual's probability to die. This lifelong process is accompanied by a large number of molecular and physiological changes. Although numerous genes involved in aging have been identified in the past decades its leading factors have yet to be determined. To identify the very processes driving aging we have developed in the past years an assay to identify physiologically old individuals in a synchronized population of Drosophila melanogaster...
March 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sandeep Chakraborty, Monica Britton, P J Martínez-García, Abhaya M Dandekar
Deep RNA-Seq profiling, a revolutionary method used for quantifying transcriptional levels, often includes non-specific transcripts from other co-existing organisms in spite of stringent protocols. Using the recently published walnut genome sequence as a filter, we present a broad analysis of the RNA-Seq derived transcriptome profiles obtained from twenty different tissues to extract the biodiversity and possible plant-microbe interactions in the walnut ecosystem in California. Since the residual nature of the transcripts being analyzed does not provide sufficient information to identify the exact strain, inferences made are constrained to the genus level...
March 2016: AMB Express
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