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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145427/do-microplastic-particles-affect-daphnia-magna-at-the-morphological-life-history-and-molecular-level
#1
Hannes K Imhof, Jakub Rusek, Michaela Thiel, Justyna Wolinska, Christian Laforsch
Microplastic particles are ubiquitous not only in marine but also in freshwater ecosystems. However, the impacts of microplastics, consisting of a large variety of synthetic polymers, on freshwater organisms remains poorly understood. We examined the effects of two polymer mixtures on the morphology, life history and on the molecular level of the waterflea Daphnia magna (three different clones). Microplastic particles of ~40 μm were supplied at a low concentration (1% of the food particles) leading to an average of ~30 particles in the digestive tract which reflects a high microplastic contamination but still resembles a natural situation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133865/cold-acclimation-causes-fiber-type-specific-responses-in-glucose-and-fat-metabolism-in-rat-skeletal-muscles
#2
Diane M Sepa-Kishi, Yass Sotoudeh-Nia, Ayesha Iqbal, George Bikopoulos, Rolando B Ceddia
This study investigated fiber type-specific metabolic responses and the molecular mechanisms that regulate glucose and fat metabolism in oxidative and glycolytic muscles upon cold acclimation. Male Wistar rats were exposed to cold (4 °C) for 7 days, and then glycogen synthesis and content, glucose and palmitate oxidation, and the molecular mechanisms underlying these metabolic pathways were assessed in soleus (Sol), extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and epitrochlearis (Epit) muscles. Cold acclimation increased glycogen synthesis, glycogen content, glucose oxidation, and reduced glycogen synthase (GS) phosphorylation only in Sol muscles...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121655/experimental-blunt-chest-trauma-induced-myocardial-inflammation-and-alteration-of-gap-junction-protein-connexin-43
#3
Miriam Kalbitz, Elisa Maria Amann, Belinda Bosch, Annette Palmer, Anke Schultze, Jochen Pressmar, Birte Weber, Martin Wepler, Florian Gebhard, Hubert Schrezenmeier, Rolf Brenner, Markus Huber-Lang
OBJECTIVE: Severe blunt chest trauma in humans is associated with high mortality rates. Whereas lung tissue damage and lung inflammation after blunt chest trauma have extensively been investigated, the traumatic and posttraumatic effects on the heart remain poorly understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to define cardiac injury patterns in an experimental blunt chest trauma model in rats. METHODS: Experimental blunt chest trauma was induced by a blast wave in rats, with subsequent analysis of its effects on the heart...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117223/sensitivity-analysis-revealing-the-effect-of-modulating-ionic-mechanisms-on-calcium-dynamics-in-simulated-human-heart-failure
#4
Maria T Mora, Jose M Ferrero, Lucia Romero, Beatriz Trenor
Abnormal intracellular Ca2+ handling is the major contributor to the depressed cardiac contractility observed in heart failure. The electrophysiological remodeling associated with this pathology alters both the action potential and the Ca2+ dynamics, leading to a defective excitation-contraction coupling that ends in mechanical dysfunction. The importance of maintaining a correct intracellular Ca2+ concentration requires a better understanding of its regulation by ionic mechanisms. To study the electrical activity and ionic homeostasis of failing myocytes, a modified version of the O'Hara et al...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081402/conformational-memory-in-the-association-of-the-transmembrane-protein-phospholamban-with-the-sarcoplasmic-reticulum-calcium-pump-serca
#5
Serena Smeazzetto, Gareth P Armanious, Marai Rosa Moncelli, Jessi J Bak, M Joanne Lemieux, Howard S Young, Francesco Tadini-Buoninsegni
The sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase SERCA promotes muscle relaxation by pumping calcium ions from the cytoplasm into the sarcoplasmic reticulum. SERCA activity is regulated by a variety of small transmembrane peptides, most notably by phospholamban in cardiac muscle and sarcolipin in skeletal muscle. However, how phospholamban and sarcolipin regulate SERCA is not fully understood. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of phospholamban and sarcolipin on calcium translocation and ATP hydrolysis by SERCA under conditions that mimic environments in sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes...
October 29, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073670/differential-effect-of-articaine-on-sarcoendoplasmic-reticulum-calcium-adenosine-triphosphatase-of-medial-pterygoid-muscle
#6
Carolina de la Cal, Gabriel Germán Trinks, Santiago Corti, Gabriel Antonio Sánchez
AIMS: To determine the effect of articaine on sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium adenosine triphosphatase (SERCA) isoforms of the medial pterygoid muscle. METHODS: Native SERCA from the medial pterygoid muscles of 24 rabbits was isolated by ultracentrifugation, and its isoforms were purified by chromatography and assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SERCA activity and calcium transport capability were determined by using colorimetric and radioisotopic methods...
October 2017: Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060454/a-computational-model-of-intracellular-calcium-oscillations-in-urinary-bladder-smooth-muscle-cells
#7
Suranjana Gupta, Avni Majawadia, Rohit Manchanda
This paper presents a computational model for calcium (Ca(2+)) oscillations in detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) cells. The proposed model simulates the temporal profile of oscillations by incorporating various cellular and subcellular components. The cellular components include calcium influx via membrane and the plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) pump. The subcellular components include ryanodine receptors (RyRs), inositol 1, 4, 5 trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) pump...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057374/a-sarcoplasmic-reticulum-localized-protein-phosphatase-regulates-phospholamban-phosphorylation-and-promotes-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-the-heart
#8
Toru Akaike, Na Du, Gang Lu, Susumu Minamisawa, Yibin Wang, Hongmei Ruan
Phospholamban (PLN) is a key regulator of sarcolemma calcium uptake in cardiomyocyte, its inhibitory activity to SERCA is regulated by phosphorylation. PLN hypophosphorylation is a common molecular feature in failing heart. The current study provided evidence at molecular, cellular and whole heart levels to implicate a sarcolemma membrane targeted protein phosphatase, PP2Ce, as a specific and potent PLN phosphatase. PP2Ce expression was elevated in failing human heart and induced acutely at protein level by β -adrenergic stimulation or oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes...
March 2017: JACC. Basic to Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051551/reducing-sarcolipin-expression-mitigates-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-and-associated-cardiomyopathy-in-mice
#9
Antanina Voit, Vishwendra Patel, Ronald Pachon, Vikas Shah, Mohammad Bakhutma, Erik Kohlbrenner, Joseph J McArdle, Louis J Dell'Italia, Jerry R Mendell, Lai-Hua Xie, Roger J Hajjar, Dongsheng Duan, Diego Fraidenraich, Gopal J Babu
Sarcolipin (SLN) is an inhibitor of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA) and is abnormally elevated in the muscle of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients and animal models. Here we show that reducing SLN levels ameliorates dystrophic pathology in the severe dystrophin/utrophin double mutant (mdx:utr (-/-)) mouse model of DMD. Germline inactivation of one allele of the SLN gene normalizes SLN expression, restores SERCA function, mitigates skeletal muscle and cardiac pathology, improves muscle regeneration, and extends the lifespan...
October 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046367/pkc%C3%AE-silencing-alleviates-saturated-fatty-acid-induced-er-stress%C3%A2-by-enhancing-serca-activity
#10
Shujie Lai, Yan Li, Yi Kuang, Hongli Cui, Yang Yang, Wenjing Sun, Kaijun Liu, Dongfeng Chen, Qixian Yan, Liangzhi Wen
Aim : Protein Kinase C δ (PKCδ) plays an important role in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), however the mechanism remains unknown. This study explored the role of PKCδ in NAFLD development and investigated the relationships between PKCδ, calcium homeostasis and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). Methods : Hepatic steatosis cell model was induced by palmitic acid (PA) in L02 cells. Lipid accretion was evaluated using Oil Red O staining and a triglyceride detection kit. PKCδ was down-regulated by siRNA...
October 18, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034474/altered-nmda-receptor-evoked-intracellular-ca-2-dynamics-in-magnocellular-neurosecretory-neurons-of-hypertensive-rats
#11
Meng Zhang, Javier E Stern
KEY POINTS: NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated Ca(2+) signalling plays a critical role in modulating hypothalamic neurosecretory function. However, whether an altered NMDAR-evoked changes in Ca(2+) (NMDAR-ΔCa(2+) ) signalling in magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) may contribute to neurohumoral activation during disease states is unknown. We show that activation of NMDARs evoked similar inward currents in MNCs of sham and renovascular hypertensive (RVH) rats. Despite this, a prolonged and larger NMDAR-ΔCa(2+) response was observed in the latter...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030345/runx1-deficiency-protects-against-adverse-cardiac-remodeling-following-myocardial-infarction
#12
Charlotte S McCarroll, Weihong He, Kirsty Foote, Ashley Bradley, Karen McGlynn, Francesca Vidler, Colin Nixon, Katrin Nather, Caroline Fattah, Alexandra H Riddell, Peter Bowman, Elspeth B Elliott, Margaret Bell, Catherine Hawksby, Scott M MacKenzie, Liam J Morrison, Anne Terry, Karen Blyth, Godfrey L Smith, Martin W McBride, Thomas Kubin, Thomas Braun, Stuart A Nicklin, Ewan R Cameron, Christopher M Loughrey
Background -Myocardial infarction (MI) is a leading cause of heart failure and death worldwide. Preservation of contractile function and protection against adverse changes in ventricular architecture (cardiac remodeling) are key factors to limiting progression of this condition to heart failure. Consequently, new therapeutic targets are urgently required to achieve this aim. Expression of the Runx1 transcription factor is increased in adult cardiomyocytes following MI; however, the functional role of Runx1 in the heart is unknown...
October 13, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994760/assessment-of-sarcoplasmic-reticulum-calcium-reserve-and-intracellular-diastolic-calcium-removal-in-isolated-ventricular-cardiomyocytes
#13
Jing Gao, Xiaolu Shi, Hong He, Juhong Zhang, Ding Lin, Guosheng Fu, Dongwu Lai
Intracellular calcium recycling plays a critical role in regulation of systolic and diastolic function in cardiomyocytes. Cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) serves as a Ca(2+) reservoir for contraction, which reuptakes intracellular Ca(2+) during relaxation. The SR Ca(2+) reserve available for beats is determinate for cardiac contractibility, and the removal of intracellular Ca(2+) is critical for cardiac diastolic function. Under some pathophysiological conditions, such as diabetes and heart failure, impaired calcium clearance and SR Ca(2+) store in cardiomyocytes may be involved in the progress of cardiac dysfunction...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988521/the-cardioprotective-effect-of-rosmarinic-acid-on-acute-myocardial-infarction-and-genes-involved-in-ca-2-homeostasis
#14
Somayeh Javidanpour, Mahin Dianat, Mohammad Badavi, Seyyed Ali Mard
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a common cause of hospitalisation and high mortality due to lethal arrhythmias. Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA2) and ryanodine receptor (RyR2) regulate the cytosolic Ca(2+) ion concentration. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is one of the most common caffeic esters in Rosmarinus officinalis. The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis whether RA can protect cardiac function against AMI and arrhythmias induced by isoproterenol through the regulatory effect of SERCA2 and RyR2 gene expression...
November 3, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986259/inhibition-of-constitutive-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activity-induces-platelet-apoptosis-via-er-stress
#15
Manoj Paul, Kempaiah Kemparaju, Kesturu S Girish
Platelets are anucleate cells, known for their pivotal roles in hemostasis, inflammation, immunity, and disease progression. Being anuclear, platelets are known to express several transcriptional factors which exert nongenomic functions, including the positive and negative regulation of platelet activation. NF-κB is one such transcriptional factor involved in the regulation of genes for survival, proliferation, inflammation and immunity. Although, the role NF-κB in platelet activation and aggregation is partially known, its function in management of platelet survival and apoptosis remain unexplored...
December 2, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972171/inhibition-of-the-sarco-endoplasmic-reticulum-er-ca2-atpase-by-thapsigargin-analogs-induces-cell-death-via-er-ca2-depletion-and-the-unfolded-protein-response
#16
Pankaj Sehgal, Paula Szalai, Claus Olesen, Helle A Praetorius, Poul Nissen, Søren Brøgger Christensen, Nikolai Engedal, Jesper Vuust Møller
Calcium (Ca2+) is a fundamental regulator of cell signaling and function. Thapsigargin (Tg) blocks the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA), disrupts Ca2+ homeostasis, and causes cell death. However, the exact mechanisms whereby SERCA-inhibition induces cell death are incompletely understood. Here, we report that low (0.1 μM) concentrations of Tg and Tg analogs with various long-chain substitutions at the O(8) position extensively inhibit SERCA1a-mediated Ca2+ transport. We also found that in both prostate and breast cancer cells, exposure to Tg or Tg analogs for 1 day caused extensive drainage of the ER Ca2+ stores...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944875/asymmetric-dimethylarginine-downregulates-sarco-endoplasmic-reticulum-calcium%C3%A2-atpase-3-and-induces-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#17
Weikang Guo, Zongli Diao, Wenhu Liu
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Endothelial cell injury and apoptosis may promote atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. The present study investigated the potential mechanisms of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA)‑induced apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). It was demonstrated that ADMA decreased B‑cell lymphoma‑2 expression and increased cleaved‑caspase‑3 expression. Furthermore, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)‑mediated‑digoxigenin‑11‑dUTP nick end labeling results indicated that ADMA induced apoptosis in HUVECs...
November 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919940/calcitox-aging-counterbalanced-by-endogenous-farnesol-like-sesquiterpenoids-an-undervalued-evolutionarily-ancient-key-signaling-pathway
#18
Arnold De Loof
Cells are powerful miniature electrophoresis chambers, at least during part of their life cycle. They die at the moment the voltage gradient over their plasma membrane, and their ability to drive a self-generated electric current carried by inorganic ions through themselves irreversibly collapses. Senescence is likely due to the progressive, multifactorial damage to the cell's electrical system. This is the essence of the "Fading electricity theory of aging" (De Loof et al., Aging Res. Rev. 2013;12:58-66)...
2017: Communicative & Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890335/the-er-localized-transmembrane-protein-epg-3-vmp1-regulates-serca-activity-to-control-er-isolation-membrane-contacts-for-autophagosome-formation
#19
Yan G Zhao, Yong Chen, Guangyan Miao, Hongyu Zhao, Wenyan Qu, Dongfang Li, Zheng Wang, Nan Liu, Lin Li, She Chen, Pingsheng Liu, Du Feng, Hong Zhang
During autophagosome formation in mammalian cells, isolation membranes (IMs; autophagosome precursors) dynamically contact the ER. Here, we demonstrated that the ER-localized metazoan-specific autophagy protein EPG-3/VMP1 controls ER-IM contacts. Loss of VMP1 causes stable association of IMs with the ER, thus blocking autophagosome formation. Interaction of WIPI2 with the ULK1/FIP200 complex and PI(3)P contributes to the formation of ER-IM contacts, and these interactions are enhanced by VMP1 depletion. VMP1 controls contact formation by promoting SERCA (sarco[endo]plasmic reticulum calcium ATPase) activity...
September 21, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874726/remarkable-plasticity-of-na-k-atpase-ca-2-atpase-and-serca-contributes-to-muscle-disuse-atrophy-resistance-in-hibernating-daurian-ground-squirrels
#20
Quanling Guo, Xin Mi, Xiaoyong Sun, Xiaoyu Li, Weiwei Fu, Shenhui Xu, Qi Wang, Yasir Arfat, Huiping Wang, Hui Chang, Yunfang Gao
We investigated cytosolic calcium (Ca(2+)) and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) regulation in skeletal muscle fibers of hibernating Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus), non-hibernating hindlimb-unloaded (HLU) squirrels, and HLU rats to clarify the molecular mechanisms involved in preventing muscle atrophy in hibernators. The Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase activities in the soleus muscle (SOL) of squirrels were maintained in hibernation, decreased during interbout arousal (IB-A), and increased to autumn/pre-hibernation (AUT/Pre-H) levels in torpor after interbout arousal (Post-IBA), whereas activities in the extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL) were stable during hibernation, but increased during post-hibernation (Post-H)...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
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