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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156865/antibacterial-resistance-patterns-and-incidence-of-hospital-acquired-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-in-a-tertiary-care-educational-hospital-in-turkey-a-perspective-from-2001-to-2013
#1
Oğuz Reşat Sipahi, Serhat Uysal, Sabire Şöhret Aydemir, Hüsnü Pullukçu, Meltem Taşbakan, Alper Tünger, Fatma Feriha Çilli, Tansu Yamazhan, Bilgin Arda, Hilal Sipahi, Sercan Ulusoy
Background/aim: Staphylococcus aureus is an important nosocomial pathogen and a successful antimicrobial-resistance developer. In this study we retrospectively evaluated the resistance patterns and incidence of microbiologically confirmed nosocomial bacteremia (MCNB) related S. aureus strains between 2001 and 2013. Materials and methods: Any patient in whom S. aureus was isolated in at least one set of blood cultures (sent to the bacteriology laboratory 72 h after hospital admission) was considered to have MCNB...
August 23, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156653/dual-competing-photovoltaic-supply-chains-a-social-welfare-maximization-perspective
#2
Zhisong Chen, Shong-Iee Ivan Su
In the past decades, the inappropriate subsidy policies in many nations have caused problems such as serious oversupply, fierce competition and subpar social welfare in the photovoltaic (PV) industry in many nations. There is a clear shortage in the PV industry literature regarding how dual supply chains compete and the key decision issues regarding the competition between dual PV supply chains. It is critical to develop effective subsidy policies for the competing PV supply chains to achieve social welfare maximization...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156281/dry-hot-stress-significantly-reduced-the-nitrogenase-activity-of-epiphytic-cyanolichen
#3
Shuai Liu, Wenyao Liu, Xianmeng Shi, Su Li, Tao Hu, Liang Song, Chuansheng Wu
Nitrogen (N) fixed by epiphytic cyanolichens (i.e. lichens that contain cyanobacterial symbionts) is thought to be the most important resource of this nutrient in some natural forest ecosystems. Although a great deal of work has been carried out to evaluate the biomass of this group as well as its contribution to ecosystem N budgets, empirical studies are needed to confirm the N input responses by cyanolichens under climate change conditions (dry-hot stress) as well as to determine the factors that control this process...
November 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155604/modelling-evolutionary-algorithms-with-stochastic-differential-equations
#4
Jorge Pérez Heredia
There has been renewed interest in modelling the behaviour of evolutionary algorithms (EAs) by more traditional mathematical objects, such as ordinary differential equations or Markov chains. The advantage is that the analysis becomes greatly facilitated due to the existence of well established methods. However, this typically comes at the cost of disregarding information about the process. Here, we introduce the use of stochastic differential equations (SDEs) for the study of EAs. SDEs can produce simple analytical results for the dynamics of stochastic processes, unlike Markov chains which can produce rigorous but unwieldy expressions about the dynamics...
November 20, 2017: Evolutionary Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155018/emerging-infections-are-an-increasingly-important-topic
#5
REVIEW
Eskild Petersen, Nicola Petrosillo, Marion Koopmans
OBJECTIVES: This paper review trends in emerging infections and the need for increased clinical and laboratory surveillance. METHODS: Factors that contributed to the emergence of recent outbreaks have been reviewed. Known, major outbreaks over the past two decades were reviewed. RESULTS: We identified at least four major drivers of emergent infections: i. increasing density of the human population; ii. stress from farmland expansion on the environment; iii...
November 15, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154476/valuing-our-communities-ethical-considerations-for-economic-evaluation-of-community-based-prevention
#6
Max Crowley, Damon Jones
Restricted public budgets and increasing efforts to link the impact of community interventions to public savings have increased the use of economic evaluation. While this type of evaluation can be important for program planning, it also raises important ethical issues about how we value the time of local stakeholders who support community interventions. In particular, researchers navigate issues of scientific accuracy, institutional inequality, and research utility in their pursuit of even basic cost estimates...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154182/impact-of-ill-health-on-household-consumption-in-sri-lanka-evidence-from-household-survey-data
#7
Ajantha Sisira Kumara, Ramanie Samaratunge
With significant increases in chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in recent years, Sri Lanka has witnessed a growing trend of increased out-of-pocket payments for healthcare, imposing a severe burden on household budgets. This is exacerbated by limited government health funding and inadequate financial security from formal social security. We examine the association of NCD-prevalence and healthcare utilization with household consumption, using the most recent Sri Lanka Household Income and Expenditure Survey 2012/2013...
November 11, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149903/improving-access-to-school-health-services-as-perceived-by-school-professionals
#8
Janine Bezem, Debbie Heinen, Ria Reis, Simone E Buitendijk, Mattijs E Numans, Paul L Kocken
BACKGROUND: The organisation of health assessments by preventive health services focusing on children's health and educational performance needs to be improved due to evolving health priorities such as mental health problems, reduced budgets and shortages of physicians and nurses. We studied the impact on the school professionals' perception of access to school health services (SHS) when a triage approach was used for population-based health assessments in primary schools. The triage approach involves pre-assessments by SHS assistants, with only those children in need of follow-up being assessed by a physician or nurse...
November 17, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147056/organizing-integrated-health-care-services-to-meet-older-people-s-needs
#9
Islene Araujo de Carvalho, JoAnne Epping-Jordan, Anne Margriet Pot, Edward Kelley, Nuria Toro, Jotheeswaran A Thiyagarajan, John R Beard
In most countries, a fundamental shift in the focus of clinical care for older people is needed. Instead of trying to manage numerous diseases and symptoms in a disjointed fashion, the emphasis should be on interventions that optimize older people's physical and mental capacities over their life course and that enable them to do the things they value. This, in turn, requires a change in the way services are organized: there should be more integration within the health system and between health and social services...
November 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146646/cross-sectional-study-of-the-financial-cost-of-training-to-the-surgical-trainee-in-the-uk-and-ireland
#10
John O'Callaghan, Helen M Mohan, Anna Sharrock, Vimal Gokani, J Edward Fitzgerald, Adam P Williams, Rhiannon L Harries
OBJECTIVES: Applications for surgical training have declined over the last decade, and anecdotally the costs of training at the expense of the surgical trainee are rising. We aimed to quantify the costs surgical trainees are expected to cover for postgraduate training. DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: A non-mandatory online questionnaire for UK-based trainees was distributed nationally...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146638/preventing-type-2-diabetes-systematic-review-of-studies-of-cost-effectiveness-of-lifestyle-programmes-and-metformin-with-and-without-screening-for-pre-diabetes
#11
Samantha Roberts, Eleanor Barry, Dawn Craig, Mara Airoldi, Gwyn Bevan, Trisha Greenhalgh
OBJECTIVE: Explore the cost-effectiveness of lifestyle interventions and metformin in reducing subsequent incidence of type 2 diabetes, both alone and in combination with a screening programme to identify high-risk individuals. DESIGN: Systematic review of economic evaluations. DATA SOURCES AND ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Database searches (Embase, Medline, PreMedline, NHS EED) and citation tracking identified economic evaluations of lifestyle interventions or metformin alone or in combination with screening programmes in people at high risk of developing diabetes...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143622/lives-saved-tool-list-costing-a-module-to-examine-costs-and-prioritize-interventions
#12
Lori A Bollinger, Rachel Sanders, William Winfrey, Adebiyi Adesina
BACKGROUND: Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals will require careful allocation of resources in order to achieve the highest impact. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) has been used widely to calculate the impact of maternal, neonatal and child health (MNCH) interventions for program planning and multi-country estimation in several Lancet Series commissions. As use of the LiST model increases, many have expressed a desire to cost interventions within the model, in order to support budgeting and prioritization of interventions by countries...
November 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143609/survey-of-programmatic-experiences-and-challenges-in-delivery-of-hepatitis-b-and-c-testing-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#13
Azumi Ishizaki, Julie Bouscaillou, Niklas Luhmann, Stephanie Liu, Raissa Chua, Nick Walsh, Sarah Hess, Elena Ivanova, Teri Roberts, Philippa Easterbrook
BACKGROUND: There have been few reports on programmatic experience of viral hepatitis testing and treatment in resource-limited settings. To inform the development of the 2017 World Health Organization (WHO) viral hepatitis testing guidance and in particular the feasibility of proposed recommendations, we undertook a survey across a range of organisations engaged with hepatitis testing in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Our objective was to describe current hepatitis B and C testing practices across a range of settings in different countries, as well as key barriers or challenges encountered and proposed solutions to promote testing scale-up...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142516/outcomes-of-limited-period-of-adalimumab-treatment-in-moderate-to-severe-crohn-s-disease-patients-taiwan-society-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-study
#14
Wei-Chen Lin, Jen-Wei Chou, Hsu-Heng Yen, Wen-Hung Hsu, Hung-Hsin Lin, Jen-Kou Lin, Chiao-Hsiung Chuang, Tien-Yu Huang, Horng-Yuan Wang, Shu-Chen Wei, Jau-Min Wong
Background/Aims: In Taiwan, due to budget limitations, the National Health Insurance only allows for a limited period of biologics use in treating moderate to severe Crohn's disease (CD). We aimed to access the outcomes of CD patients following a limited period use of biologics, specifically focusing on the relapse rate and remission duration; also the response rate to second use when applicable. Methods: This was a multicenter, retrospective, observational study and we enrolled CD patients who had been treated with adalimumab (ADA) according to the insurance guidelines from 2009 to 2015...
October 2017: Intestinal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141700/can-a-customer-relationship-management-program-improve-recruitment-for-primary-care-research-studies
#15
Sharon Johnston, Sabrina T Wong, Stephanie Blackman, Leena W Chau, Anne M Grool, William Hogg
BACKGROUND: Recruiting family physicians into primary care research studies requires researchers to continually manage information coming in, going out, and coming in again. In many research groups, Microsoft Excel and Access are the usual data management tools, but they are very basic and do not support any automation, linking, or reminder systems to manage and integrate recruitment information and processes. OBJECTIVE: We explored whether a commercial customer relationship management (CRM) software program - designed for sales people in businesses to improve customer relations and communications - could be used to make the research recruitment system faster, more effective, and more efficient...
November 16, 2017: Primary Health Care Research & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141572/a-clinical-update-and-global-economic-burden-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#16
Syed Ali Fazal, Mohammad Khan, Shamima Easmin Nishi, Fahmida Alam, Nowshin Zarin, Mohammad Tariful Bari, Ghulam Md Ashraf
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a predominant inflammatory autoimmune disorder. The incidence and prevalence of RA is increasing with considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. The pathophysiology of RA has become clearer due to many significant research outputs during the last two decades. Many inflammatory cytokines involved in RA pathophysiology and the presence of autoantibodies are being used as potential biomarkers via the use of effective diagnostic techniques for the early diagnosis of RA. Currently, several disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs are being prescribed targeting RA pathophysiology, which have shown significant contributions in improving the disease outcomes...
November 14, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137649/exploring-the-factors-affecting-the-implementation-of-tobacco-and-substance-use-interventions-within-a-secondary-school-setting-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Gillian Waller, Tracy Finch, Emma L Giles, Dorothy Newbury-Birch
BACKGROUND: The aim of this mixed-methods, systematic literature review was to develop an understanding of the factors affecting the implementation of tobacco and substance use intervention programmes in the secondary school setting using NPT as an analytical framework. METHODS: A search strategy was developed that combined implementation, school and intervention search terms. Literature searches were conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, PsycHINFO, Scopus, ERIC, CINAHL, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library...
November 14, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135978/association-between-the-2012-health-and-social-care-act-and-specialist-visits-and-hospitalisations-in-england-a-controlled-interrupted-time-series-analysis
#18
James A Lopez Bernal, Christine Y Lu, Antonio Gasparrini, Steven Cummins, J Frank Wharham, Steven B Soumerai
BACKGROUND: The 2012 Health and Social Care Act (HSCA) in England led to among the largest healthcare reforms in the history of the National Health Service (NHS). It gave control of £67 billion of the NHS budget for secondary care to general practitioner (GP) led Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs). An expected outcome was that patient care would shift away from expensive hospital and specialist settings, towards less expensive community-based models. However, there is little evidence for the effectiveness of this approach...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135343/effects-of-influenza-immunization-on-pneumonia-in-the-elderly
#19
Jung Yeon Heo, Joon Young Song, Ji Yun Noh, Min Joo Choi, Jin Gu Yoon, Saem Na Lee, Hee Jin Cheong, Woo Joo Kim
Influenza virus is a common pathogen implicated in respiratory tract infections, annually affecting up to 20% of the general population, and pneumonia is a leading cause of death after influenza infection. Post-influenza pneumonia is especially common in the elderly and chronically ill patients. The risk of post-influenza pneumonia is significantly increased according to the number of concurrent comorbidities. Vaccination is the primary measure used to abate influenza epidemics and associated complications...
November 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134680/vocal-activities-reflect-the-temporal-distribution-of-bottlenose-dolphin-social-and-non-social-activity-in-a-zoological-park
#20
Alice Lima, Alban Lemasson, Martin Boye, Martine Hausberger
Under natural conditions bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) spend their time mostly feeding and then travelling, socializing, or resting. These activities are not randomly distributed, with feeding being higher in early morning and late afternoon. Social activities and vocal behavior seem to be very important in dolphin daily activity. This study aimed to describe the activity time-budget and its relation to vocal behavior for dolphins in a zoological park. We recorded behaviors and vocalizations of six dolphins over 2 months...
November 14, 2017: Zoo Biology
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