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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742989/agricultural-leaders-influence-on-the-safety-culture-of-workers
#1
Frank A Gasperini
Most US farmers are small, independent owner-operators, many of whom are exempt from safety regulation and enforcement, as well as age restrictions relative to family members performing hazardous tasks. These smaller farms account for a disproportionate share of the total fatality and injury statistics from farming incidents, contributing to an agriculture-industry death rate that is seven times greater than all occupations combined. In contrast, large agricultural enterprises that employ larger numbers of non-family workers are more regulated and more highly incentivized by economic, supply chain, and societal factors to implement cultures of safety, and are more readily influenced by agricultural opinion leaders, agribusinesses, farm organizations, and agricultural media...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Agromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742837/risk-factors-associated-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-us-veterans-a-cohort-study
#2
Jan Müller, Sarmila Ganeshamoorthy, Jonathan Myers
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between clinical and exercise test factors and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in US Veterans. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Exercise capacity, demographics and clinical variables were assessed in 5826 veterans (mean age 59.4 ± 11.5 years) from the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System in Palo Alto, CA. The study participants underwent routine clinical exercise testing between the years 1987 and 2011. The study end point was the development of PTSD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742829/community-burden-of-undiagnosed-hiv-infection-among-adolescents-in-zimbabwe-following-primary-healthcare-based-provider-initiated-hiv-testing-and-counselling-a-cross-sectional-survey
#3
Victoria Simms, Ethel Dauya, Subathira Dakshina, Tsitsi Bandason, Grace McHugh, Shungu Munyati, Prosper Chonzi, Katharina Kranzer, Getrude Ncube, Collen Masimirembwa, Roslyn Thelingwani, Tsitsi Apollo, Richard Hayes, Helen A Weiss, Rashida A Ferrand
BACKGROUND: Children living with HIV who are not diagnosed in infancy often remain undiagnosed until they present with advanced disease. Provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC) in health facilities is recommended for high-HIV-prevalence settings, but it is unclear whether this approach is sufficient to achieve universal coverage of HIV testing. We aimed to investigate the change in community burden of undiagnosed HIV infection among older children and adolescents following implementation of PITC in Harare, Zimbabwe...
July 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742825/impact-of-maternal-and-neonatal-health-initiatives-on-inequity-in-maternal-health-care-utilization-in-bangladesh
#4
Mohammad Rifat Haider, Mohammad Masudur Rahman, Md Moinuddin, Ahmed Ehsanur Rahman, Shakil Ahmed, M Mahmud Khan
BACKGROUND: Despite remarkable progress in maternal and child health, inequity persists in maternal care utilization in Bangladesh. Government of Bangladesh (GOB) with technical assistance from United Nation Population Fund (UNFPA), United Nation Children's Fund (UNICEF) and World Health Organization (WHO) started implementing Maternal and Neonatal Health Initiatives in selected districts of Bangladesh (MNHIB) in 2007 with an aim to reduce inequity in healthcare utilization. This study examines the effect of MNHIB on inequity in maternal care utilization...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742756/cost-effectiveness-of-mindfulness-based-stress-reduction-vs-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-or-usual-care-among-adults-with-chronic-low-back-pain
#5
Patricia M Herman, Melissa L Anderson, Karen J Sherman, Benjamin H Balderson, Judith A Turner, Daniel C Cherkin
STUDY DESIGN: Economic evaluation alongside a randomized trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) versus usual care alone (UC) for chronic low-back pain (CLBP). OBJECTIVE: Determine the one-year cost-effectiveness of CBT and MBSR compared to UC. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: CLBP is expensive in terms of healthcare costs and lost productivity. Mind-body interventions have been found effective for back pain, but their cost-effectiveness is unexplored...
July 24, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742752/best-practices-in-pa-development-lessons-from-three-countries
#6
Ruth Ballweg
As the PA profession moves into its 50th year and develops globally, its flexibility and underlying principles make it adaptable to a wide range of healthcare needs and governmental priorities. A key feature of effective PA development is adapting the profession to the needs of each country rather than adopting it exactly as it has developed in the United States. The successful adaptation of new PA models must assure that the new profession meets a societal need, such as increasing healthcare access for specific populations or geographic areas...
August 2017: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742745/from-feldschers-to-physician-assistants-in-bulgaria
#7
Penka Petkova Vracheva
The physician assistant (PA) profession was established in Bulgaria in 2014 in response to a growing shortage of medical staff and was modeled on the United States experience. Feldschers provided a similar role in Bulgaria from 1878 to 1999 but feldscher training was discontinued in 1999 because of a physician surplus. However, healthcare in Bulgaria changed after the country joined the European Union, and some physicians left for better opportunities elsewhere. The loss of physicians and an aging population meant that PAs were seen as a strategy to offset Bulgaria's growing healthcare demand...
August 2017: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742742/practical-applications-of-physical-activity-for-successful-cognitive-aging
#8
Kelly Conner, Cameron Young Sweeney, Tayla Brown, Lauren Childs, Samantha Rogers, Tanya Gregory
As patients lose cognitive function, they lose autonomy and increasingly use fiscal, social, and medical resources. Healthcare costs for Americans older than age 65 years are three to five times higher than for the remaining population, and dementia is the third most costly disease in the United States. Interventions that promote successful aging can help patients and reduce the financial, workforce, and treatment resource burdens on the population. Because a relationship between physical activity, particularly aerobic exercise, and cognitive decline has been established, physical activity interventions may prove practical, affordable, and effective...
August 2017: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742645/quality-improvement-in-management-of-acute-coronary-syndrome-continuing-medical-education-and-peer-coaching-improve-antiplatelet-medication-adherence-and-reduce-hospital-readmissions
#9
Amy Larkin, Michael LaCouture, Kathleen Geissel, Peri Barr, Eric R Bates, Christopher P Cannon, Deepak L Bhatt
BACKGROUND: Reducing hospital readmissions and improving patient adherence to antiplatelet medications after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) event are important goals for improving patient health and decreasing healthcare costs. Nearly half of patients will have a secondary event within 1 year of the initial ACS event. Quality improvement (QI) initiatives that include continuing medical education and peer coaching may improve physician practice patterns and, therefore, patient outcomes...
September 2017: Critical Pathways in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742544/the-marginal-costs-of-adverse-drug-events-associated-with-exposures-to-anticoagulants-and-hypoglycemic-agents-during-hospitalization
#10
William D Spector, Rhona Limcangco, Michael F Furukawa, William E Encinosa
BACKGROUND: Anticoagulants and hypoglycemic agents are 2 of the most challenging drug classes for medical management in the hospital resulting in many adverse drug events (ADE). OBJECTIVE: Estimating the marginal cost (MC) of ADEs associated with anticoagulants and hypoglycemic agents for adults in 5 patient groups during their hospital stay and the total annual ADE costs for all patients exposed to these drugs during their stay. RESEARCH DESIGN AND SUBJECT: Data are from 2010 to 2013 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) State Inpatient Databases and Medicare Patient Safety Monitoring System (MPSMS)...
July 24, 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742535/-anonymous-meltdown-content-themes-emerging-in-a-nonfacilitated-peer-only-unstructured-asynchronous-online-support-group-for-family-caregivers
#11
Cynthia A Diefenbeck, Paula R Klemm, Evelyn R Hayes
By providing care for loved ones in the home, family caregivers save millions of dollars for our overtaxed healthcare system. Support groups can lighten the psychological burden of caregiving. Nonprofessionally facilitated (or peer) online caregiver support groups can help meet a critical need in healthcare as a low-cost resource for caregivers. Online caregiver peer support groups can promote the health and well-being of family caregivers and, by extension, the patients themselves, resulting in cost-savings for society...
July 25, 2017: Computers, Informatics, Nursing: CIN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742434/use-of-regional-anesthesia-techniques-analysis-of-institutional-enhanced-recovery-after-surgery-protocols-for-colorectal-surgery
#12
Erik M Helander, Michael P Webb, Meghan Bias, Edward E Whang, Alan D Kaye, Richard D Urman
INTRODUCTION: Principles of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS(®)) protocols are well established, with the primary goal of optimizing perioperative care and recovery. The use of multimodal analgesia is a key component of these protocols, including regional analgesia techniques such as thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA), transversus abdominis plane (TAP), rectus sheath blocks or continuous wound infiltration (CWI)/catheters, and spinal anesthesia. We compare and contrast regional anesthesia approaches in different institutional colorectal surgery ERAS protocols...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742427/a-comparison-of-multimodal-analgesic-approaches-in-institutional-eras-protocols-for-colorectal-surgery-pharmacological-agents
#13
Erik M Helander, Michael P Webb, Meghan Bias, Edward E Whang, Alan D Kaye, Richard D Urman
INTRODUCTION: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS(®)) protocols are the cornerstone of improved recovery after colorectal surgery. Their implementation leads to reduced morbidity and shorter hospital stays while attenuating the surgical stress response. Multimodal analgesia is an important part of ERAS protocols. We compared and contrasted protocols from 15 institutions to test our hypothesis that there is a fundamental consensus among them. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ERAS protocols for open and laparoscopic colorectal surgery were compared from 15 different healthcare facilities...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742410/content-analysis-of-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-drinking-among-individuals-with-the-lived-experience-of-homelessness-and-alcohol-use-disorders
#14
Susan E Collins, Emily Taylor, Connor Jones, Laura Haelsig, Véronique S Grazioli, Jessica L Mackelprang, Jessica Holttum, Molly Koker, Alyssa Hatsukami, Madeline Baker, Seema L Clifasefi
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are more prevalent among people who are homeless than in the general population. Thus, homeless individuals experience disproportionately high levels of alcohol-related problems and associated publicly funded criminal justice and healthcare system utilization. Available treatment services, however, are not effective at engaging and treating this population. To better tailor treatment services to their needs, it is imperative we understand this population's perceptions of their alcohol use...
July 25, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742328/attachable-pulse-sensors-integrated-with-inorganic-optoelectronic-devices-for-monitoring-heart-rates-at-various-body-locations
#15
Juho Kim, Namyun Kim, Minjeong Kwon, Jongho Lee
Monitoring cardiovascular signals such as heart rate and blood flow provides critically important healthcare information about patients under medical care. However, when the sensors are worn for extended times, the sensors sometimes require higher mechanical compatibility with soft deformable tissues. In this paper, we report an attachable and flexible pulse sensor (bending radius: 2.4 mm), integrated with micro-inorganic photodetectors (thickness: 4.1 μm, photocurrent: 8.99 μA under 1.5 mW/cm(2)) and a red light emitting diode (620 nm), to monitor vital signals for extended times...
July 25, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742309/knowledge-of-rare-diseases-among-health-care-students-%C3%A2-the-effect-of-targeted-education
#16
Kamil Jonas, Marcin Waligóra, Mateusz Hołda, Joanna Sulicka-Grodzicka, Magdalena Strach, Piotr Podolec, Grzegorz Kopeć
BACKGROUND: Poor knowledge on rare diseases (RD) results in a significant delay in their diagnosis and treatment. So far there are no standards of university education in RD. We assessed knowledge on RD among healthcare students and the effectiveness of targeted education. METHODS: We conducted an internet-based survey among students of the faculty of medicine, pharmacy and health sciences. Questions regarded personal information, definition and epidemic data on RD...
2017: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742260/incorporating-patient-preferences-into-estimation-of-optimal-individualized-treatment-rules
#17
Emily L Butler, Eric B Laber, Sonia M Davis, Michael R Kosorok
Precision medicine seeks to provide treatment only if, when, to whom, and at the dose it is needed. Thus, precision medicine is a vehicle by which healthcare can be made both more effective and efficient. Individualized treatment rules operationalize precision medicine as a map from current patient information to a recommended treatment. An optimal individualized treatment rule is defined as maximizing the mean of a pre-specified scalar outcome. However, in settings with multiple outcomes, choosing a scalar composite outcome by which to define optimality is difficult...
July 25, 2017: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742226/documentation-of-penicillin-adverse-drug-reactions-in-electronic-health-records-inconsistent-use-of-allergy-and-intolerance-labels
#18
Joshua M Inglis, Gillian E Caughey, William Smith, Sepehr Shakib
BACKGROUND: The majority of patients with penicillin allergy labels tolerate penicillins. Inappropriate avoidance of penicillin is associated with increased hospitalisation, infections and healthcare costs. AIMS: To examine the documentation of penicillin adverse drug reactions (ADR) in a large-scale hospital-based electronic health record. METHODS: Penicillin ADRs were extracted from 96,708 patient records in the Enterprise Patient Administration System in South Australia...
July 25, 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742099/variants-of-acan-are-associated-with-severity-of-lumbar-disc-herniation-in-patients-with-chronic-low-back-pain
#19
Romain Shanil Perera, Poruwalage Harsha Dissanayake, Upul Senarath, Lalith Sirimevan Wijayaratne, Aranjan Lional Karunanayake, Vajira Harshadeva Weerabaddana Dissanayake
INTRODUCTION: Disc herniation is a complex spinal disorder associated with disability and high healthcare cost. Lumbar disc herniation is strongly associated with disc degeneration. Candidate genes of the aggrecan metabolic pathway may associate with the severity of lumbar disc herniation. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the association of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) of the candidate genes of the aggrecan metabolic pathway with the severity of lumbar disc herniation in patients with chronic mechanical low back pain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741988/comparison-of-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-%C3%AE-thalassemia-intermedia-and-%C3%AE-thalassemia-major-in-southern-iran
#20
Sezaneh Haghpanah, Sara Vahdati, Mehran Karimi
Increased life expectancy in patients with β-thalassemia (β-thal) requires healthcare professionals to give greater attention to improving their quality of life (QoL). We aimed to evaluate health-related QoL (HRQoL) and its determinants in patients with β-thal intermedia (β-TI) compared with β-thal major (β-TM). In this cross sectional study, 118 patients with β-TI, referred to the Thalassemia Clinic of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran, were investigated by convenience sampling from January to June 2014 in southern Iran...
July 25, 2017: Hemoglobin
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