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Luqman Ogunjimi, Joseph Yaria, Akintomiwa Makanjuola, Adesola Ogunniyi
OBJECTIVES: Sexual dysfunction (SD) has been shown to be more prevalent among females with epilepsy (FWE) when compared with controls. Identified risk factors for SD among FWE include depression, antiepileptic drug (AED) type, epileptic lateralization, and temporal lobe involvement. Despite a huge population of FWE in sub-Saharan Africa and by extension Nigeria, there are limited studies on the effect of AEDs and epilepsy on sexual function among FWE in the region. We therefore studied predictors and patterns of SD among Nigerian FWE...
April 20, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Robert J Vercellino, Darrah K Sleeth, Rodney G Handy, Kyeong T Min, Scott C Collingwood
Exposure to occupational aerosols are a known hazard in many industry sectors and can be a risk factor for several respiratory diseases. In this study, a laboratory evaluation of low-cost aerosol sensors, the Dylos DC1700 and a modified Dylos known as the Utah Modified Dylos Sensor (UMDS), was performed to assess the sensors' efficiency in sampling respirable and inhalable dust at high concentrations, which are most common in occupational settings. Dust concentrations were measured in a low-speed wind tunnel with 3 UMDSs, collocated with an aerosol spectrometer (Grimm 1...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Troy Vargason, Uwe Kruger, Deborah L McGuinness, James B Adams, Elizabeth Geis, Eva Gehn, Devon Coleman, Juergen Hahn
Background: Plasma amino acid measurements have been extensively investigated in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Results thus far have been inconclusive as studies generally disagree on which amino acids are different in individuals with ASD versus their typically developing (TD) peers, due in part to methodological limitations of several studies. Method: This paper investigates plasma amino acids in children and adults with ASD using data from Arizona State University's Comprehensive Nutritional and Dietary Intervention Study...
June 2018: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders
Melinda Weaver, Sisi Gao, Kevin J McGraw
Urban environments are rapidly expanding and presenting animal populations with novel challenges, many of which are thought to be stressors that contribute to low biodiversity. However, studies on stress responses in urban vs rural populations have produced mixed results, and many of these studies use a standard stressor that cannot be replicated in the wild (e.g. restraining an animal in a bag). Pairing physiological and behavioral measurements in response to urban-related stressors improves our understanding of the mechanism underlying animal success in human-dominated landscapes...
April 16, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 19, 2018: Journal of Palliative Medicine
A Halseth, K Shan, K Gilder, M Malone, L Acevedo, K Fujioka
Objective: This multicenter, randomized, controlled, open-label trial examined weight-related quality of life, control over eating behaviour and sexual function after 26 weeks of treatment with either 32 mg naltrexone sustained release (SR)/360 mg bupropion SR plus a comprehensive lifestyle intervention program (NB + CLI, N = 153) or usual care (UC, N = 89), which included minimal lifestyle intervention. Methods: Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite, Binge Eating Scale and Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale were assessed at baseline (BL) and weeks 16 and 26...
April 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
Joseph H Hoover, Eric Coker, Yolanda Barney, Chris Shuey, Johnnye Lewis
Contaminant mixtures are identified regularly in public and private drinking water supplies throughout the United States; however, the complex and often correlated nature of mixtures makes identification of relevant combinations challenging. This study employed a Bayesian clustering method to identify subgroups of water sources with similar metal and metalloid profiles. Additionally, a spatial scan statistic assessed spatial clustering of these subgroups and a human health metric was applied to investigate potential for human toxicity...
March 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Donna M Winham, Shelly M Palmer, Traci L Armstrong Florian, Mack C Shelley
OBJECTIVES: We determined relationships between food behaviors and health-risk factors by acculturation among limited-income Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women. METHODS: Women aged 18-49 years were recruited from income-based programs in metro-Phoenix, Arizona. Self-administered surveys in English or Spanish included demographics, a 10-item food behavior checklist, health-risk factors, food security, and acculturation. Differences by 4 acculturation/ethnicity categories were assessed with chi-square and analysis of variance (ANOVA)...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Health Behavior
Allison Karpyn, Robin S DeWeese, Jennifer E Pelletier, Melissa N Laska, Punam Ohri-Vachaspati, Amy Deahl-Greenlaw, Ogheneruona Ughwanogho, Stephanie Bell Jilcott Pitts
OBJECTIVE: In response to recent national efforts to increase the availability of healthy food in small stores, we sought to understand the extent to which small food stores could implement the newly published Healthy Small Store Minimum Stocking Recommendations and reflect on the new US Department of Agriculture Food and Nutrition Service's final rule for stocking of staple foods for Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-approved retailers. DESIGN: We collected qualitative and quantitative data from 57 small stores in four states (Arizona, Delaware, Minnesota, and North Carolina) that accepted Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program but not Special Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program for Women, Infants, and Children benefits...
April 9, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Verónica González-Calle, Abigail Slack, Niamh Keane, Susan Luft, Kathryn E Pearce, Rhett P Ketterling, Tania Jain, Sintosebastian Chirackal, Craig Reeder, Joseph Mikhael, Pierre Noel, Angela Mayo, Roberta H Adams, Gregory Ahmann, Esteban Braggio, A Keith Stewart, P Leif Bergsagel, Scott A Van Wier, Rafael Fonseca
The International Myeloma Working Group has proposed the Revised International Staging System (R-ISS) for risk stratification of multiple myeloma (MM) patients. There are a limited number of studies that have validated this risk model in the autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) setting. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the applicability and value for predicting survival of the R-ISS model in 134 MM patients treated with new agents and ASCT at the Mayo Clinic in Arizona and the University Hospital of Salamanca in Spain...
April 6, 2018: Annals of Hematology
Nicolas Lessios, Ronald L Rutowski, Jonathan H Cohen
Light is a primary environmental factor used by aquatic invertebrates for depth selection behavior. Many branchiopod crustaceans live in ephemeral aquatic habitats. All branchiopod crustaceans studied to date express four or more visual opsins in their compound eyes. We asked whether two branchiopods, Triops longicaudatus , and Streptocephalus mackini , use multiple spectral channels to regulate their position in the water column. At the lowest intensities that elicited photonegative behavior, both species had broad spectral bandwidths, suggesting they use multiple spectral photoreceptor classes...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Anton du Plessis, Chris Broeckhoven, Igor Yadroitsev, Ina Yadroitsava, Stephan Gerhard le Roux
Many animal species evolved some form of body armor, such as scales of fish and bony plates or osteoderms of reptiles. Although a protective function is often taken for granted, recent studies show that body armor might comprise multiple functionalities and is shaped by trade-offs among these functionalities. Hence, despite the fact that natural body armor might serve as bio-inspiration for the development of artificial protective materials, focussing on model systems in which body armor serves a solely protective function might be pivotal...
March 29, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Poojitha Balakrishnan, Ana Navas-Acien, Karin Haack, Dhananjay Vaidya, Jason G Umans, Lyle G Best, Walter Goessler, Kevin A Francesconi, Nora Franceschini, Kari E North, Shelley A Cole, V Saroja Voruganti, Matthew O Gribble
We explored arsenic-gene interactions influencing pancreatic beta-cell activity in the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS). We considered 42 variants selected for associations with either beta-cell function (31 variants) or arsenic metabolism (11 variants) in the SHFS. Beta-cell function was calculated as homeostatic model - beta corrected for insulin resistance (cHOMA-B) by regressing homeostatic model - insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) on HOMA-B and adding mean HOMA-B. Arsenic exposure was dichotomized at the median of the sum of creatinine-corrected inorganic and organic arsenic species measured by high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICPMS)...
April 2, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Angela Darnell Baker, Paul L Leberg
Mammalian carnivores can be particularly sensitive to human disturbance, even within protected areas (PAs). Our objective was to understand how human disturbance affects carnivore communities in southern Arizona, USA by studying habitat occupancy based on data collected using non-invasive methods in three PAs with different levels of human disturbance. Carnivore occupancy varied based on human disturbance variables (i.e., roads, trails, etc.). Common carnivore species (coyotes, gray foxes, and bobcats) had high occupancy probability in highly disturbed sites, while all other carnivore species had a higher probability of occupancy in low disturbance protected areas...
2018: PloS One
Molly Staley, Camille Bonneaud, Kevin J McGraw, Carol M Vleck, Geoffrey E Hill
In 1994, an endemic poultry pathogen, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), was identified as the causative agent of a novel disease in house finches ( Haemorhous mexicanus). After an initial outbreak in Maryland, MG spread rapidly throughout eastern North American populations of house finches. Subsequently, MG spread slowly through the northern interior of North America and then into the Pacific Northwest, finally reaching California in 2006. Until 2009, there were no reports of MG in the southwestern United States east of California...
March 2018: Avian Diseases
Chun-Yu Cheng, Rakshith Shetty, Vicente Martinez, Laligam N Sekhar
A 73-yr-old man presented with intractable left hemifacial spasm of 4 yr duration. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed significant compression of left facial nerve by the left vertebral artery (VA) and anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA).The patient underwent a left retrosigmoid craniotomy and a microvascular decompression of the cranial nerve (CN) VII. Intraoperatively, we found that the distal AICA had a protracted subarcuate extradural course.1 This was relieved by intra/extradural dissection...
March 29, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Dale A Halbritter, Denis S Willett, Johnalyn M Gordon, Lukasz L Stelinski, Jaret C Daniels
Specialized herbivorous insects have the ability to transition between host plant taxa, and considering the co-evolutionary history between plants and the organisms utilizing them is important to understanding plant insect interactions. We investigated the role of a pine tree parasite, dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium spp.) M. Bieb. Santalales: Viscaceae, in mediating interactions between Neophasia (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) butterflies and pine trees, the butterflies' larval hosts. Mistletoe is considered the butterflies' ancestral host, and the evolutionary transition to pine may have occurred recently...
March 31, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Norman L Beatty, Kelly M Hager, Kyle R McKeown, Francisco Mora, Kathryn R Matthias, David E Nix, Mayar Al Mohajer
We surveyed urgent care centers (UCCs) in the state of Arizona to determine whether they offered the influenza vaccine during the 2016-2017 influenza season. Overall vaccine availability was 80.3% at these facilities. During this season, one-third of the UCCs offered influenza vaccination to children 6 months or older; approximately two-thirds offered influenza vaccination to children and young adults 16 years or older. This is the first study of influenza vaccine availability at UCCs.
March 30, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Milena Ponczek, Christian George
Mineral dust particles have photochemical properties that can promote heterogeneous reactions on their surfaces and therefore alter atmospheric composition. Even though dust photocatalysis has received significant attention recently, most studies have focused on inorganic trace gases. Here we investigated how light changes the chemical interactions between butanol and Arizona test dust, a proxy for mineral dust, under atmospheric conditions. Butanol uptake kinetics were measured, exploring the effects of UV light irradiation intensity (0 - 1...
March 29, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Sehem Ghazala, Todd Rabkin Golden, Sumaya Farran, Tirdad T Zangeneh
We report an extremely rare case of purulent pericarditis caused by the normally commensal oral flora, Streptococcus constellatus, a viridans Streptococcal species and member of the S. anginosus group (previously also known by the eponymous ' S. milleri', for American Willoughby Dayton Miller). This case is a previously healthy 71-year-old immunocompetent woman from Arizona who presented with a 5-day history of progressive shortness of breath and chest tightness, and subjective fever and chills, but without history of nausea, vomiting, night sweats, recent travel, autoimmune disease or sick contacts...
March 28, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
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