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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199416/restoring-and-managing-low-severity-fire-in-dry-forest-landscapes-of-the-western-usa
#1
William L Baker
Low-severity fires that killed few canopy trees played a significant historical role in dry forests of the western USA and warrant restoration and management, but historical rates of burning remain uncertain. Past reconstructions focused on on dating fire years, not measuring historical rates of burning. Past statistics, including mean composite fire interval (mean CFI) and individual-tree fire interval (mean ITFI) have biases and inaccuracies if used as estimators of rates. In this study, I used regression, with a calibration dataset of 96 cases, to test whether these statistics could accurately predict two equivalent historical rates, population mean fire interval (PMFI) and fire rotation (FR)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181923/variation-in-cyp2a6-and-nicotine-metabolism-among-two-american-indian-tribal-groups-differing-in-smoking-patterns-and-risk-for-tobacco-related-cancer
#2
Julie-Anne Tanner, Jeffrey A Henderson, Dedra Buchwald, Barbara V Howard, Patricia Nez Henderson, Rachel F Tyndale
OBJECTIVE: The Northern Plains (NP) and Southwest (SW) American Indian populations differ in their smoking patterns and lung cancer incidence. We aimed to compare CYP2A6 genetic variation and CYP2A6 enzyme activity (representative of the rate of nicotine metabolism) between the two tribal populations as these have previously been associated with differences in smoking, quitting, and lung cancer risk. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: American Indians (N=636) were recruited from two different tribal populations (NP in South Dakota, SW in Arizona) as part of a study carried out as part of the Collaborative to Improve Native Cancer Outcomes P50 Project...
February 8, 2017: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181155/genetic-analysis-of-norovirus-strains-that-caused-gastroenteritis-outbreaks-among-river-rafters-in-the-grand-canyon-arizona
#3
Masaaki Kitajima, Brandon C Iker, Anne Magill-Collins, Marlene Gaither, James D Stoehr, Charles P Gerba
Toilet solid waste samples collected from five outbreaks among rafters in the Grand Canyon were subjected to sequencing analysis of norovirus partial capsid gene. The results revealed that a GI.3 strain was associated with one outbreak, whereas the other outbreaks were caused by GII.5 whose sequences shared >98.9% homology.
February 8, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180925/innovative-approaches-to-collaborative-groundwater-governance-in-the-united-states-case-studies-from-three-high-growth-regions-in-the-sun-belt
#4
Sharon B Megdal, Andrea K Gerlak, Ling-Yee Huang, Nathaniel Delano, Robert G Varady, Jacob D Petersen-Perlman
Groundwater is an increasingly important source of freshwater, especially where surface water resources are fully or over-allocated or becoming less reliable due to climate change. Groundwater reliance has created new challenges for sustainable management. This article examines how regional groundwater users coordinate and collaborate to manage shared groundwater resources, including attention to what drives collaboration. To identify and illustrate these facets, this article examines three geographically diverse cases of groundwater governance and management from the United States Sun Belt: Orange County Water District in southern California; Prescott Active Management Area in north-central Arizona; and the Central Florida Water Initiative in central Florida...
February 8, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161126/enhancing-silymarin-fractionation-using-the-conductor-like-screening-model-for-real-solvents
#5
Emma C Brace, Abigail S Engelberth
A significant hurdle for discovery of plant-derived products is the numerous trial-and-error experiments required to develop an effective purification strategy. To overcome the experimental burden, a quantum mechanics-based molecular modeling approach - known as the COnductor-like Screening Model for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS) - was used to predict a suitable two-phase solvent system to purify six silymarins from an aqueous mixture. Silymarins, a class of flavonolignans found in milk thistle (Silybum marianum L...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158148/the-optical-society-s-2016-topical-meeting-on-optical-interference-coatings-introduction
#6
Detlev Ristau, Li Li, Robert Sargent, Anna Sytchkova
This feature issue of Applied Optics is dedicated to the 13th Topical Meeting on Optical Interference Coatings, which was held June 19-24, 2016, in Tucson, Arizona, USA. The conference, taking place every three years, is a focal point for global technical interchange in the field of optical interference coatings and provides premier opportunities for people working in the field to present their new advances in research and development. Papers presented at the meeting covered a broad range of topics, including fundamental research on coating design theory, new materials, and deposition and characterization technologies, as well as the vast and growing number of applications in electronic displays, communication, optical instruments, high power and ultra-fast lasers, solar cells, space missions, gravitational wave detection, and many others...
February 1, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152626/the-k-sf-42
#7
Aurelio José Figueredo, Rafael Antonio Garcia, J Michael Menke, W Jake Jacobs, Paul Robert Gladden, JeanMarie Bianchi, Emily Anne Patch, Connie J A Beck, Phillip S Kavanagh, Marcela Sotomayor-Peterson, Yunfan Jiang, Norman P Li
The purpose of the present article is to propose an alternative short form for the 199-item Arizona Life History Battery (ALHB), which we are calling the K-SF-42, as it contains 42 items as compared with the 20 items of the Mini-K, the short form that has been in greatest use for the past decade. These 42 items were selected from the ALHB, unlike those of the Mini-K, making direct comparisons of the relative psychometric performance of the two alternative short forms a valid and instructive exercise. A series of secondary data analyses were performed upon a recently completed five-nation cross-cultural survey, which was originally designed to assess the role of life history strategy in the etiology of interpersonal aggression...
January 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151083/bird-feeders-as-locations-for-skunk-uptake-of-oral-rabies-vaccine-baits
#8
Tad Theimer, Tisheena Talk, Shylo Johnson, David L Bergman
Significantly more (54%, P=0.003) placebo baits placed under 26 bird feeders in Arizona were removed by striped skunks ( Mephitis mephitis ) than at paired, nonfeeder locations (19%). Baiting at bird feeders could supplement traditional oral rabies vaccine bait placement in urban-suburban areas while engaging the public in rabies control efforts.
February 2, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150328/use-of-emergency-ultrasound-in-arizona-community-emergency-departments
#9
Richard Amini, Michael T Wyman, Nicholas C Hernandez, John A Guisto, Srikar Adhikari
OBJECTIVES: Despite the increased educational exposure to point-of-care ultrasound (US) at all levels of medical training, there are utilization gaps between academic and nonacademic emergency department (ED) settings. The purpose of this study was to assess the current practices and potential barriers to the use of point-of-care US in nonacademic EDs throughout the state of Arizona. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study. An online questionnaire was electronically sent to all nonacademic EDs in Arizona...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149775/accommodation-in-human-eye-models-a-comparison-between-the-optical-designs-of-navarro-arizona-and-liou-brennan
#10
Georgios Zoulinakis, Jose Juan Esteve-Taboada, Teresa Ferrer-Blasco, David Madrid-Costa, Robert Montés-Micó
AIM: To simulate and compare accommodation in accommodative and non-accommodative human eye models. METHODS: Ray tracing and optical design program was used. Three eye models were designed and studied: the Navarro, the Arizona and the Liou-Brennan. In order to make the Navarro and Liou-Brennan models to accommodate, specific geometric parameters of the models were altered with values that were chosen from the literature. For the Arizona model, its' mathematical functions for accommodation were used for the same accommodative demands...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139538/sexual-dysfunctions-in-alcohol-dependent-men-a-study-from-north-india
#11
Shreyas Pendharkar, Surendra K Mattoo, Sandeep Grover
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Sexual dysfunctions have been reported in alcohol-dependent men. Most of the studies conducted had limitation of using non-validated measures of sexual dysfunction and sampling design. This study was, therefore, conducted to determine the typology, demographic and clinical correlates of sexual dysfunction in alcohol-dependent men. METHODS: One hundred and one patients with alcohol dependence (AD) attending the Drug De-addiction and Treatment Centre and 50 healthy controls were evaluated in this cross-sectional study...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139345/effect-of-different-methods-of-accounting-for-antihypertensive-treatment-when-assessing-the-relationship-between-diabetes-or-obesity-and-systolic-blood-pressure
#12
Stephanie K Tanamas, Robert L Hanson, Robert G Nelson, William C Knowler
BACKGROUND: Underlying blood pressure is that observed in the absence of antihypertensive treatment or, among those treated, the estimate of that which would be observed without treatment. This study aims to examine the relationships between diabetes or obesity and underlying systolic blood pressure adjusted for antihypertensive treatment by several methods. METHODS: Data from two population studies were analyzed-an American Indian community in Arizona and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137305/peripheral-apoe-isoform-levels-in-cognitively-normal-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B53-%C3%AE%C2%B54-individuals-are-associated-with-regional-gray-matter-volume-and-cerebral-glucose-metabolism
#13
Henrietta M Nielsen, Kewei Chen, Wendy Lee, Yinghua Chen, Robert J Bauer, Eric Reiman, Richard Caselli, Guojun Bu
BACKGROUND: Carriers of the APOE ε4 allele are at increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD), and have been shown to have reduced cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRgl) in the same brain areas frequently affected in AD. These individuals also exhibit reduced plasma levels of apolipoprotein E (apoE) attributed to a specific decrease in the apoE4 isoform as determined by quantification of individual apoE isoforms in APOE ε4 heterozygotes. Whether low plasma apoE levels are associated with structural and functional brain measurements and cognitive performance remains to be investigated...
January 30, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135726/the-relationships-among-exposure-to-violence-psychological-distress-and-gun-carrying-among-male-adolescents-found-guilty-of-serious-legal-offenses-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#14
Joan A Reid, Tara N Richards, Thomas A Loughran, Edward P Mulvey
Background: Gun violence and psychological problems are often conflated in public discourse on gun safety. However, few studies have empirically assessed the effect of exposure to violence when exploring the association between gun carrying and psychological distress. Objective: To examine the potential effect of exposure to violence on the associations between gun carrying and psychological distress among vulnerable adolescents. Design: Longitudinal cohort study...
January 31, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133829/evidence-for-concerted-movement-of-nuclear-and-mitochondrial-clines-in-a-lizard-hybrid-zone
#15
Adam D Leaché, Jared A Grummer, Rebecca B Harris, Ian Breckheimer
Moving hybrid zones provide compelling examples of evolution in action, yet long-term studies that test the assumptions of hybrid zone stability are rare. Using replicated transect samples collected over a 10 year interval from 2002 to 2012, we find evidence for concerted movement of genetic clines in a plateau fence lizard hybrid zone (Sceloporus tristichus) in Arizona. Cline-fitting analyses of SNP and mtDNA data both provide evidence that the hybrid zone shifted northward by approximately two kilometres during the 10 year interval...
January 30, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132426/unwarranted-variation-in-utilization-of-cesarean-birth-among-low-risk-childbearing-women
#16
REVIEW
Diana R Jolles
INTRODUCTION: Unwarranted variations in care are defined as differences in utilization of health care resources that cannot be explained by patient risk factors, standards of evidence-based medicine, or patient preferences. Also known as nonmedical determinants of variation, differences in health care utilization across the United States have been well documented in the literature during the past 40 years. The purpose of the literature review is to summarize the state of the science related to the nonmedical determinants of variation in cesarean birth among low-risk childbearing women, defined within national quality standards as nulliparous women with term, singleton pregnancies in the vertex presentation...
January 2017: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126150/drug-induced-qtc-prolongation
#17
Fady S Riad, Andrew M Davis, Michael P Moranville, John F Beshai
QTc prolongation has a high prevalence of and is associated with increased all-cause mortality. Nonetheless, QTc prolonging medications are often used during patient hospitalizations despite baseline prolongation and QTc changes. Data regarding the real-world relative risk of QTc prolongation in the hospital setting are lacking. In this study, we sought to quantify the degree and relative risk of QTc prolongation in patients receiving Arizona Center for Education and Research on Therapeutics (AzCERT) "known risk" medications...
January 15, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123211/racial-ethnic-disparities-in-rates-of-traumatic-injury-in-arizona-2011-2012
#18
Vatsal Chikani, Maureen Brophy, Anne Vossbrink, Robyn N Blust, Mary Benkert, Chris Salvino, Conrad Diven, Rogelio Martinez
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the rates of traumatic injury among five racial/ethnic groups in Arizona and to identify which mechanisms and intents of traumatic injury were predominant in each group. METHODS: We obtained 2011 and 2012 data on traumatic injury from Arizona's trauma registry and data on mortality from Arizona's death registry. We calculated location- and age-adjusted rates (aRs) of traumatic injury and rates of mortality per 100,000 Arizona residents and rate ratios (RRs) for each racial/ethnic group...
September 2016: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118395/novel-temperate-phages-of-salmonella-enterica-subsp-salamae-and-subsp-diarizonae-and-their-activity-against-pathogenic-s-enterica-subsp-enterica-isolates
#19
Lenka Mikalová, Juraj Bosák, Hana Hříbková, Daniela Dědičová, Oldřich Benada, Jan Šmarda, David Šmajs
Forty strains of Salmonella enterica (S. enterica) subspecies salamae (II), arizonae (IIIa), diarizonae (IIIb), and houtenae (IV) were isolated from human or environmental samples and tested for bacteriophage production. Production of bacteriophages was observed in 15 S. enterica strains (37.5%) belonging to either the subspecies salamae (8 strains) or diarizonae (7 strains). Activity of phages was tested against 52 pathogenic S. enterica subsp. enterica isolates and showed that phages produced by subsp. salamae had broader activity against pathogenic salmonellae compared to phages from the subsp...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116058/effects-of-temperature-on-transcriptome-and-cuticular-hydrocarbon-expression-in-ecologically-differentiated-populations-of-desert-drosophila
#20
William J Etges, Cássia C de Oliveira, Subhash Rajpurohit, Allen G Gibbs
We assessed the effects of temperature differences on gene expression using whole-transcriptome microarrays and cuticular hydrocarbon variation in populations of cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis. Four populations from Baja California and mainland Mexico and Arizona were each reared on two different host cacti, reared to sexual maturity on laboratory media, and adults were exposed for 12 hr to 15, 25, or 35°C. Temperature differences influenced the expression of 3,294 genes, while population differences and host plants affected >2,400 each in adult flies...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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