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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719767/capacity-of-commune-health-stations-in-chi-linh-district-hai-duong-province-for-prevention-and-control-of-noncommunicable-diseases
#1
Nguyen Thi Thuy Nga, Bui Thi My Anh, Nguyen Nguyen Ngoc, Dang Minh Diem, Vu Duy Kien, Tran Bich Phuong, Tran Quynh Anh, Hoang Van Minh
The primary health care system in Vietnam has been playing an important role in prevention and control of diseases. This study aimed to describe the capacity of commune health stations in Chi Linh district, Hai Duong province for prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). A mixed-methods (quantitative and qualitative approaches) approach was applied to collect data in 20 commune health stations. The participants, including health workers, stakeholders, and patients with NCDs, were selected for the study...
July 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716143/the-factors-affecting-the-institutionalisation-of-two-policy-units-in-burkina-faso-s-health-system-a-case-study
#2
Andre Zida, John N Lavis, Nelson K Sewankambo, Bocar Kouyate, Kaelan Moat
BACKGROUND: This paper is one of three linked studies that attempts to understand the process of institutionalisation of policy units within Burkina Faso's health system. It examines the relationships between the existence of an institutional framework, data production capacity and other resource availability in the institutionalisation of policy units in health systems. It therefore contributes to our understanding of the dynamics linking the key drivers and indicators of institutionalisation...
July 17, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715855/assessing-long-term-impact-of-land-use-change-on-hydrological-ecosystem-functions-in-a-mediterranean-upland-agro-forestry-catchment
#3
Paolo Nasta, Mario Palladino, Nadia Ursino, Antonio Saracino, Angelo Sommella, Nunzio Romano
During the second half of the 20th century farming systems in hilly and mountainous areas of Mediterranean Europe were progressively abandoned and the forest cover subsequently re-expanded. This paper investigates the environmental impacts of land-use/land-cover (LULC) changes on hydrological ecosystem functions (HEFs) in the Upper Alento River Catchment (UARC) in southern Italy. We document the human-driven post-war landscape in 1955 with its maximum expansion of pasture and crops. By 1998 forest cover had doubled and cropland had roughly halved due to decades of land abandonment and reduction in human pressure...
July 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714814/using-time-driven-activity-based-costing-to-implement-change
#4
Ellen N Sayed, Sa'ad Laws, Basim Uthman
Academic medical libraries have responded to changes in technology, evolving professional roles, reduced budgets, and declining traditional services. Libraries that have taken a proactive role to change have seen their librarians emerge as collaborators and partners with faculty and researchers, while para-professional staff is increasingly overseeing traditional services. This article addresses shifting staff and schedules at a single-service-point information desk by using time-driven activity-based costing to determine the utilization of resources available to provide traditional library services...
July 2017: Medical Reference Services Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714485/health-care-waste-management-practice-in-health-care-institutions-of-nepal
#5
H D Joshi, T Acharya, R Ayer, P Dhakal, K B Karki, M Dhimal
BACKGROUND: Medical waste is considered as a major public health hazard. In a developing country like Nepal, there is much concern about the management practice of medical waste. This study aimed to assess Health Care Waste Management practice among Health Care Institutions in Nepal. METHODS: A cross sectional study was carried out between July 2012 to June 2013 in 62 different Health Care Institutions, selected from stratified proportionate random sampling technique from all administrative regions of Nepal...
January 2017: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714422/household-availability-of-ultra-processed-foods-and-obesity-in-nineteen-european-countries
#6
Carlos Augusto Monteiro, Jean-Claude Moubarac, Renata Bertazzi Levy, Daniela Silva Canella, Maria Laura da Costa Louzada, Geoffrey Cannon
OBJECTIVE: To assess household availability of NOVA food groups in nineteen European countries and to analyse the association between availability of ultra-processed foods and prevalence of obesity. DESIGN: Ecological, cross-sectional study. SETTING: Europe. SUBJECTS: Estimates of ultra-processed foods calculated from national household budget surveys conducted between 1991 and 2008. Estimates of obesity prevalence obtained from national surveys undertaken near the budget survey time...
July 17, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714137/austerity-new-public-management-and-missed-nursing-care-in-australia-and-new-zealand
#7
Eileen Willis, Jenny Carryer, Clare Harvey, Maria Pearson, Julie Henderson
AIMS: To outline the way in which the culture of austerity arising from the Global Financial Crisis has been used by Australian and New Zealand governments to maintain and extend health care budget cuts, through new public management strategies leading to missed nursing care. BACKGROUND: Ten years on the cost of the Global Financial Crisis continues to be borne by tax payers and those employed by the welfare state, yet analysis shows clearly that it was caused by a failure to adequately regulate markets, particularly the banks and multinational corporations...
July 16, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714129/coevolution-between-flight-morphology-vertical-stratification-and-sexual-dimorphism-what-can-we-learn-from-tropical-butterflies
#8
M B Graça, P A C L Pequeno, E Franklin, J W Morais
Occurrence patterns are partly shaped by the affinity of species with habitat conditions. For winged organisms, flight-related attributes are vital for ecological performance. However, due to the different reproductive roles of each sex, we expect divergence in flight energy budget, and consequently different selection responses between sexes. We used tropical frugivorous butterflies as models to investigate coevolution between flight morphology, sex dimorphism and vertical stratification. We studied 94 species of Amazonian fruit-feeing butterflies sampled in seven sites across 3341 ha...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712623/valid-outcome-measures-in-care-for-older-people-comparing-the-ascot-and-the-icecap-o
#9
Mariska Q N Hackert, Job van Exel, Werner B F Brouwer
BACKGROUND: Limited health care budgets and population aging result in a need to compare care services on their benefits and costs. Because services for older people often aim to improve multiple life aspects, valid measures are needed to examine their benefits on individuals' health and well-being simultaneously. Two measures may meet this end: the Adult Social Care Outcomes Toolkit (ASCOT) and the ICEpop CAPability measure for Older people (ICECAP-O). OBJECTIVES: To compare the validity of both measures, the ASCOT and the ICECAP-O...
July 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712355/using-digital-media-advertising-in-early-psychosis-intervention
#10
Michael L Birnbaum, Chantel Garrett, Amit Baumel, Maria Scovel, Asra F Rizvi, Whitney Muscat, John M Kane
OBJECTIVE: Identifying and engaging youth with early-stage psychotic disorders in order to facilitate timely treatment initiation remains a major public health challenge. Although advertisers routinely use the Internet to directly target consumers, limited efforts have focused on applying available technology to proactively encourage help-seeking in the mental health community. This study explores how one might take advantage of Google AdWords in order to reach prospective patients with early psychosis...
July 17, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712130/the-role-of-protected-areas-in-land-use-land-cover-change-and-the-carbon-cycle-in-the-conterminous-united-states
#11
Xiaoliang Lu, Yuyu Zhou, Yaling Liu, Le Page Yannick
Protected Areas (PAs) cover about 22% of the conterminous U.S. Understanding their role on historical land use and land cover change (LULCC) and on the carbon cycle is essential to provide guidance for environmental policies. In this study, we compiled historical LULCC and PAs data to explore these interactions within the terrestrial biogeochemistry model (TEM). We found that intensive LULCC occurred in the conterminous U.S. from 1700 to 2005. More than three million km(2) of forest, grassland and shrublands were converted into agricultural lands, which caused 10,607 Tg C release from land ecosystems to atmosphere...
July 16, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711794/sampling-designs-for-contaminant-temporal-trend-analyses-using-sedentary-species-exemplified-by-the-snails-bellamya-aeruginosa-and-viviparus-viviparus
#12
Ge Yin, Sara Danielsson, Anna-Karin Dahlberg, Yihui Zhou, Yanling Qiu, Elisabeth Nyberg, Anders Bignert
Environmental monitoring typically assumes samples and sampling activities to be representative of the population being studied. Given a limited budget, an appropriate sampling strategy is essential to support detecting temporal trends of contaminants. In the present study, based on real chemical analysis data on polybrominated diphenyl ethers in snails collected from five subsites in Tianmu Lake, computer simulation is performed to evaluate three sampling strategies by the estimation of required sample size, to reach a detection of an annual change of 5% with a statistical power of 80% and 90% with a significant level of 5%...
July 12, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711354/the-roles-of-metabolic-thermogenesis-in-body-fat-regulation-in-striped-hamsters-fed-high-fat-diet-at-different-temperatures
#13
Lu-Lu Shi, Wei-Jia Fan, Ji-Ying Zhang, Xiao-Ya Zhao, Song Tan, Jing Wen, Jing Cao, Xue-Ying Zhang, Qing-Sheng Chi, De-Hua Wang, Zhi-Jun Zhao
The metabolic thermogenesis plays important roles in thermoregulation, and it may be also involved in body fat regulation. The thermogenesis of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is largely affected by ambient temperature, but it is unclear if the roles in body fat regulation are dependent on the temperature. In the present study, uncoupling protein 1 (ucp1)-based BAT thermogenesis, energy budget and body fat content were examined in the striped hamsters fed high fat diet (HF) at cold (5°C) and warm (30°C) temperatures...
July 12, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708899/the-cost-effectiveness-of-a-quality-improvement-program-to-reduce-maternal-and-fetal-mortality-in-a-regional-referral-hospital-in-accra-ghana
#14
David M Goodman, Rohit Ramaswamy, Marc Jeuland, Emmanuel K Srofenyoh, Cyril M Engmann, Adeyemi J Olufolabi, Medge D Owen
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a quality improvement intervention aimed at reducing maternal and fetal mortality in Accra, Ghana. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental, time-sequence intervention, retrospective cost-effectiveness analysis. METHODS: Data were collected on the cost and outcomes of a 5-year Kybele-Ghana Health Service Quality Improvement (QI) intervention conducted at Ridge Regional Hospital, a tertiary referral center in Accra, Ghana, focused on systems, personnel, and communication...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708151/dependence-of-atmospheric-refractive-index-structure-parameter-cn2-on-the-residence-time-and-vertical-distribution-of-aerosols
#15
N Anand, S K Satheesh, K Krishna Moorthy
Effects of absorbing atmospheric aerosols in modulating the tropospheric refractive index structure parameter (Cn2) are estimated using high resolution radiosonde and multi-satellite data along with a radiative transfer model. We report the influence of variations in residence time and vertical distribution of aerosols in modulating Cn2 and why the aerosol induced atmospheric heating needs to be considered while estimating a free space optical communication link budget. The results show that performance of the link is seriously affected if large concentrations of absorbing aerosols reside for a long time in the atmospheric path...
July 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708081/modeling-the-effects-of-urban-design-on-emergency-medical-response-calls-during-extreme-heat-events-in-toronto-canada
#16
Drew A Graham, Jennifer K Vanos, Natasha A Kenny, Robert D Brown
Urban residents are at risk of health-related illness during extreme heat events but the dangers are not equal in all parts of a city. Previous studies have found a relationship between physical characteristics of neighborhoods and the number of emergency medical response (EMR) calls. We used a human energy budget model to test the effects of landscape modifications that are designed to cool the environment on the expected number of EMR calls in two neighborhoods in Toronto, Canada during extreme heat events...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707929/optimal-wall-to-wall-transport-by-incompressible-flows
#17
Ian Tobasco, Charles R Doering
We consider wall-to-wall transport of a passive tracer by divergence-free velocity vector fields u. Given an enstrophy budget ⟨|∇u|^{2}⟩≤Pe^{2} we construct steady two-dimensional flows that transport at rates Nu(u)≳Pe^{2/3}/(logPe)^{4/3} in the large enstrophy limit. Combined with the known upper bound Nu(u)≲Pe^{2/3} for any such enstrophy-constrained flow, we conclude that maximally transporting flows satisfy Nu∼Pe^{2/3} up to possible logarithmic corrections. Combined with known transport bounds in the context of Rayleigh-Bénard convection, this establishes that while suitable flows approaching the "ultimate" heat transport scaling Nu∼Ra^{1/2} exist, they are not always realizable as buoyancy-driven flows...
June 30, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707260/historical-effects-of-dissolved-organic-carbon-export-and-land-management-decisions-on-the-watershed-scale-forest-carbon-budget-of-a-coastal-british-columbia-douglas-fir-dominated-landscape
#18
B P Smiley, J A Trofymow
BACKGROUND: To address how natural disturbance, forest harvest, and deforestation from reservoir creation affect landscape-level carbon (C) budgets, a retrospective C budget for the 8500 ha Sooke Lake Watershed (SLW) from 1911 to 2012 was developed using historical spatial inventory and disturbance data. To simulate forest C dynamics, data was input into a spatially-explicit version of the Carbon Budget Model-Canadian Forest Sector (CBM-CFS3). Transfers of terrestrial C to inland aquatic environments need to be considered to better capture the watershed scale C balance...
December 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705160/tracking-development-assistance-and-government-health-expenditures-for-35-malaria-eliminating-countries-1990-2017
#19
Rima Shretta, Brittany Zelman, Maxwell L Birger, Annie Haakenstad, Lavanya Singh, Yingying Liu, Joseph Dieleman
BACKGROUND: Donor financing for malaria has declined since 2010 and this trend is projected to continue for the foreseeable future. These reductions have a significant impact on lower burden countries actively pursuing elimination, which are usually a lesser priority for donors. While domestic spending on malaria has been growing, it varies substantially in speed and magnitude across countries. A clear understanding of spending patterns and trends in donor and domestic financing is needed to uncover critical investment gaps and opportunities...
July 14, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704030/chemistry-is-dead-long-live-chemistry
#20
Luke D Lavis
Chemistry, once king of fluorescence microscopy, was usurped by the field of fluorescent proteins. The increased demands of modern microscopy techniques on the "photon budget" requires better and brighter fluorophores. Here, we review the recent advances in biochemistry, protein engineering, and organic synthesis that have allowed a triumphant return of chemical dyes to modern biological imaging.
July 13, 2017: Biochemistry
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