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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352256/time-management-in-a-co-housed-social-rodent-species-arvicanthis-niloticus
#1
Alexandra Castillo-Ruiz, Premananda Indic, William J Schwartz
Sociality has beneficial effects on fitness, and timing the activities of animals may be critical. Social cues could influence daily rhythmic activities via direct effects on the circadian clock or on processes that bypass it (masking), but these possibilities remain incompletely addressed. We investigated the effects of social cues on the circadian body temperature (Tb) rhythms in pairs of co-housed and isolated grass rats, Arvicanthis niloticus (a social species), in constant darkness (DD). Cohabitation did not induce synchronization of circadian Tb rhythms...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351291/allometric-biomass-equations-for-12-tree-species-in-coniferous-and-broadleaved-mixed-forests-northeastern-china
#2
Huaijiang He, Chunyu Zhang, Xiuhai Zhao, Folega Fousseni, Jinsong Wang, Haijun Dai, Song Yang, Qiang Zuo
Understanding forest carbon budget and dynamics for sustainable resource management and ecosystem functions requires quantification of above- and below-ground biomass at individual tree species and stand levels. In this study, a total of 122 trees (9-12 per species) were destructively sampled to determine above- and below-ground biomass of 12 tree species (Acer mandshuricum, Acer mono, Betula platyphylla, Carpinus cordata, Fraxinus mandshurica, Juglans mandshurica, Maackia amurensis, P. koraiensis, Populus ussuriensis, Quercus mongolica, Tilia amurensis and Ulmus japonica) in coniferous and broadleaved mixed forests of Northeastern China, an area of the largest natural forest in the country...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351020/a-dynamic-state-model-of-migratory-behavior-and-physiology-to-assess-the-consequences-of-environmental-variation-and-anthropogenic-disturbance-on-marine-vertebrates
#3
Enrico Pirotta, Marc Mangel, Daniel P Costa, Bruce Mate, Jeremy A Goldbogen, Daniel M Palacios, Luis A Hückstädt, Elizabeth A McHuron, Lisa Schwarz, Leslie New
Integrating behavior and physiology is critical to formulating new hypotheses on the evolution of animal life-history strategies. Migratory capital breeders acquire most of the energy they need to sustain migration, gestation, and lactation before parturition. Therefore, when predicting the impact of environmental variation on such species, a mechanistic understanding of the physiology of their migratory behavior is required. Using baleen whales as a model system, we developed a dynamic state variable model that captures the interplay among behavioral decisions, energy, reproductive needs, and the environment...
February 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349856/self-responsibility-rationing-and-treatment-decision-making-managing-moral-narratives-alongside-fiscal-reality-in-the-obesity-surgery-clinic
#4
Amanda Owen-Smith, Joanna Coast, Jenny L Donovan
BACKGROUND: Addressing the prevalence of severe obesity and its concomitant morbidities is widely acknowledged as one of the most pressing global health priorities. Nevertheless, a paucity of effective interventions and universal pressure on health-care budgets means that access to obesity treatments is often limited. Although health-care rationing can be conceived as a socially constructed process, little is known about how decisions emerge within the context of face-to-face doctor-patient interactions...
January 19, 2018: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349294/changes-in-seasonal-snow-water-equivalent-distribution-in-high-mountain-asia-1987-to-2009
#5
Taylor Smith, Bodo Bookhagen
Snow meltwaters account for most of the yearly water budgets of many catchments in High Mountain Asia (HMA). We examine trends in snow water equivalent (SWE) using passive microwave data (1987 to 2009). We find an overall decrease in SWE in HMA, despite regions of increased SWE in the Pamir, Kunlun Shan, Eastern Himalaya, and Eastern Tien Shan. Although the average decline in annual SWE across HMA (contributing area, 2641 × 103 km2) is low (average, -0.3%), annual SWE losses conceal distinct seasonal and spatial heterogeneities across the study region...
January 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349215/public-health-and-the-economy-could-be-served-by-reallocating-medical-expenditures-to-social-programs
#6
Linda Diem Tran, Frederick J Zimmerman, Jonathan E Fielding
As much as 30% of US health care spending in the United States does not improve individual or population health. To a large extent this excess spending results from prices that are too high and from administrative waste. In the public sector, and particularly at the state level, where budget constraints are severe and reluctance to raise taxes high, this spending crowds out social, educational, and public-health investments. Over time, as spending on medical care increases, spending on improvements to the social determinants of health are starved...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347764/exact-relations-for-energy-transfer-in-self-gravitating-isothermal-turbulence
#7
Supratik Banerjee, Alexei G Kritsuk
Self-gravitating isothermal supersonic turbulence is analyzed in the asymptotic limit of large Reynolds numbers. Based on the inviscid invariance of total energy, an exact relation is derived for homogeneous (not necessarily isotropic) turbulence. A modified definition for the two-point energy correlation functions is used to comply with the requirement of detailed energy equipartition in the acoustic limit. In contrast to the previous relations (S. Galtier and S. Banerjee, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 134501 (2011)PRLTAO0031-900710...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347290/turbulent-transport-and-mixing-in-transitional-rayleigh-taylor-unstable-flow-a-priori-assessment-of-gradient-diffusion-and-similarity-modeling
#8
Oleg Schilling, Nicholas J Mueschke
Data from a 1152×760×1280 direct numerical simulation [N. J. Mueschke and O. Schilling, Phys. Fluids 21, 014106 (2009)PHFLE61070-663110.1063/1.3064120] of a Rayleigh-Taylor mixing layer modeled after a small-Atwood-number water-channel experiment is used to investigate the validity of gradient diffusion and similarity closures a priori. The budgets of the mean flow, turbulent kinetic energy, turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate, heavy-fluid mass fraction variance, and heavy-fluid mass fraction variance dissipation rate transport equations across the mixing layer were previously analyzed [O...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347118/linear-stability-of-layered-two-phase-flows-through-parallel-soft-gel-coated-walls
#9
B Dinesh, S Pushpavanam
The linear stability of layered two-phase Poiseuille flows through soft-gel-coated parallel walls is studied in this work. The focus is on determining the effect of the elastohydrodynamic coupling between the fluids and the soft-gel layers on the different instabilities observed in flows between parallel plates. The fluids are assumed Newtonian and incompressible, while the soft gels are modeled as linear viscoelastic solids. A long-wave asymptotic analysis is used to obtain an analytical expression for the growth rate of the disturbances...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347088/effect-of-polymer-additives-on-heat-transport-and-large-scale-circulation-in-turbulent-rayleigh-b%C3%A3-nard-convection
#10
Jian-Ping Cheng, Hong-Na Zhang, Wei-Hua Cai, Si-Ning Li, Feng-Chen Li
The present paper presents direct numerical simulations of Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RBC) in an enclosed cell filled with the polymer solution in order to investigate the viscoelastic effect on the characteristics of heat transport and large-scale circulation (LSC) of RBC. To overcome the difficulties in numerically solving a high Weissenberg number (Wi) problem of viscoelastic fluid flow with strong elastic effect, the log-conformation reformulation method was implemented. Numerical results showed that the addition of polymers reduced the heat flux and the amount of heat transfer reduction (HTR) behaves nonmonotonically, which firstly increases but then decreases with Wi...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346504/baum-improving-genome-assembly-by-adaptive-unique-mapping-and-local-overlap-layout-consensus-approach
#11
Anqi Wang, Zhanyu Wang, Zheng Li, Lei M Li
Motivation: It is highly desirable to assemble genomes of high continuity and consistency at low cost. The current bottleneck of draft genome continuity using the Second Generation Sequencing (SGS) reads is primarily caused by uncertainty among repetitive sequences. Even though the Single-Molecule Real-Time sequencing technology is very promising to overcome the uncertainty issue, its relatively high cost and error rate add burden on budget or computation. Many long-read assemblers take the overlap-layout-consensus (OLC) paradigm, which is less sensitive to sequencing errors, heterozygosity and variability of coverage...
January 15, 2018: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344337/financial-burden-of-diabetic-foot-ulcers-to-world-a-progressive-topic-to-discuss-always
#12
REVIEW
Alok Raghav, Zeeshan Ahmad Khan, Rajendra Kumar Labala, Jamal Ahmad, Saba Noor, Brijesh Kumar Mishra
Diabetic foot complications are the most common occurring problems throughout the globe, resulting in devastating economic crises for the patients, families and society. Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) have a neuropathic origin with a progressive prevalence rate in developing countries compared with developed countries among diabetes mellitus patients. Diabetic patients that are of greatest risk of ulcers may easily be diagnosed with foot examination. Economic burden may be carefully examined. The budget costing must include both the clinical and social impact of the patients...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343842/leptin-resistance-was-involved-in-susceptibility-to-overweight-in-the-striped-hamster-re-fed-with-high-fat-diet
#13
Ying Zhao, Li-Bing Chen, Si-Si Mao, Hong-Xia Min, Jing Cao
Food restriction (FR) is the most commonly used intervention to prevent the overweight. However, the lost weight is usually followed by "compensatory growth" when FR ends, resulting in overweight. The present study was aimed to examining the behavior patterns and hormones mechanisms underpinning the over-weight. Energy budget and body fat content, and several endocrine markers related to leptin signals were examined in the striped hamsters under 20% FR refed by either low-fat diet (LF group) or high-fat diet (HF group)...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341449/digging-deeper-a-holistic-perspective-of-factors-affecting-soil-organic-carbon-sequestration-in-agroecosystems
#14
Rattan Lal
The global magnitude (Pg) of soil organic carbon (SOC) is 677 to 0.3-m, 993 to 0.5-m, and 1505 to 1-m depth. Thus, ~55% of SOC to 1-m lies below 0.3-m depth. Soils of agroecosystems are depleted of their SOC stock and have a low use efficiency of inputs of agronomic yield. This review is a collation and synthesis of articles published in peer-reviewed journals. The rates of SOC sequestration are scaled up to the global level by linear extrapolation. Soil C sink capacity depends on depth, clay content and mineralogy, plant available water holding capacity, nutrient reserves, landscape position, and the antecedent SOC stock...
January 17, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341178/security-investment-in-contagious-networks
#15
Seyed Alireza Hasheminasab, Behrouz Tork Ladani
Security of the systems is normally interdependent in such a way that security risks of one part affect other parts and threats spread through the vulnerable links in the network. So, the risks of the systems can be mitigated through investments in the security of interconnecting links. This article takes an innovative look at the problem of security investment of nodes on their vulnerable links in a given contagious network as a game-theoretic model that can be applied to a variety of applications including information systems...
January 16, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341097/a-postprocedure-wrap-up-tool-for-improving-or-communication-and-performance
#16
Rebecca Norton, Dolores Mordas
In 2015, perioperative nursing staff members at a community hospital designed and implemented a tool to help improve communication and performance. Our postprocedure wrap-up tool and its follow-up process have allowed us to achieve improvements in both efficiency and staff member satisfaction. By implementing a process to document problems as they occur and quickly transmit information to the staff members who are best able to correct these issues, we greatly improved our workflow. Furthermore, by inputting information into spreadsheets using problem codes, thereby replacing anecdotal information with hard data, we targeted areas that needed improvement and used that information for budget planning, training, and allocating resources...
January 2018: AORN Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340575/the-fragile-state-of-the-national-institutes-of-health-pediatric-research-portfolio-1992-2015-doing-more-with-less
#17
Daniel P Gitterman, W Scott Langford, William W Hay
In this article, we examine the status of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) pediatric research portfolio between start of federal fiscal year (FY) 1992 and end of FY 2015. The NIH experienced the greatest mean annual growth rate during the "doubling era" (FY 1998-2003): both the NIH budget (13.5%) and pediatric research portfolios (11.5%) increased annually by double digits. However, in the "postdoubling" era (FY 2004-2009), both the NIH (2.0%) and pediatric (-0.2%) mean annual growth rates decreased dramatically...
January 16, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340564/changes-in-health-care-use-associated-with-the-introduction-of-hospital-global-budgets-in-maryland
#18
Eric T Roberts, J Michael McWilliams, Laura A Hatfield, Sule Gerovich, Michael E Chernew, Lauren G Gilstrap, Ateev Mehrotra
Importance: In 2014, the State of Maryland placed the majority of its hospitals under all-payer global budgets for inpatient, hospital outpatient, and emergency department care. Goals of the program included reducing unnecessary hospital utilization and encouraging greater use of primary care. Objective: To compare changes in hospital and primary care use through the first 2 years of Maryland's hospital global budget program among fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries in Maryland vs matched control areas...
January 16, 2018: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339341/health-status-alterations-in-ruditapes-philippinarum-after-continuous-secondary-effluent-exposure-before-and-after-additional-tertiary-treatment-application
#19
B Díaz-Garduño, J A Perales, C Garrido-Pérez, M L Martín-Díaz
A mobile pilot plant was set up in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in southwest Spain to address potential adverse effects of effluents as a whole contaminant, which are discharging into marine environments. Ruditapes philippinarum specimens were exposed to different effluent concentrations (50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.25%, and 3.15%) during seven days. After effluent exposure, lysosomal membrane stability alterations (LMS), changes in the energy status storage (total lipids content (TLP) and in the mitochondrial electron transport (MET), inhibition of inflammatory mechanisms (cyclooxygenase activity (COX)), and neurotoxic effects (acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were determined in exposed organisms...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339126/addressing-the-impact-and-unmet-needs-of-nonadherence-in-asthma-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-where-do-we-go-from-here
#20
Richard Dekhuijzen, Federico Lavorini, Omar S Usmani, Job F M van Boven
Nonadherence to treatment, and its associated health and economic burden, is particularly problematic in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease management because of heterogeneous patient populations and the need for an inhaled route of drug administration. Symptom variability, comorbidities, and device switching further add to suboptimal adherence rates. As opposed to controlled clinical trials, real-life studies show consistently low inhaler adherence in daily practice, yet exact adherence rates have long been affected by disagreement on standardized definitions...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
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