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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527191/understanding-how-a-sport-helmet-protects-the-head-from-closed-injury-by-virtual-impact%C3%A2-tests
#1
Yunhua Luo, Zhaoyang Liang
Understanding how a helmet protects the head, especially the soft brain tissues, is the prerequisite for improving helmet design. Intracranial pressure and stresses/strains in the brain tissues are the direct indicators of traumatic brain injury and they can be used to measure helmet performance. In this study, the effects of helmet design parameters such as the helmet shell stiffness, liner compliance and thickness on the brain injury indicators were investigated by virtual impact tests. A finite element head model (FEHM) was first constructed from medical images; a personally-fitted helmet made of composite material and foam was virtually prototyped using geometric information extracted from the FEHM; a helmet-head finite element model was then assembled...
2017: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526701/netrin-1-preserves-blood-brain-barrier-integrity-through-deleted-in-colorectal-cancer-focal-adhesion-kinase-rhoa-signaling-pathway-following-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats
#2
Zongyi Xie, Budbazar Enkhjargal, Cesar Reis, Lei Huang, Weifeng Wan, Jiping Tang, Yuan Cheng, John H Zhang
BACKGROUND: Netrin-1 (NTN-1) has been established to be a novel intrinsic regulator of blood-brain barrier (BBB) maintenance. This study was carried out to investigate the potential roles of exogenous NTN-1 in preserving BBB integrity after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) as well as the underlying mechanisms of its protective effects. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 309 male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to an endovascular perforation model of SAH...
May 19, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526435/the-bidirectional-gut-brain-microbiota-axis-as-a-potential-nexus-between-traumatic-brain-injury-inflammation-and-disease
#3
Mark H Sundman, Nan-Kuei Chen, Vignesh Subbian, Ying-Hui Chou
As head injuries and their sequelae have become an increasingly salient matter of public health, experts in the field have made great progress elucidating the biological processes occurring within the brain at the moment of injury and throughout the recovery thereafter. Given the extraordinary rate at which our collective knowledge of neurotrauma has grown, new insights may be revealed by examining the existing literature across disciplines with a new perspective. This article will aim to expand the scope of this rapidly evolving field of research beyond the confines of the central nervous system (CNS)...
May 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525411/beta-blockers-and-traumatic-brain-injury-a-systematic-review-meta-analysis-and-eastern-association-for-the-surgery-of-trauma-guideline
#4
Aziz S Alali, Kaushik Mukherjee, Victoria A McCredie, Eyal Golan, Prakesh S Shah, James M Bardes, Susan E Hamblin, Elliott R Haut, James C Jackson, Kosar Khwaja, Nimitt J Patel, Satish R Raj, Laura D Wilson, Avery B Nathens, Mayur B Patel
OBJECTIVE: To determine if beta-(β)-blockers improve outcomes after acute traumatic brain injury (TBI). BACKGROUND: There have been no new inpatient pharmacologic therapies to improve TBI outcomes in a half-century. Treatment of TBI patients with β-blockers offers a potentially beneficial approach. METHODS: Using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases, eligible articles for our systematic review and meta-analysis (PROSPERO CRD42016048547) included adult (age ≥ 16 years) blunt trauma patients admitted with TBI...
May 18, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524212/-infantile-acquired-brain-injury-a-personal-experience-demands-from-the-socio-familial-point-of-view
#5
P Pastor-Alfonso
We report on the experience of a family in which the youngest child has acquired brain injury and the struggle undertaken by the family to improve the neurorehabilitation resources in the public health service. The article outlines the main demands, from the socio-familial point of view, as regards the improvement of neurological rehabilitation and the resources needed to deliver it.
May 17, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524211/-rehabilitation-treatment-in-child-and-youth-patients-with-acquired-brain-injury
#6
M T Varas-Arias, S Rodriguez-Palero
Brain injury is one of the most frequent causes of death and disability in the child and adolescent. The improvement in patient care in the acute moment and the evolution of health care has meant and increase in the survival of these patients and also of the sequelae. Physical, cognitive-behavioral or organic symptoms are usually. The second is being one of the most frequent and most limiting in these patients. The brain injury affects the patient but involves the whole family because of the disability and the dependence it entails...
May 17, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524175/modulators-of-microglial-activation-and-polarization-after-intracerebral-haemorrhage
#7
REVIEW
Xi Lan, Xiaoning Han, Qian Li, Qing-Wu Yang, Jian Wang
Intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is the most lethal subtype of stroke but currently lacks effective treatment. Microglia are among the first non-neuronal cells on the scene during the innate immune response to ICH. Microglia respond to acute brain injury by becoming activated and developing classic M1-like (proinflammatory) or alternative M2-like (anti-inflammatory) phenotypes. This polarization implies as yet unrecognized actions of microglia in ICH pathology and recovery, perhaps involving microglial production of proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines...
May 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524120/proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-%C3%A2-h-mrs-study-of-early-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rabbits
#8
Yong Xiao, Yigang Fu, Yi Zhou, Jianguo Xia, Lina Wang, Chunhong Hu
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between dynamic changes of cerebral metabolism and degree of trauma in rabbit models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) by using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-MRS). MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty-five Chinese rabbits were randomly divided into control, mild, moderate, and severe TBI groups. ¹H-MRS was performed 1, 6, and 24 h after trauma. The concentrations of NAA, Cr, Cho, and Lac, and NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr ratios in each group, were estimated...
May 19, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524074/neurotrauma-the-crosstalk-between-neurotrophins-and-inflammation-in-the-acutely-injured-brain
#9
REVIEW
Lindolfo da Silva Meirelles, Daniel Simon, Andrea Regner
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among young individuals worldwide. Understanding the pathophysiology of neurotrauma is crucial for the development of more effective therapeutic strategies. After the trauma occurs, immediate neurologic damage is produced by the traumatic forces; this primary injury triggers a secondary wave of biochemical cascades together with metabolic and cellular changes, called secondary neural injury. In the scenario of the acutely injured brain, the ongoing secondary injury results in ischemia and edema culminating in an uncontrollable increase in intracranial pressure...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524035/-comparison-of-risk-of-death-between-older-and-non-older-critical-patients-in-icu-a-retrospective-cohort-study-of-consecutive-3-years
#10
Yeting Zhou, Daoming Tong, Shaodan Wang, Liansong Liu, Song Ye, Benwen Xu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk of death between older and non-older critical patients in intensive care unit (ICU) in Shuyang People's Hospital. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted. The critical patients who aged 15 or above, and admitted to ICU of Shuyang People's Hospital from January 2014 to December 2016 were enrolled, and all the data was collected from the registration and electronic medical records in the ICU. The prevalence and causes of death in ICU critical patients during the study period were observed...
May 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523518/decreased-human-leukocyte-antigen-a-02-01-frequency-is-associated-with-risk-of-glioma-and-existence-of-human-cytomegalovirus-a-case-control-study-in-northern-china
#11
Sheng Han, Jian Deng, Zixun Wang, Huan Liu, Wen Cheng, Anhua Wu
BACKGROUND: Human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) play an important role in host defense against viral infection and tumorigenesis. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has been linked to glioma development. This study investigated the relationship between HLA distribution, presence of HCMV, and glioma development in a Han Chinese population. METHODS: The study population included 150 glioma patients and 150 tumor-free brain injury control subjects (control-A) matched according to geography, ethnicity, age, and gender...
May 18, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523229/strategy-based-reasoning-training-modulates-cortical-thickness-and-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-adults-with-chronic-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Kihwan Han, Rebecca A Davis, Sandra B Chapman, Daniel C Krawczyk
INTRODUCTION: Prior studies have demonstrated training-induced changes in the healthy adult brain. Yet, it remains unclear how the injured brain responds to cognitive training months-to-years after injury. METHODS: Sixty individuals with chronic traumatic brain injury (TBI) were randomized into either strategy-based (N = 31) or knowledge-based (N = 29) training for 8 weeks. We measured cortical thickness and resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) before training, immediately posttraining, and 3 months posttraining...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522972/recent-advances-in-the-study-of-bipolar-rod-shaped-microglia-and-their-roles-in-neurodegeneration
#13
Ngan Pan Bennett Au, Chi Him Eddie Ma
Microglia are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and they contribute to primary inflammatory responses following CNS injuries. The morphology of microglia is closely associated with their functional activities. Most previous research efforts have attempted to delineate the role of ramified and amoeboid microglia in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. In addition to ramified and amoeboid microglia, bipolar/rod-shaped microglia were first described by Franz Nissl in 1899 and their presence in the brain was closely associated with the pathology of infectious diseases and sleeping disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522734/voluntary-control-of-epileptiform-spike-wave-discharges-in-awake-rats
#14
Jeremy A Taylor, Krista M Rodgers, Florencia M Bercum, Carmen J Booth, F Edward Dudek, Daniel S Barth
Genetically inherited absence epilepsy in humans is typically characterized by brief (seconds) spontaneous seizures, which involve spike-wave discharges (SWDs) in the EEG and interruption of consciousness and ongoing behavior. Genetic (inbred) models of this disorder in rats have been used to examine mechanisms, comorbidities and anti-absence drugs. SWDs have also been proposed as models of complex partial seizures (CPSs) following traumatic brain injury (post-traumatic epilepsy; PTE). However, the ictal characteristics of these rat models, including SWDs and associated immobility, are also prevalent in healthy outbred laboratory rats...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522733/activation-of-perk-elicits-memory-impairment-through-inactivation-of-creb-and-downregulation-of-psd95-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Tanusree Sen, Rajaneesh Gupta, Helen Kaiser, Nilkantha Sen
The PKR-like ER kinase (PERK) a transmembrane protein resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and activation of PERK serve as a key sensor of ER-stress which has been implicated in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). The loss of memory is one of the most common symptoms following TBI; however, the precise role of PERK activation in memory impairment after TBI has not been well elucidated. Here we have shown that blocking the activation of PERK using GSK2656157 prevents the loss of dendritic spines and rescues memory deficits following TBI...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522659/validation-of-an-mri-brain-injury-and-growth-scoring-system-in-very-preterm-infants-scanned-at-29-to-35-week-postmenstrual-age
#16
J M George, S Fiori, J Fripp, X K Pannek, X J Bursle, X R X Moldrich, X A Guzzetta, X A Coulthard, X R S Ware, X S E Rose, X P B Colditz, X R N Boyd
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The diagnostic and prognostic potential of brain MR imaging before term-equivalent age is limited until valid MR imaging scoring systems are available. This study aimed to validate an MR imaging scoring system of brain injury and impaired growth for use at 29 to 35 weeks postmenstrual age in infants born at <31 weeks gestational age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-three infants in a prospective cohort study underwent early 3T MR imaging between 29 and 35 weeks' postmenstrual age (mean, 32(+2) ± 1(+3) weeks; 49 males, born at median gestation of 28(+4) weeks; range, 23(+6)-30(+6) weeks; mean birthweight, 1068 ± 312 g)...
May 18, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522551/inhibition-of-mir-143-during-ischemia-cerebral-injury-protects-neurons-through-recovery-of-the-hexokinase-2-mediated-glucose%C3%A2-uptake
#17
Xianzhu Zeng, Na Liu, Jing Zhang, Lei Wang, Zhecheng Zhang, Ju Zhu, Qian Li, Yuwen Wang
Ischemic stroke, a major cause of death, is caused by occlusion of a blood vessel, resulting in a significant reduction in regional cerebral blood flow. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of short noncoding RNAs (18 to 22 nucleotides) and bind the 3' un-translated region (UTR) of their target genes to post-transcriptionally suppress gene expression. In this study, we report miR-143 is downregulated in rat neurons but high expressed in astrocytes cells. In vivo middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and ex vivo oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) results showed miR-143 was significantly induced by ischemia injury...
May 18, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522414/therapeutic-potential-of-agmatine-for-cns-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Vivian B Neis, Priscila B Rosa, Gislaine Olescowicz, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues
Agmatine is a neuromodulator that regulates multiple neurotransmitters and signaling pathways. Several studies have focused on elucidating the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of this molecule, which seems to be mediated by a reduction in oxidative damage, neuroinflammation, and proapoptotic signaling. Since these events are implicated in acute and chronic excitotoxicity-related disorders (ischemia, epilepsy, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, neurodegenerative, and psychiatric disorders) as well as in nociception, agmatine has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders...
May 15, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522336/geldanamycin-inhibits-fas-signaling-pathway-and-protects-neurons-against-ischemia
#19
Xiao-Hui Yin, Yan-Ling Han, Ying Zhuang, Jing-Zhi Yan, Chong Li
The inhibitor of Heat shock proteins 90, geldanamycin (GA), has been reported neuroprotective against both global and focal brain ischemia. To understand the mechanisms underlies the neuroprotection effect of GA, we investigated the relationship between GA pretreatment and Fas signaling pathway in rat global brain ischemia/reperfusion model in the present study. Results showed that GA attenuated neuron loss significantly in hippocampal CA1 region. Upon GA pretreatment, Mixed Lineage Kinase 3 (MLK3) expression and activation and FasL expression was decreased, the assembly of death-inducing signaling complex and activation of downstream apoptosis-associating proteins were inhibited along with neuroprotection...
May 15, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522105/diffusion-tensor-imaging-tractography-and-mri-perfusion-in-post-traumatic-brain-injury-hypersomnia
#20
M Puligheddu, I Laccu, G Gioi, P Congiu, M Figorilli, M T Peltz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Sleep Medicine
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