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"brain injury"

J Michael Dickson, Xu Wang, Alexander E St John, Esther B Lim, Susan A Stern, Nathan J White
Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS) are the leading causes of traumatic death worldwide and particularly on the battlefield. They are especially challenging when present simultaneously (polytrauma), and clear blood pressure end points during fluid resuscitation are not well described for this situation. The goal of this study is to evaluate for any benefit of increasing blood pressure using a vasopressor on brain blood flow during initial fluid resuscitation in a swine polytrauma model...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Ariana Sherdil, Stéphan Chabardès, Isabelle Guillemain, Sandrine Michallat, Shivadatta Prabhu, Karine Pernet-Gallay, Olivier David, Brigitte Piallat
PURPOSE: Our objective was to propose a new on demand non-human primate model of mesial temporal lobe seizures suitable for pre-clinical innovative therapeutic research. METHODS: Five macaques were stereotaxically implanted unilaterally with a deep recording electrode in the hippocampus. For each experiment, penicillin was injected into the hippocampus and animals were monitored during five consecutive hours. A total of 12-27 experiments with a mean cumulative dose of 162644 ± 70190 UI of penicillin have been performed per animal Injections were repeated at least once a week over a period of 98-276 days...
March 9, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Annie Hartmann, Deb Kegelmeyer, Anne Kloos
: Individuals with concomitant spinal cord injury and traumatic brain injury have cognitive deficits that may limit the ability to learn novel motor tasks necessary for functional independence. Errorless learning has been shown to improve cognitive task performance in persons with brain injury but little is known about its usefulness for improving novel motor task learning. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 44-year-old man with traumatic spinal cord and brain injuries from a motor vehicle accident was admitted to an inpatient rehabilitation hospital...
April 2018: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
Kate O'Reilly, Kath Peters, Nathan Wilson, Cannas Kwok
BACKGROUND: Although more men than women sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI), approximately one quarter of people with TBIs are women. The experiences of TBI reported in the literature are informed from the masculine perspective and do not adequately represent women's experiences. Pragmatism provides an overarching methodological framework to explore and critique a broader perspective of health, including psychosocial, cultural, spiritual, political and environmental factors, while attempting to address gender inequity...
March 16, 2018: Nurse Researcher
Lei Liu, Masashi Fujimoto, Fumi Nakano, Hirofumi Nishikawa, Takeshi Okada, Fumihiro Kawakita, Kyoko Imanaka-Yoshida, Toshimichi Yoshida, Hidenori Suzuki
Tenascin-C (TNC), a matricellular protein, is upregulated in brain parenchyma after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Recent studies emphasize that early brain injury (EBI) should be overcome to improve post-SAH outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of TNC knockout (TNKO) on neuronal apoptosis and neuroinflammation, both of which are important constituents of EBI after SAH. C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice or TNKO mice underwent sham or filament perforation SAH modeling. Twenty-five WT mice and 25 TNKO mice were randomly divided into sham+WT (n = 10), sham+TNKO (n = 8), SAH+WT (n = 15), and SAH+TNKO (n = 17) groups...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Yuan-Hao Chen, Tung-Tai Kuo, Eagle Yi-Kung Huang, Barry J Hoffer, Yu-Ching Chou, Yung-Hsiao Chiang, Hsin-I Ma, Jonathan P Miller
Aim: To determine the precise effects of post-traumatic seizure activity on hippocampal processes, we induced seizures at various intervals after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and analyzed plasticity at CA1 Schaffer collateral synapses. Material and Methods: Rats were initially separated into two groups; one exposed solely to fluid percussion injury (FPI) at 2 Psi and the other only receiving kainic acid (KA)-induced seizures without FPI. Electrophysiological (ePhys) studies including paired-pulse stimulation for short-term presynaptic plasticity and long-term potentiation (LTP) of CA1 Schaffer collateral synapses of the hippocampus for post-synaptic function survey were followed at post-event 1 hour, 3 and 7 days respectively...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Qin Rui, Haibo Ni, Fan Gao, Baoqi Dang, Di Li, Rong Gao, Gang Chen
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is widely expressed in the brain and exerts neurotoxicity in Parkinson's disease. The p38/Drosha signaling activation has been reported to increase cell death under stress. This study was designed to investigate the potential role and mechanism of LRRK2 in secondary brain injury after traumatic brain injury (TBI). A total of 130 male Sprague-Dawley rats were examined using a weight-drop model of TBI. The rats received the specific LRRK2 inhibitor PF-06447475 or LRRK2 pDNA alone or in combination with Drosha pDNA...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Alessander Danna-Dos-Santos, Sambit Mohapatra, Maria Santos, Adriana M Degani
Understanding the long-term effects of concussive events remains a challenge for the development of modern medical practices and the prevention of recurrent traumas. In this study, we utilized indices of oculomotor performance and the ability to react to simple environmental stimuli to assess the long-term motor effects of traumatic brain injury in its mildest form (mTBI). We performed analysis of eye movement accuracy, investigated the presence of abnormal eye movements, and quantified time to react to simple environmental stimuli on long-term mTBI survivors...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Laura B Tucker, Alexander G Velosky, Joseph T McCabe
Acquired traumatic brain injury (TBI) is frequently accompanied by persistent cognitive symptoms, including executive function disruptions and memory deficits. The Morris Water Maze (MWM) is the most widely-employed laboratory behavioral test for assessing cognitive deficits in rodents after experimental TBI. Numerous protocols exist for performing the test, which has shown great robustness in detecting learning and memory deficits in rodents after infliction of TBI. We review applications of the MWM for the study of cognitive deficits following TBI in pre-clinical studies, describing multiple ways in which the test can be employed to examine specific aspects of learning and memory...
March 12, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Colin M Bosma, Nashwa Mansoor, Chiara S Haller
OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the relationship between Post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptom severity and Health-related Quality of Life (HRQoL) after severe Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). DESIGN: Longitudinal prospective multi-center, cohort study on severe TBI in Switzerland (2007-2011). Injury severity was determined using the Abbreviated Injury Score of the Head region (HAIS), following clinical assessment and initial computed tomography (CT). SETTING: Baseline data was gathered at time/location of the accident...
March 12, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Hongbei Xu, Wenyi Qin, Xiao Hu, Song Mu, Jun Zhu, Wenhao Lu, Yong Luo
BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke-induced neuroinflammation is mainly mediated by microglial cells. The nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway is the key transcriptional pathway that initiates inflammatory responses following cerebral ischemia. OTULIN, a critical negative regulator of the NF-κΒ signaling pathway, exerts robust effects on peripheral immune cell-mediated inflammation and is regarded as an essential mediator for repressing inflammation in vivo. The effect of OTULIN on inflammatory responses in the central nervous system (CNS) was previously unstudied...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Yasmine Mosleh, Martin Cajka, Bart Depreitere, Jos Vander Sloten, Jan Ivens
Oblique impact is the most common accident situation that occupants in traffic accidents or athletes in professional sports experience. During oblique impact, the human head is subjected to a combination of linear and rotational accelerations. Rotational movement is known to be responsible for traumatic brain injuries. In this article, composite foam with a column/matrix composite configuration is proposed for head protection applications to replace single-layer uniform foam, to better attenuate rotational movement of the head during oblique impacts...
March 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
Jing Li Huang, Theo A Woehrle, Pat Conway, Catherine A McCarty, Madeline M Eyer, Steven D Eyer
PURPOSE: In 2007, Essentia Health St. Mary's Medical Center (SMMC), a Level II trauma center in northeastern Minnesota, implemented a protocol for patients who presented with blunt head trauma and were receiving warfarin for anticoagulation. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors of early delayed, warfarin-associated intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: Adult patients with signs and symptoms of head injury on warfarin who were admitted by protocol to SMMC between March 2007 and June 2015 were included...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
Vasilije Stambolija, Martina Miklić Bublić, Marin Lozić, Jakob Nemir, Miroslav Ščap
Background: Low brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO2 ), or brain hypoxia, is an independent predictor of poor outcome. Increasing inspirational fraction of oxygen could have a significant influence on treating lower PbtO2 . Combined PbtO2 therapy, compared to the approach that focus only on regulation of cerebral perfusion pressure and intracranial pressure, shows better patient outcomes. Monitoring of PbtO2 could be helpful in individualizing treatment, preventing or limiting secondary brain injury, and maintaining better patient outcome...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
Philip W Cameron, Noelle C Soltero, Justin Byers
Mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) are common in contact sports. There is an association between mTBIs and altered motor function. BioSway technology measures individuals' balance using the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS). Prior to incorporating BESS testing in concussion protocol, other variables that influence the BESS test require review. The objective of this study is to determine if game fatigue in hockey players also influences the BESS score. 23 male (21.08 ± 1.09) National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) athletes were tested using the BioSway™ (Biodex, USA)...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Chengjie Meng, Juyi Zhang, Baoqi Dang, Haiying Li, Haitao Shen, Xiang Li, Zhong Wang
The protein kinase R (PKR)-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) signaling pathway was reported to exert an important role in neuronal apoptosis. The present study was designed to investigate the roles of the PERK signaling pathway in the secondary brain injury (SBI) induced by intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and its potential mechanisms. Sprague-Dawley rats were used to establish ICH models by injecting autologous blood (100 μl), and cultured primary rat cortical neurons were exposed to oxyhemoglobin (10 μM) to mimic ICH in vitro ...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Chuanjie Wu, Chuanhui Li, Wenbo Zhao, Nanchang Xie, Feng Yan, Yajun Lian, Li Zhou, Xiaoya Xu, Yong Liang, Lu Wang, Ming Ren, Sijie Li, Xuan Cheng, Lu Zhang, Qingfeng Ma, Haiqing Song, Ran Meng, Xunming Ji
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the plasma level of trimethylamine N -oxide (TMAO), a proatherosclerotic intestinal microbiota metabolite, can be a predictor of ischemic brain injury secondary to carotid artery stenting (CAS). METHODS: In this multicenter, prospective cohort study, we enrolled patients with severe carotid artery stenosis (>70%) who were prepared for CAS. Plasma TMAO level was measured within 3 days before CAS, and MRI was performed 1 to 3 days after CAS...
March 14, 2018: Neurology
Huisheng Wu, Chaoliang Tang, Lydia Wai Tai, Weifeng Yao, Peipei Guo, Junmou Hong, Xin Yang, Xinyi Li, Zhao Jin, Jianjuan Ke, Yanlin Wang
Background & Aims:  Ischemic stroke has been ranked the second cause of death in patients worldwide.Inflammation which is activated during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion is an important mechanism leading to brain injury. This study aimed to investigate the effect of flurbiprofen axetil on cerebral I/R injury and the role of inflammation in this process. Methods:  Rats were subjected to sham operation or global cerebral I/R with or without flurbiprofen axetil (5 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg). Global cerebral ischemia was achieved by occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries combined with hypotension for 20 min followed by reperfusion for 72 h...
March 14, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Mei Jiang, Xinghui Liu, Denghai Zhang, Ying Wang, Xiaoxia Hu, Fengxia Xu, Mingming Jin, Fanfan Cao, Limin Xu
BACKGROUND: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is the most common type of cerebrovascular disease and is a leading cause of disability and death worldwide. Recently, a study suggested that transformation of microglia from the pro-inflammatory M1 state to the anti-inflammatory and tissue-reparative M2 phenotype may be an effective therapeutic strategy for ischemic stroke. Celastrol, a traditional oriental medicine, may have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Melanie Li, Swetlana Sirko
Building on the seminal work by Geoffrey Harris in the 1970s, the neuroendocrinology field, having undergone spectacular growth, has endeavored to understand the mechanisms of hormonal connectivity between the brain and the rest of the body. Given the fundamental role of the brain in the orchestration of endocrine processes through interactions among neurohormones, it is thus not surprising that the structural and/or functional alterations following traumatic brain injury (TBI) can lead to endocrine changes affecting the whole organism...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
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