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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923940/the-auditory-kuleshov-effect-multisensory-integration-in-movie-editing
#1
Andreas M Baranowski, H Hecht
Almost a hundred years ago, the Russian filmmaker Lev Kuleshov conducted his now famous editing experiment in which different objects were added to a given film scene featuring a neutral face. It is said that the audience interpreted the unchanged facial expression as a function of the added object (e.g., an added soup made the face express hunger). This interaction effect has been dubbed "Kuleshov effect." In the current study, we explored the role of sound in the evaluation of facial expressions in films...
December 5, 2016: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919551/defining-the-core-microbiome-in-corals-microbial-soup
#2
REVIEW
Alejandra Hernandez-Agreda, Ruth D Gates, Tracy D Ainsworth
Corals are considered one of the most complex microbial biospheres studied to date, hosting thousands of bacterial phylotypes in species-specific associations. There are, however, substantial knowledge gaps and challenges in understanding the functional significance of bacterial communities and bacterial symbioses of corals. The ubiquitous nature of some bacterial interactions has only recently been investigated and an accurate differentiation between the healthy (symbiotic) and unhealthy (dysbiotic) microbial state has not yet been determined...
December 2, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916910/excited-state-dynamics-of-melamine-and-its-lysine-derivative-investigated-by-femtosecond-transient-absorption-spectroscopy
#3
Yuyuan Zhang, Ashley A Beckstead, Yuesong Hu, Xijun Piao, Dennis Bong, Bern Kohler
Melamine may have been an important prebiotic information carrier, but its excited-state dynamics, which determine its stability under UV radiation, have never been characterized. The ability of melamine to withstand the strong UV radiation present on the surface of the early Earth is likely to have affected its abundance in the primordial soup. Here, we studied the excited-state dynamics of melamine (a proto-nucleobase) and its lysine derivative (a proto-nucleoside) using the transient absorption technique with a UV pump, and UV and infrared probe pulses...
November 30, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908552/weight-following-birth-and-childhood-dietary-intake-a%C3%A2-prospective-cohort-study
#4
Maria João Fonseca, Catarina Durão, Carla Lopes, Ana Cristina Santos
OBJECTIVES: Unhealthy childhood dietary habits track through life and are independent and modifiable risk factors for disease. Therefore, it is essential to understand the factors involved. We aimed to evaluate the associations of birthweight (BW) and newborn weight change (NWC) during the first 96 h of life and childhood longitudinal weight trajectories with dietary intake at age 4. METHODS: As part of the Generation XXI birth cohort (G21), children were recruited in 2005 and 2006 at all public units providing obstetrical and neonatal care in Porto, Portugal...
January 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892825/strange-bedfellows-anachronisms-identity-politics-and-the-queer-case-of-trans
#5
Nerissa Gailey
This article explores trans identities, as articulated within a few historical texts. From early literary depictions of gender difference, to medicalized conceptions of transsexualism, to a proliferation of trans and queer identities represented by an ever-expanding "alphabet soup" of identity labels, our understandings of identities, sexualities, and queer community-building continue to change. I utilize the notion of "kind-making," as elaborated upon in the work of Ian Hacking, to illustrate that some queer and trans identifications are affiliative, while others are contrastive or oppositional in nature, and these structural differences have important implications with respect to understanding identity and sexuality, and also trans inclusion within LGBT communities and activist efforts...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884647/salt-tomato-soup-and-hypocrisy-of-the-american-heart-association
#6
EDITORIAL
Franz H Messerli, Stefano F Rimoldi, Sripal Bangalore
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2016: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876837/the-mediterranean-plastic-soup-synthetic-polymers-in-mediterranean-surface-waters
#7
Giuseppe Suaria, Carlo G Avio, Annabella Mineo, Gwendolyn L Lattin, Marcello G Magaldi, Genuario Belmonte, Charles J Moore, Francesco Regoli, Stefano Aliani
The Mediterranean Sea has been recently proposed as one of the most impacted regions of the world with regards to microplastics, however the polymeric composition of these floating particles is still largely unknown. Here we present the results of a large-scale survey of neustonic micro- and meso-plastics floating in Mediterranean waters, providing the first extensive characterization of their chemical identity as well as detailed information on their abundance and geographical distribution. All particles >700 μm collected in our samples were identified through FT-IR analysis (n = 4050 particles), shedding for the first time light on the polymeric diversity of this emerging pollutant...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826434/development-and-piloting-of-a-food-based-intervention-to-increase-vitamin-e-intake-in-pregnant-women-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Julia Clark, Nikki Holgan, Leone Craig, Heather Morgan, Peter Danielian, Graham Devereux
Low maternal vitamin E intake during pregnancy is associated with childhood asthma and a trial is required to test whether increasing maternal vitamin E intake reduces childhood asthma. This study investigated whether such a trial is possible using food to increase vitamin E intake. Three soup varieties with enhanced vitamin E content (16-19 mg/can) from food ingredients were developed. Near identical retail versions (vitamin E 1-4 mg/can) acted as placebo. In a pilot double-blind randomized controlled trial, pregnant women were randomized 1:1 to enhanced or placebo soups (three tins/week) from 12 weeks gestation to delivery...
November 2016: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818138/sodium-intake-among-us-school-aged-children-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2011-2012
#9
Zerleen S Quader, Cathleen Gillespie, Sarah A Sliwa, Jaspreet K C Ahuja, Jinee P Burdg, Alanna Moshfegh, Pamela R Pehrsson, Janelle P Gunn, Kristy Mugavero, Mary E Cogswell
BACKGROUND: Identifying current major dietary sources of sodium can enhance strategies to reduce excess sodium intake, which occurs among 90% of US school-aged children. OBJECTIVE: To describe major food sources, places obtained, and eating occasions contributing to sodium intake among US school-aged children. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of data from the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: A nationally representative sample of 2,142 US children aged 6 to 18 years who completed a 24-hour dietary recall...
November 2, 2016: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805567/profound-alteration-in-cutaneous-primary-afferent-activity-produced-by-inflammatory-mediators
#10
Kristen M Smith-Edwards, Jennifer J DeBerry, Jami L Saloman, Brian M Davis, C Jeffery Woodbury
Inflammatory pain is thought to arise from increased transmission from nociceptors and recruitment of 'silent' afferents. To evaluate inflammation-induced changes, mice expressing GCaMP3 in cutaneous sensory neurons were generated and neuronal responses to mechanical stimulation in vivo before and after subcutaneous infusion of an 'inflammatory soup' (IS) were imaged in an unanesthetized preparation. Infusion of IS rapidly altered mechanical responsiveness in the majority of neurons. Surprisingly, more cells lost, rather than gained, sensitivity and 'silent' afferents that were mechanically insensitive and gained mechanosensitivity after IS exposure were rare...
November 2, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789454/electrophysiological-characterization-of-human-rectal-afferents
#11
Kheng-Seong Ng, Simon J Brookes, Noemi A Montes-Adrian, David A Mahns, Marc A Gladman
It is presumed that extrinsic afferent nerves link the rectum to the central nervous system. However, the anatomical/functional existence of such nerves has never previously been demonstrated in humans. Therefore, we aimed to identify and make electrophysiological recordings in vitro from extrinsic afferents, comparing human rectum to colon. Sections of normal rectum and colon were procured from anterior resection and right hemicolectomy specimens, respectively. Sections were pinned and extrinsic nerves dissected...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784920/the-effect-of-ginger-and-garlic-addition-during-cooking-on-the-volatile-profile-of-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella-soup
#12
Jin-Lin Li, Zong-Cai Tu, Lu Zhang, Xiao-Mei Sha, Hui Wang, Juan-Juan Pang, Ping-Ping Tang
Ginger and garlic have long been used in Asian countries to enhance the flavor and to neutralize any unpleasant odors present in fish soup. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the change in the amount of volatile components present in fish soup compared to boiled water solutions of ginger and garlic. The fish soup was prepared by boiling oil-fried grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) with or without ginger and/or garlic. Generally, boiling garlic and ginger in water led to a decrease in the amount of the principal volatile constituents of these spices, together with the formation of some new volatiles such as pentanal, hexanal, and nonanal...
August 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775726/shape-changing-thin-films-powered-by-dna-hybridization
#13
Tae Soup Shim, Zaki G Estephan, Zhaoxia Qian, Jacob H Prosser, Su Yeon Lee, David M Chenoweth, Daeyeon Lee, So-Jung Park, John C Crocker
Active materials that respond to physical and chemical stimuli can be used to build dynamic micromachines that lie at the interface between biological systems and engineered devices. In principle, the specific hybridization of DNA can be used to form a library of independent, chemically driven actuators for use in such microrobotic applications and could lead to device capabilities that are not possible with polymer- or metal-layer-based approaches. Here, we report shape changing films that are powered by DNA strand exchange reactions with two different domains that can respond to distinct chemical signals...
October 24, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753214/how-to-make-stone-soup-is-the-paleo-diet-a-missed-opportunity-for-anthropologists
#14
Melanie L Chang, April Nowell
For the past few years, people everywhere have been "going Paleo." Websites and social media touting the benefits of eating a "Paleo diet" and following a "Paleolithic life style" serve as calls to arms for health-conscious individuals seeking information about the latest health and fitness trends. Many of these people participate in programs such as Crossfit, which involve major social and life-style modification components and therefore facilitate the dissemination of dietary fads.(1) The PALEOf(x)(TM) conference, which bills itself as "the world's premier holistic wellness event," has attracted sellout crowds of thousands of attendees for the last four years...
September 2016: Evolutionary Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744546/soy-isoflavone-intake-and-prevalence-of-depressive-symptoms-during-pregnancy-in-japan-baseline-data-from-the-kyushu-okinawa-maternal-and-child-health-study
#15
Yoshihiro Miyake, Keiko Tanaka, Hitomi Okubo, Satoshi Sasaki, Shinya Furukawa, Masashi Arakawa
OBJECTIVE: Several observational studies and trials examined the relationship between isoflavones or soybeans and depressive symptoms among peri- and postmenopausal women. We cross-sectionally evaluated the associations between intake of soy products and isoflavones and depressive symptoms during pregnancy in Japan. METHODS: Study subjects were 1745 pregnant women. Dietary intake during the preceding month was assessed using a self-administered diet history questionnaire...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725382/food-application-of-newly-developed-handy-type-glutamate-sensor
#16
Yuuka Mukai, Tsutomu Oikawa
 Tests on physiological functions of umami have been actively conducted and a need recognized for a high-performance quantification device that is simple and cost-effective, and whose use is not limited to a particular location or user. To address this need, Ajinomoto Co. and Tanita Corp. have jointly been researching and developing a simple device for glutamate measurement. The device uses L-glutamate oxidase immobilized on a hydrogen peroxide electrode. L-glutamate in the sample is converted to α-ketoglutaric acid, which produces hydrogen peroxide...
2016: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725381/food-science-of-dashi-and-umami-taste
#17
Kumiko Ninomiya
 Umami is a basic tastes, along with sweet, salty, bitter and sour, which is imparted by glutamate, one of the free amino acids in foods. Since its discovery of umami by a Japanese scientist in 1908, umami is now perceived globally a basic taste. Recent collaboration among chefs and researchers on traditional soup stocks showed a difference in taste profiles of Japanese soup stock 'dashi' and Western style soup stock. The free amino acids profile's in dashi and soup stock showed how Japanese have traditionally adopted a simple umami taste...
2016: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719960/rosmarinus-eriocalyx-an-alternative-to-rosmarinus-officinalis-as-a-source-of-antioxidant-compounds
#18
Hamdi Bendif, Messaoud Boudjeniba, Mohamed Djamel Miara, Loreta Biqiku, Massimo Bramucci, Giovanni Caprioli, Giulio Lupidi, Luana Quassinti, Gianni Sagratini, Luca A Vitali, Sauro Vittori, Filippo Maggi
Rosmarinus eriocalyx is an aromatic evergreen bush endemic to Algeria where it is used as a condiment to flavour soups and meat and as a traditional remedy. In the present work we have analyzed for the first time the phenolic composition of polar extracts obtained from stems, leaves and flowers of R. eriocalyx by HPLC, and determined the antioxidant and antimicrobial effects by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, ORAC and agar disc diffusion methods, respectively. Results showed that ethanolic extracts of leaves and flowers are a rich source of phenolic compounds, mainly rosmarinic acid, carnosic acid and carnosol that are the main responsible for the noteworthy antioxidant activity observed in the assays...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714238/evolution-of-specific-3-5-linkages-in-rna-in-pre-biotic-soup-a-new-hypothesis
#19
Vaijayanti A Kumar
This article reviews the different possibilities towards progression of the formation of DNA/RNA in the chemical world, before life, in enzyme-free conditions. The advent of deoxyribo- and ribopentose-sugars, nucleosides, nucleotides and oligonucleotides in the prebiotic soup is briefly discussed. Further, the formation of early single stranded oligomers, base-pairing possibilities and information transfer based on the stability parameters of the derived duplexes is reviewed. Each theory has its own merits and demerits which we have elaborated upon...
September 21, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694848/self-assembly-materials-from-a-peptide-soup
#20
Thomas M Hermans
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 3, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
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