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Carla T Murray, Matthew Schmit
Introduction: We estimate the effect on health care spending of an option to change TRICARE. Under the option, which is based on a proposal made by the Military Compensation and Retirement Modernization Commission (MCRMC), most beneficiaries could choose from a range of commercial health networks instead of the current TRICARE plans. Military treatment facilities would become network providers under the commercial plans. Materials and Methods: We used data from the Department of Defense (DoD) to estimate the cost of providing the current health care benefit to working-age retirees and their dependents and survivors, and active duty family members...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Brodie Pearson, Baylor Fox-Kemper
Data from turbulent numerical simulations of the global ocean demonstrate that the dissipation of kinetic energy obeys a nearly log-normal distribution even at large horizontal scales O(10  km). As the horizontal scales of resolved turbulence are larger than the ocean is deep, the Kolmogorov-Yaglom theory for intermittency in 3D homogeneous, isotropic turbulence cannot apply; instead, the down-scale potential enstrophy cascade of quasigeostrophic turbulence should. Yet, energy dissipation obeys approximate log-normality-robustly across depths, seasons, regions, and subgrid schemes...
March 2, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Susan Greig, Sharareh Hekmat, Alicia C Garcia
PURPOSE: Patient satisfaction with hospital food enhances consumption and adequate intake of nutrients required for recovery from illness/injury and maintenance of health; accordingly, the nutrient content of the menu must balance patient preferences. This study of Ontario hospital foodservice departments collected data on current practices of analyzing the nutritional adequacy and assessing patient satisfaction with menus, and it explored perceptions of priority issues. METHODS: Foodservice managers/directors from 57 of 140 (41%) hospitals responded to cross-sectional in-depth telephone interviews...
March 16, 2018: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
Vincent Clesi, Mohamed Ali Bouhifd, Nathalie Bolfan-Casanova, Geeth Manthilake, Federica Schiavi, Caroline Raepsaet, Hélène Bureau, Hicham Khodja, Denis Andrault
Hydrogen has been thought to be an important light element in Earth's core due to possible siderophile behavior during core-mantle segregation. We reproduced planetary differentiation conditions using hydrogen contents of 450 to 1500 parts per million (ppm) in the silicate phase, pressures of 5 to 20 GPa, oxygen fugacity varying within IW-3.7 and IW-0.2 (0.2 to 3.7 log units lower than iron-wüstite buffer), and Fe alloys typical of planetary cores. We report hydrogen metal-silicate partition coefficients of ~2 × 10-1 , up to two orders of magnitude lower than reported previously, and indicative of lithophile behavior...
March 2018: Science Advances
Gunta Laizane, Anda Kivite, Inese Stars, Marita Cikovska, Ilze Grope, Dace Gardovska
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea in young children and infants worldwide, representing a heavy public health burden. Limited information is available regarding the impact of rotavirus gastroenteritis on the quality of life of affected children and their families. The objectives of study were to estimate the impact of rotavirus infection on health-related quality of life (HRQL), to assess the social and emotional effects on the families of affected children...
March 15, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Song Jung, Dayoung Lee, Seongjun Park, Hyun Ju Hong
OBJECTIVE: This study intended to classify subtypes of Korean adolescents with suicidal ideation based on mental health problems and to explore the relationship between such subtypes and individual-, school- and community-level factors. METHOD: Data from high school freshmen who participated in the 2013 school-based mental health screening test and data about school and community variables obtained from public sources were combined and analyzed. A multilevel latent profile analysis using mental health issues as class indicators that included several predictors was conducted...
March 1, 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Mathieu Bonneau, Régis Sabbadin, Fred A Johnson, Bradley Stith
Conversion of wild habitats to human dominated landscape is a major cause of biodiversity loss. An approach to mitigate the impact of habitat loss consists of designating reserves where habitat is preserved and managed. Determining the most valuable areas to preserve in a landscape is called the reserve design problem. There exists several possible formulations of the reserve design problem, depending on the objectives and the constraints. In this article, we considered the dynamic problem of designing a reserve that contains a desired area of several key habitats...
2018: PloS One
Brian Custer, Shimian Zou, Simone A Glynn, Julie Makani, Claude Tayou Tagny, Magdy El Ekiaby, Ester C Sabino, Nabajyoti Choudhury, Diana Teo, Kenrad Nelson, Emmanuel Peprah, LeShawndra Price, Michael M Engelgau
In April 2017, a workshop sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Division of Blood Diseases and Resources, and the Center for Translation Research and Implementation Science was held to discuss blood availability and transfusion safety in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The purpose of the workshop was to identify research opportunities for implementation science (IS) to improve the availability of safe blood and blood components and transfusion practices in LMICs. IS describes the late stages of the translational research spectrum and studies optimal and sustainable strategies to deliver proven-effective interventions...
March 14, 2018: Transfusion
Paul M Barlow, Stanley A Leake, Michael N Fienen
The term capture, related to the source of water derived from wells, has been used in two distinct yet related contexts by the hydrologic community. The first is a water-budget context, in which capture refers to decreases in the rates of groundwater outflow and (or) increases in the rates of recharge along head-dependent boundaries of an aquifer in response to pumping. The second is a transport context, in which capture zone refers to the specific flowpaths that define the three-dimensional, volumetric portion of a groundwater flow field that discharges to a well...
March 15, 2018: Ground Water
William Wynell-Mayow, Muhammad Zahid Saeed
BACKGROUND: The WHO includes osteoarthritis as a disease of priority, owing to its significant impact on quality of life, and globally increasing prevalence. Hospital budgets are under pressure to ration knee replacements and shorten inpatient stays. Prolonged tourniquet application has been hypothesised to extend recovery through pain and reduced mobility. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 123 elective total knee replacements meeting inclusion criteria took place from July 2015 to October 2017 at the Royal Free Hospital...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
(no author information available yet)
Background: Type 1 diabetes is a condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin. People with type 1 diabetes must manage their blood glucose levels by monitoring the amount of glucose in their blood and administering appropriate amounts of insulin via injection or an insulin pump. Continuous glucose monitoring may be beneficial compared to self-monitoring of blood glucose using a blood glucose meter. It provides insight into a person's blood glucose levels on a continuous basis, and can identify whether blood glucose levels are trending up or down...
2018: Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series
Peter G Tickle, John R Hutchinson, Jonathan R Codd
Broiler chickens are increasingly at the forefront of global meat production but the consequences of fast growth and selection for an increase in body mass on bird health are an ongoing concern for industry and consumers. To better understand the implications of selection we evaluated energetics and behaviour over the 6-week hatch-to-slaughter developmental period in a commercial broiler. The effect of posture on resting metabolic rate becomes increasingly significant as broilers grow, as standing became more energetically expensive than sitting...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Marthe Lefevre, Yann Klinger, Mahmoud Al-Qaryouti, Maryline Le Béon, Khaled Moumani
Temporal distribution of earthquakes is key to seismic hazard assessment. However, for most fault systems shortness of large earthquake catalogues makes this assessment difficult. Its unique long earthquake record makes the Dead Sea fault (DSF) exceptional to test earthquake behaviour models. A paleoseismological trench along the southern section of the DSF, revealed twelve surface-rupturing earthquakes during the last 8000 years, of which many correlate with past earthquakes reported in historical chronicles...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rachael M Hunter, Naomi J Fulop, Ruth J Boaden, Christopher McKevitt, Catherine Perry, Angus I G Ramsay, Anthony G Rudd, Simon J Turner, Pippa J Tyrrell, Charles D A Wolfe, Stephen Morris
BACKGROUND: The economic implications of major system change are an important component of the decision to implement health service reconfigurations. Little is known about how best to report the results of economic evaluations of major system change to inform decision-makers. Reconfiguration of acute stroke care in two metropolitan areas in England, namely London and Greater Manchester (GM), was used to analyse the economic implications of two different implementation strategies for major system change...
March 14, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
Vladimir Schuindt da Silva, Israel Souza, Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Aline Rodrigues Barbosa, Maria de Jesus Mendes da Fonseca
This study aimed to describe BMI's short-term trends and analyze the association between the Body Mass Index (BMI) and the sociodemographic variables and variables of family perception of the sufficiency and type of food consumed by Brazilian elderly of both sexes. The authors used data from the Household Budget Surveys (HBS) collected by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) in 2002/03 and 2008/09. The prevalence of overweight and obesity increased, whereas normal and low weight decreased...
March 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Carole Therasse, Isabelle Fusier, Anne-Laure Cordonnier, Florence Bérard, Olivier Parent de Curzon, François Bocquet, Pascal Paubel
AIM: Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are particularly used to treat dialysis patients suffering from anemia due to renal failure. Since March 2014, ESAs have no longer been funded on top-of-diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) in French hospitals and are funded via DRGs. There are two ways to fund dialysis in French hospitals: the 'DRG for dialysis in session' and the 'off-dialysis DRG', which is not a DRG and consists in a supplement tariff specific to dialysis for patients hospitalized for another main reason than dialysis...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research
James R Duncan
In medicine, data collection and analysis provide the information needed to reduce diagnostic uncertainty. An examination of how medical imaging data is collected and then transformed into diagnostic information provides testable ideas for better managing this dynamic process. In other fields, process data is systematically assessed for differences between observed and predicted values. For studies that expose patients to the potentially harmful effects of ionizing radiation, monitoring imaging studies/illness, images/imaging study and radiation exposure/image would be steps towards developing radiation dose budgets for the diagnosis and treatment of common conditions...
September 26, 2017: Diagnosis
Paul Webster
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 10, 2018: Lancet
Stuart M Butler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Ronald E Delanois, Chukwuweike U Gwam, Jeffrey J Cherian, Jennifer I Etcheson, Nicole E George, Kathleen A Schneider, Michael A Mont
BACKGROUND: The state of Maryland was granted a waiver by the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services to implement a Global Budget Revenue (GBR) reimbursement model. This study aims to compare (1) costs of inpatient hospital stays; (2) postacute care costs; (3) lengths of stay (LOS); and (4) discharge disposition who underwent primary total hip arthroplasty at a single Maryland-based orthopedic institution before and after the implementation of GBR. METHODS: The Maryland Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services database was queried to obtain all Medicare patients who underwent total hip arthroplasty at a single institution before and after the implementation of GBR...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
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