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David Rosner
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December 2017: Milbank Quarterly
Vittorio Vellani, Giorgia Moschetti, Silvia Franchi, Chiara Giacomoni, Paola Sacerdote, Giada Amodeo
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are frequently used to treat migraine, but the mechanisms of their effects in this pathology are not fully elucidated. The trigeminal ganglia and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) have been implicated in the pathophysiology of migraine. The release of CGRP and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) from freshly isolated rat trigeminal ganglia was evaluated after oral administration of nimesulide, etoricoxib, and ketoprofen, NSAIDs with different pharmacological features. Thirty minutes after oral administration, nimesulide, 10 mg/Kg, decreased the GCRP release induced by an inflammatory soup, while the other NSAIDs were ineffective at this point in time...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
Elisavet Valanou, Androniki Naska, Anastasia Barbouni, Michael Katsoulis, Eleni Peppa, Pavlos Vidalis, Antonia Trichopoulou
OBJECTIVE: Young children lack basic skills related to recognizing the types of foods they consume and dietary surveys often rely on parents' response. The present study aimed to evaluate how well parents of children aged from 3 months to 10 years perceive images of portions of foods commonly consumed by young children. DESIGN: Pre-weighed, actual food portions (n 2314) were shown to the study participants who were asked to indicate the picture that corresponded to the food in view...
December 4, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
Yan Kong, Xiao Yang, Qi Ding, Yu-Yu Zhang, Bao-Guo Sun, Hai-Tao Chen, Ying Sun
Umami taste is an important part to the taste of chicken. To isolate and identify non-volatile umami compounds, fractions from chicken soup and hydrolysate were prepared and analyzed. Amino acids were analyzed by amino acid analyzer. Organic acids and nucleotides were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Separation procedures utilizing ultrafiltration, Sephadex G-15 and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography were used to isolate umami taste peptides. Combined with sensory evaluation and LC-Q-TOF-MS, the amino acid sequences of 12 oligopeptides were determined...
December 2017: Food Research International
T Takahashi, D Kainth, S Marette, D Polly
Global sagittal malalignment has been demonstrated to have correlation with clinical symptoms and is a key component to be restored in adult spinal deformity. In this article, various types of sagittal balance-correction osteotomies are reviewed primarily on the basis of the 3 most commonly used procedures: Smith-Petersen osteotomy, pedicle subtraction osteotomy, and vertebral column resection. Familiarity with the expected imaging appearance and commonly encountered complications seen on postoperative imaging studies following correction osteotomies is crucial for accurate image interpretation...
November 30, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Hideaki Kawabata, Naoki Kakihara, Yoko Nishitani, Kota Asano, Mariko Nose, Asami Takanashi, Eiichiro Kanda, Masako Nishimura, Eiko Tokunaga, Ayako Matsurugi, Keiko Fujimura, Masanori Nishikawa, Chiaki Taga, Osamu Ikawa, Makiko Yamaguchi, Katsuhiko Masuda
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The palliative care team (PCT), nutrition support team (NST), and department of nutrition in our hospital developed a special soup service for patients with terminal cancer. We evaluated the usefulness of this soup service for improving the mood in patients with advanced digestive cancer with severe anorexia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of 18 patients with advanced cancer originating in digestive organs who received soup service at our institution between 2015 and 2016...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
Saijai Tanthanuch, Boonlert Kukiattrakoon, Kasidit Eiam-O-Pas, Kan Pokawattana, Nicha Pamanee, Wichachon Thongkamkaew, Asok Kochatung
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate surface roughness, hardness, and morphology changes of various bulk-fill resin composites eroded by different food-simulating liquids and beverages. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and thirteen specimens were fabricated in polytetrafluoroethylene cylindrical mold (10 mm in diameter and 4 mm in thickness). Before immersion, baseline data of roughness, Vicker's microhardness were recorded and surface characteristics were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry
Sarabjeet Kaur, Purshotam Sharma, Stacey D Wetmore
The RNA world hypothesis assumes that RNA was the first informational polymer that originated from prebiotic chemical soup. However, since the reaction of d-ribose with canonical nucleobases (A, C, G and U) fails to yield ribonucleosides (rNs) in substantial amounts, the spontaneous origin of rNs and the subsequent synthesis of RNA remains an unsolved mystery. To this end, it has been suggested that RNA may have evolved from primitive genetic material (preRNA) composed of simpler prebiotic heterocycles that spontaneously form glycosidic bonds with ribose...
November 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Raffaele Saladino, Judit E Šponer, Jiří Šponer, Ernesto Di Mauro
A short history of primordial soup: In this essay we try to disclose some of the historical connections between the studies that have contributed to our current understanding of the emergence of catalytic RNA molecules and their components from an inanimate matter.
November 22, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Gertrude G Zeinstra, Milou Vrijhof, Stefanie Kremer
Children's failure to eat enough vegetables highlights the need for effective interventions encouraging this behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of repeated exposure to three a priori unfamiliar vegetables, each prepared in two ways, on children's vegetable acceptance in a childcare setting. Two hundred fifty children (mean age 25 months; 57% boys) participated in a pre-test and a post-test, where they were offered pumpkin, courgette, and white radish. The intervention group (N = 125) participated in a 5-month exposure period, where they were exposed repeatedly (∼12x) to the vegetables: pumpkin blanched and as a cracker spread; courgette blanched and as soup; white radish raw and as a cracker spread...
November 17, 2017: Appetite
B J Rolls
Studies conducted by behavioural scientists show that energy density (kcal/g) provides effective guidance for healthy food choices to control intake and promote satiety. Energy density depends upon a number of dietary components, especially water (0 kcal/g) and fat (9 kcal/g). Increasing the proportion of water or water-rich ingredients, such as vegetables or fruit, lowers a food's energy density. A number of studies show that when the energy density of the diet is reduced, both adults and children spontaneously decrease their ad libitum energy intake...
September 2017: Nutrition Bulletin
Tom Vorstenbosch, Ingrid de Zwarte, Leni Duistermaat, Tinde van Andel
BACKGROUND: Periods of extreme food shortages during war force people to eat food that they normally do not consider edible. The last time that countries in Western Europe experienced severe scarcities was during World War II. The so-called Dutch famine or Hunger Winter (1944-1945) made at least 25,000 victims. The Dutch government took action by opening soup kitchens and providing information on wild plants and other famine food sources in "wartime cookbooks." The Dutch wartime diet has never been examined from an ethnobotanical perspective...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Nitash C G, Thomas LaBar, Arend Hintze, Christoph Adami
While all organisms on Earth share a common descent, there is no consensus on whether the origin of the ancestral self-replicator was a one-off event or whether it only represented the final survivor of multiple origins. Here, we use the digital evolution system Avida to study the origin of self-replicating computer programs. By using a computational system, we avoid many of the uncertainties inherent in any biochemical system of self-replicators (while running the risk of ignoring a fundamental aspect of biochemistry)...
December 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Pengfei Han, Russell S J Keast, Eugeni Roura
The influence of sweet taste sensitivity on food intake is not well understood. We investigated the involvement of salivary leptin and SNP of the sweet taste receptor genes (TAS1R2/TAS1R3) on sweet taste sensitivity, sensory-specific satiety (SSS) and macronutrient intake in healthy human adults. In all, nineteen high sweet sensitivity (HS) and eleven low sweet sensitivity (LS) subjects were classified based on the sweetness perception of one solution (9 mm sucrose) forced-choice triangle test. All participants completed a randomised crossover design experiment where they consumed one of three iso-energetic soup preloads differing in primary taste quality (sweet, non-sweet taste-control or no-taste energy-control)...
November 7, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
Aulia Khamas Heikhmakhtiar, Ah Jin Ryu, Eun Bo Shim, Kwang-Soup Song, Natalia A Trayanova, Ki Moo Lim
This study hypothesized that a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) shortens the electromechanical delay (EMD) by mechanical unloading. The goal of this study is to examine, by computational modeling, the influence of LVAD on EMD for four heart failure (HF) cases ranging from mild HF to severe HF. We constructed an integrated model of an LVAD-implanted cardiovascular system, then we altered the Ca(2+) transient magnitude, with scaling factors 1, 0.9, 0.8, and 0.7 representing HF1, HF2, HF3, and HF4, respectively, in order of increasing HF severity...
November 3, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Woongsun Choi, Sang Yun Yeom, Junsun Kim, Seungwon Jung, Seungho Jung, Tae Soup Shim, Sang Kyung Kim, Ji Yoon Kang, Soo Hyun Lee, Il-Joo Cho, Jungkyu Choi, Nakwon Choi
Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) renders profiling of genes of interest less time-consuming and cost-effective. Recently, multiplex profiling of miRNAs has enabled identifying or investigating predominant miRNAs for various diseases such as cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. Conventional multiplex qPCR technologies mostly use colorimetric measurements in solution phase, yet not only suffer from limited multiplexing capacity but also require target-screening processes due to non-specific binding between targets and primers...
October 19, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Rebecca Levi, Yasmine Probst, Michelle Crino, Elizabeth Dunford
AIM: Packaged foods dominate Australia's food supply and are important contributors to nutrition-related disease. To help address this problem, the Food and Health Dialogue (FHD) was launched in 2009, setting voluntary sodium reduction targets for various categories of packaged foods. The aim of this study was to examine the food industry's progress and compliance with the FHD sodium reduction targets for soup products. METHODS: Nutritional information was collected from product labels of all soup products available from four major Australian supermarkets annually between 2011 and 2014...
October 30, 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
Yoo Seok Kim, Ana R Yuniarti, Kwang-Soup Song, Natalia A Trayanova, Eun Bo Shim, Ki Moo Lim
Valvular insufficiency affects cardiac responses and the pumping efficacy of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) when patients undergo LVAD therapy. Knowledge of the effect of valvular regurgitation on the function of LVADs is important when treating heart failure patients. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of valvular regurgitation on the ventricular mechanics of a heart under LVAD treatment and the pumping efficacy of an LVAD using a computational model of the cardiovascular system. For this purpose, a 3D electromechanical model of failing ventricles in a human heart was coupled with a lumped-parameter model of valvular regurgitation and an LVAD-implanted vascular system...
October 28, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Maximilian B Maier, Christian A Lenz, Rudi F Vogel
The effect of high pressure thermal (HPT) processing on the inactivation of spores of proteolytic type B Clostridium botulinum TMW 2.357 in four differently composed low-acid foods (green peas with ham, steamed sole, vegetable soup, braised veal) was studied in an industrially feasible pressure range and temperatures between 100 and 120°C. Inactivation curves exhibited rapid inactivation during compression and decompression followed by strong tailing effects. The highest inactivation (approx. 6-log cycle reduction) was obtained in braised veal at 600 MPa and 110°C after 300 s pressure-holding time...
2017: PloS One
Erich Vad
"Fighting terrorism is like eating soup with a fork" (Shimon Peres). Peres's quote symbolically captures the key problem of countering terrorism. 9/11 proved to be a hallmark in the global perception of modern terrorism. The following questions form the framework of the present essay: What is the essence of modern terrorism? How did it develop during the past two decades? Who are the key players within the terror framework? What are the root causes for global terrorism? How are we to deal appropriately with the global phenomenon of terrorism? Are there any solutions (short-, medium-, long-term) to terrorism? If yes, where do we have to look for them? The underlying essay provides a strategic overview of antiterrorism policy that is based on the author's years-long experience as a high-level expert and advisor within the security policy framework...
October 26, 2017: CNS Spectrums
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