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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436536/early-vertebrate-origin-and-diversification-of-small-transmembrane-regulators-of-cellular-ion-transport
#1
Sergej Pirkmajer, Henriette Kirchner, Leonidas Lundell, Pavel V Zelenin, Juleen R Zierath, Kira S Makarova, Yuri I Wolf, Alexander V Chibalin
Small transmembrane proteins are important for regulation of cellular ion transport. The most prominent among these proteins are members of the FXYD family (FXYD1-12), which regulate Na(+) -K(+) -ATPase, and phospholamban, sarcolipin, myoregulin, and DWORF, which regulate the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) -ATPase (SERCA). FXYDs and regulators of SERCA are present in fishes, as well as terrestrial vertebrates; however, their evolutionary origins and phylogenetic relationships are obscure, thus hampering comparative physiological studies...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421606/role-of-mucosa-in-generating-spontaneous-activity-in-the-guinea-pig-seminal-vesicle
#2
Mitsue Takeya, Hikaru Hashitani, Tokumasa Hayashi, Ryuhei Higashi, Kei-Ichiro Nakamura, Makoto Takano
The role of the mucosa in generating the spontaneous activity of guinea-pig seminal vesicle (SV) was explored. Changes in contractility, membrane potential and intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics of SV smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were recorded using isometric tension recording, intracellular microelectrode recording and epi-fluorescence Ca(2+) imaging, respectively. Mucosa-intact but not mucosa-denuded SV preparations generated TTX (1 μm)-resistant spontaneous phasic contractions that were abolished by nifedipine (3 μm)...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416809/perisomatic-changes-in-h-channels-regulate-depressive-behaviors-following-chronic-unpredictable-stress
#3
C S Kim, D H Brager, D Johnston
Chronic stress can be a precipitating factor in the onset of depression. Lentiviral-mediated knockdown of HCN1 protein expression and reduction of functional Ih produce antidepressant behavior. However, whether h-channels are altered in an animal model of depression is not known. We found that perisomatic HCN1 protein expression and Ih-sensitive physiological measurements were significantly increased in dorsal but not in ventral CA1 region/neurons following chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), a widely accepted model for major depressive disorder...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412648/content-decline-of-serca-inhibitors-saikosaponin-a-and-d-attenuates-cardiotoxicity-and-hepatotoxicity-of-vinegar-baked-radix-bupleuri
#4
Shifeng Wang, Yuxin Zhang, Qiao Zhang, Sha Peng, Chen Shen, Yangyang Yu, Minyu Zhang, Wei Yang, Qinghua Wu, Yanling Zhang, Shiyou Li, Yanjiang Qiao
Improper usage of unprocessed Radix bupleuri root (chaihu) may cause cardiotoxicity and liver injury. Baking herb with vinegar is believed to attenuate the adverse responses. However, the chemical and molecular basis involved remained unclear. To this end, we investigated the in vitro toxicity of saikosaponin a, c, d, and their hydrolysates saikosaponin b1 and b2. Results showed that SSa and SSd possessed higher affinity with sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) by molecular docking, and exhibited stronger toxic responses on cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes than the other three saikosaponins in equivalent concentrations...
April 4, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404582/histone-deacetylase-activity-modulates-exercise-induced-skeletal-muscle-plasticity-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#5
Alec Izaac Marcus Simmonds, Frank Seebacher
Aerobic exercise has a positive impact on animals by enhancing skeletal muscle function and locomotor performance. Responses of skeletal muscle to exercise involve changes in energy metabolism, calcium handling, and the composition of contractile protein isoforms, which together influence contractile properties. Histone deacetylases (HDAC) can cause short-term changes in gene expression, and may thereby mediate plasticity in contractile properties of skeletal muscle in response to exercise. The aim of this project was to determine (in zebrafish, Danio rerio) the traits that mediate inter-individual differences in sustained and sprint performance, and to determine whether inhibiting class I and II HDACs mediates exercise-induced changes in these traits...
April 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399403/thada-regulates-the-organismal-balance-between-energy-storage-and-heat-production
#6
Alexandra Moraru, Gulcin Cakan-Akdogan, Katrin Strassburger, Matilda Males, Sandra Mueller, Markus Jabs, Michael Muelleder, Martin Frejno, Bart P Braeckman, Markus Ralser, Aurelio A Teleman
Human susceptibility to obesity is mainly genetic, yet the underlying evolutionary drivers causing variation from person to person are not clear. One theory rationalizes that populations that have adapted to warmer climates have reduced their metabolic rates, thereby increasing their propensity to store energy. We uncover here the function of a gene that supports this theory. THADA is one of the genes most strongly selected during evolution as humans settled in different climates. We report here that THADA knockout flies are obese, hyperphagic, have reduced energy production, and are sensitive to the cold...
April 10, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381328/long-term-effect-of-a-chronic-low-protein-multideficient-diet-on-the-heart-hypertension-and-heart-failure-in-chronically-malnourished-young-adult-rats
#7
Luiza V P Mendes, Sabrina R Gonsalez, Leonardo M Oliveira-Pinto, Amaury Pereira-Acácio, Christina M Takiya, José H M Nascimento, Marcelo Einicker-Lamas, Adalberto Vieyra, Valéria M N Cunha, Lucienne S Lara
BACKGROUND: We investigated whether a chronic low-protein multideficient diet (BRD) from weaning turns on cardiovascular adaptive responses that could culminate in hypertension and heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: Systolic pressure (SP) and heart rate (HR) were determined in CTRL (normal diet) and BRD rats. Plasma albumin, plasma urea and urinary urea excretion decreased in BRD rats. In this group, echocardiography and the Langendorff technique showed: (i) increased HR and hypertension; (ii) decreased LVDP, dP/dtmax, dP/dtmin, cardiac output, ejection fraction, stroke volume and left ventricular diameter...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374834/glycation-of-paraoxonase-1-by-high-glucose-instigates-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-to-induce-endothelial-dysfunction-in-vivo
#8
Wei Yu, Xiaoli Liu, Liru Feng, Hui Yang, Weiye Yu, Tiejian Feng, Shuangxi Wang, Jun Wang, Ning Liu
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) modulates low-density lipoprotein and cell membrane oxidation through the action of paraoxonase-1 (PON1). Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been linked to a wide range of human pathologies including diabetes, obesity, and atherosclerosis. Previous studies have reported that PON1 is glycated in diabetes. The aim of this study is to investigate whether and how PON1 glycation contributes to endothelial dysfunction in diabetes. ER stress markers were monitored by western blot...
April 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374413/beneficial-effects-of-leptin-treatment-in-a-setting-of-cardiac-dysfunction-induced-by-transverse-aortic-constriction-in-mouse
#9
Nieves Gómez-Hurtado, Alejandro Domínguez-Rodríguez, Philippe Mateo, Maria Fernandez-Velasco, Almudena Val-Blasco, Rafael Aizpún, Jessica Sabourin, Ana Maria Gómez, Jean-Pierre Benitah, Carmen Delgado
KEY POINTS: Leptin, is a 16 kDa pleiotropic peptide, primary secreted by adipocytes, but also produced by other tissues including the heart. Controversy exists regarding the adverse and beneficial effects of Leptin on the heart We analysed the effect of a non-hypertensive dose of leptin on cardiac function, [Ca(2+) ]i handling and cellular electrophysiology, which participate in the genesis of pump failure and related arrhythmias both in control mice and in mice subjected to chronic pressure-overload by transverse aorta constriction We find that Leptin activates mechanisms that contribute to cardiac dysfunction in physiological conditions...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374038/preexisting-domain-motions-underlie-protonation-dependent-structural-transitions-of-the-p-type-ca-2-atpase
#10
Eli Fernández-de Gortari, L Michel Espinoza-Fonseca
We have performed microsecond molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to determine the mechanism for protonation-dependent structural transitions of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA), one of the most prominent members of the large P-type ATPase superfamily that transports ions across biological membranes. The release of two H(+) from the transport sites activates SERCA by inducing a structural transition between low (E2) and high (E1) Ca(2+)-affinity states (E2-to-E1 transition), but the structural mechanism by which transport site deprotonation facilitates this transition is unknown...
April 12, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373957/comparative-study-the-expression-of-calcium-cycling-genes-in-bombay-duck-harpadon-nehereus-and-beltfish-trichiurus-lepturus-with-different-swimming-activities
#11
Hui Zhang, Gilbert Audira, Yuan Li, Weiwei Xian, Muhammed Muhsin Varikkodan, Chung-Der Hsiao
The contraction and relaxation events of the muscle is mediated by the coordination of many important calcium cycling proteins of ryanodine receptor (RYR), troponin C (TNNC), parvalbumin (PVALB), sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium transport ATPase (SERCA) and calsequestrin (CASQ). In higher vertebrates, the expression level of calcium cycling proteins are positively correlated to the muscle contraction/relaxation ability of the cell. In this study, we used RNAseq to explore the expression profile of calcium cycling genes between two marine fish of Bombay duck (Harpadon nehereus) and beltfish (Trichiurus lepturus) with poor and robust swimming activities, respectively...
June 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292875/in-vivo-ca-2-dynamics-induced-by-ca-2-injection-in-individual-rat-skeletal-muscle-fibers
#12
Mario Wakizaka, Hiroaki Eshima, Yoshinori Tanaka, Hideki Shirakawa, David C Poole, Yutaka Kano
In contrast to cardiomyocytes, store overload-induced calcium ion (Ca(2+)) release (SOICR) is not considered to constitute a primary Ca(2+) releasing system from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in skeletal muscle myocytes. In the latter, voltage-induced Ca(2+) release (VICR) is regarded as the dominant mechanism facilitating contractions. Any role of the SOICR in the regulation of cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) and its dynamics in skeletal muscle in vivo remains poorly understood. By means of in vivo single fiber Ca(2+) microinjections combined with bioimaging techniques, we tested the hypothesis that the [Ca(2+)]i dynamics following Ca(2+) injection would be amplified and fiber contraction facilitated by SOICR...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290590/the-ca-2-atpase-pump-facilitates-bidirectional-proton-transport-across-the-sarco-endoplasmic-reticulum
#13
L Michel Espinoza-Fonseca
Ca(2+) transport across the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (SR) plays an essential role in intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, signalling, cell differentiation and muscle contractility. During SR Ca(2+) uptake and release, proton fluxes are required to balance the charge deficit generated by the exchange of Ca(2+) and other ions across the SR. During Ca(2+) uptake by the SR Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA), two protons are countertransported from the SR lumen to the cytosol, thus partially compensating for the charge moved by Ca(2+) transport...
March 28, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287621/restoring-the-impaired-cardiac-calcium-homeostasis-and-cardiac-function-in-iron-overload-rats-by-the-combined-deferiprone-and-n-acetyl-cysteine
#14
Suwakon Wongjaikam, Sirinart Kumfu, Juthamas Khamseekaew, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, Nipon Chattipakorn
Intracellular calcium [Ca(2+)]i dysregulation plays an important role in the pathophysiology of iron overload cardiomyopathy. Although either iron chelators or antioxidants provide cardioprotection, a comparison of the efficacy of deferoxamine (DFO), deferiprone (DFP), deferasirox (DFX), N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or a combination of DFP plus NAC on cardiac [Ca(2+)]i homeostasis in chronic iron overload has never been investigated. Male Wistar rats were fed with either a normal diet or a high iron (HFe) diet for 4 months...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278204/sarcolipin-deletion-exacerbates-soleus-muscle-atrophy-and-weakness-in-phospholamban-overexpressing-mice
#15
Val A Fajardo, Daniel Gamu, Andrew Mitchell, Darin Bloemberg, Eric Bombardier, Paige J Chambers, Catherine Bellissimo, Joe Quadrilatero, A Russell Tupling
Sarcolipin (SLN) and phospholamban (PLN) are two small proteins that regulate the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase pumps. In a recent study, we discovered that Pln overexpression (PlnOE) in slow-twitch type I skeletal muscle fibers drastically impaired SERCA function and caused a centronuclear myopathy-like phenotype, severe muscle atrophy and weakness, and an 8 to 9-fold upregulation of SLN protein in the soleus muscles. Here, we sought to determine the physiological role of SLN upregulation, and based on its role as a SERCA inhibitor, we hypothesized that it would represent a maladaptive response that contributes to the SERCA dysfunction and the overall myopathy observed in the PlnOE mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275147/localization-and-characterization-of-cyp76ae2-part-of-thapsigargin-biosynthesis-in-thapsia-garganica
#16
Trine Bundgaard Andersen, Karen Agatha Martinez-Swatson, Silas Anselm Rasmussen, Berin Alain Boughton, Kirsten Jørgensen, Johan Andersen-Ranberg, Nils Nyberg, Søren Brøgger Christensen, Henrik Toft Simonsen
The Mediterranean plant Thapsia garganica (dicot, Apiaceae), also known as Deadly carrot, produces the highly toxic compound thapsigargin. This compound is a potent inhibitor of the SERCA calcium pump in mammals, and is of industrial importance as the active moiety of the anticancer drug Mipsagargin, currently in clinical trials. Knowledge of thapsigargin in planta storage and biosynthesis has so far been limited. Here we present the putative second step in thapsigargin biosynthesis, by showing that the cytochrome P450 TgCYP76AE2, transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana, converts epikunzeaol into epidihydrocostunolide...
March 8, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261092/screening-for-small-molecule-inhibitors-of-statin-induced-app-c-terminal-toxic-fragment-production
#17
Karen S Poksay, Douglas J Sheffler, Patricia Spilman, Jesus Campagna, Barbara Jagodzinska, Olivier Descamps, Olivia Gorostiza, Alex Matalis, Michael Mullenix, Dale E Bredesen, Nicholas D P Cosford, Varghese John
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by neuronal and synaptic loss. One process that could contribute to this loss is the intracellular caspase cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) resulting in release of the toxic C-terminal 31-amino acid peptide APP-C31 along with the production of APPΔC31, full-length APP minus the C-terminal 31 amino acids. We previously found that a mutation in APP that prevents this caspase cleavage ameliorated synaptic loss and cognitive impairment in a murine AD model...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254579/resveratrol-induced-autophagy-is-dependent-on-ip3rs-and-on-cytosolic-ca-2
#18
Tomas Luyten, Kirsten Welkenhuyzen, Gemma Roest, Elzbieta Kania, Liwei Wang, Mart Bittremieux, David I Yule, Jan B Parys, Geert Bultynck
Previous work revealed that intracellular Ca(2+) signals and the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors (IP3R) are essential to increase autophagic flux in response to mTOR inhibition, induced by either nutrient starvation or rapamycin treatment. Here, we investigated whether autophagy induced by resveratrol, a polyphenolic phytochemical reported to trigger autophagy in a non-canonical way, also requires IP3Rs and Ca(2+) signaling. Resveratrol augmented autophagic flux in a time-dependent manner in HeLa cells...
February 28, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249687/activation-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-calcium-leak-by-2-apb-depends-on-the-luminal-calcium-concentration
#19
Daniel Leon-Aparicio, Jesus Chavez-Reyes, Agustin Guerrero-Hernandez
It has been shown that 2-APB is a nonspecific modulator of ion channel activity, while most of the channels are inhibited by this compound, there are few examples of channels that are activated by 2-APB. Additionally, it has been shown that, 2-APB leads to a reduction in the luminal endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) level ([Ca(2+)]ER) and we have carried out simultaneous recordings of both [Ca(2+)]i and the [Ca(2+)]ER in HeLa cell suspensions to assess the mechanism involved in this effect. This approach allowed us to determine that 2-APB induces a reduction in the [Ca(2+)]ER by activating an ER-resident Ca(2+) permeable channel more than by inhibiting the activity of SERCA pumps...
February 8, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237334/functional-involvement-of-protein-kinase-c-rho-kinase-and-trpc3-decreases-while-plc-increases-with-advancement-of-pregnancy-in-mediating-oxytocin-induced-myometrial-contractions-in-water-buffaloes-bubalus-bubalis
#20
Abhishek Sharma, Udayraj P Nakade, Soumen Choudhury, Satish Kumar Garg
Present study unravels the involvement of different calcium signaling pathways in oxytocin-induced contractions in myometrium of non-pregnant and pregnant buffaloes during early and mid-pregnancy stages. Uteri of pregnant animals were more sensitive than of non-pregnant buffaloes. Phasic contractions and frequency of contraction significantly increased with advancement of pregnancy, while tonic contractions non-significantly and amplitude significantly decreased from six months pregnancy onward. Oxytocin produced concentration-dependent-contraction on isolated myometrial strips of pregnant and non-pregnant buffaloes and the dose response curves (DRCs) of oxytocin were significantly (P < 0...
April 1, 2017: Theriogenology
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