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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454103/subchronic-arsenism-induced-oxidative-stress-and-inflammatory-contribute-to-apoptosis-through-mitochondrial-and-death-receptor-dependent-pathways-in-chicken-immune-organs
#1
Hongjing Zhao, Ying He, Siwen Li, Xiao Sun, Yu Wang, Yizhi Shao, Zhijun Hou, Mingwei Xing
In many organ dysfunctions, arsenic and its compounds are well known to induce apoptosis by the mitochondria and death receptor apoptotic pathways in liver and airway. However, it is less reported that which signaling pathways contribute to excessive apoptosis of chicken immune organs, a major target of toxic metals biotransformation, which suffer from subchronic arsenism. In this study, we investigated whether the mitochondria or death receptor apoptotic pathways activated in the immune organs (spleen, thymus and bursa of Fabricius) of one-day-old male Hy-line chickens exposed to arsenic trioxide (As2O3), which were fed on diets supplemented with 0, 0...
April 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453859/temporal-and-spatial-characteristics-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-outbreaks-in-china-during-2004-to-2015
#2
Mingyue Liu, Qian Lu, Shuxia Zhang, Xiaolong Feng, Md Shakhawat Hossain
Identifying the temporal and spatial characteristics of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks is very important for developing effective and appropriate countermeasures against HPAI and promoting sustainable development in the poultry industry. This study aimed to analyze four aspects of the temporal and spatial characteristics of HPAI outbreaks in China, including the frequency of HPAI outbreaks, numbers of dead animals (died or culled), types of HPAI viruses, and species of infected animals. Temporal characteristics showed that the frequency of HPAI outbreaks decreased and then increased, with some years deviating from the main trend in 2004 to 2010 and 2011 to 2015, while the largest number of dead animals due to HPAI outbreaks was in 2005...
April 26, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453753/effects-of-commercial-organic-acid-blends-on-male-broilers-challenged-with-e-%C3%A2-coli-k88-performance-microbiology-intestinal-morphology-and-immune-response
#3
N Khodambashi Emami, A Daneshmand, S Zafari Naeini, E N Graystone, L J Broom
This study assessed the effects of 3 commercial organic acid (OA) preparations on growth performance, intestinal morphology, cecal microbiology, and immunity of Escherichia coli K88-challenged (ETEC) broiler chickens. One thousand one-day-old male broiler chickens were divided into 8 treatments of 5 replicate pens: Negative control (NC) birds received a basal diet (BD) and were not challenged with ETEC; positive control (PC) birds fed the BD and challenged with ETEC; BD + 0.2% (S1) or 0.4% (S2) of an OA mixture (Salkil) from one to 35 d; BD + 0...
April 26, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453652/mhc-b-variability-within-the-finnish-landrace-chicken-conservation-program
#4
J E Fulton, M E Berres, J Kantanen, M Honkatukia
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a cluster of genes involved with immune responses. The chicken MHC has been shown to influence resistance to viruses, bacteria, and infections from both internal and external parasites. The highly variable chicken MHC haplotypes were initially identified by the use of haplotype-specific serological reagents. A novel SNP-based panel encompassing 210,000 bp of the MHC-B locus was developed to allow fine scale genetic analyses including rapid identification of novel haplotypes for which serological reagents are not available...
April 26, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453253/athabasca-oil-sands-petcoke-extract-elicits-biochemical-and-transcriptomic-effects-in-avian-hepatocytes
#5
Doug Crump, Kim Williams, Suzanne Chiu, Yifeng Zhang, Jonathan W Martin
Petroleum coke or "petcoke" is a granular carbonaceous material produced during the upgrading of heavy crude oils, including bitumen. Petcoke dust was recently reported as an environmental contaminant in the Athabasca oil sands region, but the ecotoxicological hazards posed by this complex bitumen-derived material - including those to avian species - have not been characterized. In this study, solvent extracts (x) of delayed and fluid petcoke (xDP and xFP) were prepared and dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide. A water accommodated fraction of delayed petcoke (waDP) was also prepared...
April 28, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448124/bioinspired-engineering-of-poly-ethylene-glycol-hydrogels-and-natural-protein-fibers-for-layered-heart-valve-constructs
#6
Qian Li, Yun Bai, Tao Jin, Shuo Wang, Wei Cui, Ilinca Stanciulescu, Rui Yang, Hemin Nie, Linshan Wang, Xing Zhang
Layered constructs from poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels and chicken eggshell membranes (ESMs) are fabricated, which can be further crosslinked by glutaraldehyde (GA) to form GA-PEG-ESM composites. Our results indicate that ESMs composed of protein fibrous networks show elastic moduli ~3.3-5.0 MPa and elongation percentages ~47-56%, close to human heart valve leaflets. Finite element simulations reveal obvious stress concentration on a partial number of fibers in the GA-crosslinked ESM (GA-ESM) samples, which can be alleviated by efficient stress distribution among multiple layers of ESMs embedded in PEG hydrogels...
April 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447754/inhibition-of-heat-shock-protein-70-intensifies-heat-stressed-damage-and-apoptosis-of-chicken-primary-myocardial-cells-in%C3%A2-vitro
#7
Jiao Xu, Shu Tang, Erbao Song, Bin Yin, Endong Bao
To investigate the potential protective effect of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) during heat stress (HS) in chicken primary myocardial cells (CPMC), a cellular model of low expression of Hsp70 was established using 200 µM quercetin, a specific inhibitor of Hsp70. Comparative analyses were done among a HS group, Hsp70 low expression (HS+Quercetin) group and quercetin treated only group (Quercetin) during different durations of HS (0, 1, 2, 3 and 5 h). Inhibition of Hsp70 expression in quercetin treatment groups was detected, and suggested that Hsp70 expression was inhibited significantly...
March 16, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447468/induction-of-apoptosis-in-the-bursa-of-fabricius-by-vaccination-against-gumboro-disease
#8
Marcelo Pablo Killian, Juan David Boviez, Mariana Gambarotta, Daniel Marcelo Lombardo
Infectious bursal disease is a severe acute viral disease of young chicken, affecting mainly the B-lymphocytes in the bursa of Fabricius, leading to severe immunosuppression as a result, on the death of lymphoid cells. In the bursa infected with infectious bursal disease virus, viral replication is associated with apoptosis of lymphoid cells, inflammatory change, and atrophy. Vaccination has appeared to be a crucial factor for control and prevention, being the live attenuated vaccines the most used. However, the apoptotic effect of these vaccines over the bursa has not been tested...
April 27, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447384/alpha-lipoic-acid-an-inimitable-feed-supplement-for-poultry-nutrition
#9
REVIEW
M Sohaib, F M Anjum, M Nasir, F Saeed, M S Arshad, S Hussain
Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is a multifunction antioxidant that is produced in small amount by cells as well as its dietary provision facilitates fatty acid mobilization, energy expenditure as well as can scavenge free radicals in poultry birds. It exists in oxidized as well as reduced form, characterized by growth promoting, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, immunostimulatory, and hypocholesterolemic properties when fed as dietary supplement to farm animals particularly chicken birds. Recently, several studies reported that dietary supplementation of ALA can influence growth performance indicators, immunological, biochemical characteristics, lipid metabolism, and oxidative stress as well as increase antioxidant potential and storability of poultry meat and meat products...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447376/reduced-fasting-periods-increase-intestinal-permeability-in-chickens
#10
S Gilani, G S Howarth, C D Tran, R Barekatain, S M Kitessa, R E A Forder, R J Hughes
Fasting of up to 24 hr has been shown to increase intestinal permeability (IP) in chickens. The aim of this study was to determine whether fasting duration of 4.5 and 9 hr increased IP and whether l-glutamine (a non-essential amino acid) supplementation before fasting provided some protection of barrier function as shown in other species. Ross 308 male broilers (n = 96) were fed either a control diet or the same diet supplemented with 1% glutamine from d0 to d38 post-hatch. On d37, the birds were assigned to single-bird metabolism cages and were fasted for either 0, 4...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447340/marginal-deficiencies-of-dietary-arginine-and-methionine-could-suppress-growth-performance-and-immunological-responses-in-broiler-chickens
#11
R Jahanian, M Khalifeh-Gholi
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of dietary arginine (Arg) and methionine (Met) on performance, immune responses, and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. A total of 540 day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly assigned into the nine experimental diets, consisting five replicates of 12 birds each. Dietary treatments included three different levels (90%, 100%, and 110% of National Research Council [NRC] specifications) of either dietary Arg or Met, which were fed to the birds according to a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments during a 42 days feeding trial...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446617/is-embryonic-hypothermia-tolerance-common-in-birds
#12
Jin-Ming Zhao, Zhi-Ming Han, Yue-Hua Sun
Avian incubation temperatures oscillate within narrow limits to ensure proper embryonic development. However, field observations and experimental studies have found that some species can tolerate very low incubation temperatures, either regularly or occasionally. We artificially incubated eggs from five domestic species, which represent a range of egg sizes, to examine whether a diversity of avian species could exhibit an unusual hypothermia tolerance, as observed in the field. We found that eggs of the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), pigeon (Columba livia domestica), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) survived the incubation period and hatched after experiencing 10°C hypothermia for 6 h each day...
April 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445717/hepatic-elovl6-mrna-is-regulated-by-the-gga-mir-22-3p-in-egg-laying-hen
#13
Zheng Ma, Hong Li, Hang Zheng, Keren Jiang, Fengbin Yan, Yadong Tian, Xiangtao Kang, Yanbin Wang, Xiaojun Liu
The elongation of very long chain fatty acids protein 6 (ELOVL6) encodes a fatty acid elongase that is responsible for the final step in endogenous saturated fatty acid synthesis and involves in de novo lipogenesis. Though the regulatory mechanism of ELOVL6 expression has been studied extensively, little is known about the role of miRNA in regulating ELOVL6 gene expression in chicken until now. To investigate the regulatory mechanism of miRNA on the expression of ELOVL6 gene, bioinformatics analysis was employed to predict the potential miRNAs that binding with the 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) of ELOVL6...
April 23, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444567/the-behavior-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-and-arsenic-influenced-by-biochar-during-different-manure-composting
#14
Erping Cui, Ying Wu, Yanan Jiao, Yiru Zuo, Christopher Rensing, Hong Chen
The effect of two different biochar types, rice straw biochar (RSB) and mushroom biochar (MB), on chicken manure composting was previously examined by monitoring the fate of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and arsenic. The behavior of ARGs and arsenic in other kinds of manure composting with the same biochar types had not been examined. In this study, we added either RSB or MB to pig and duck manure composts to study the behavior of ARGs (tet genes, sul genes, and chloramphenicol resistance genes) and arsenic under the same experimental condition...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444343/lysolecithin-as-feed-additive-enhances-collagen-expression-and-villus-length-in-the-jejunum-of-broiler-chickens
#15
D L Brautigan, R Li, E Kubicka, S D Turner, J S Garcia, M L Weintraut, E A Wong
Adding lysolecithin to feed has reportedly improved the performance of broiler chickens. Lysolecithin is generated by phospholipase catalyzed hydrolysis of lecithin. The enzymatic reaction converts various phospholipids into the corresponding lysophospholipids, with lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) one of the primary products. Here we compared supplementation with a commercial lysolecithin (Lysoforte®) with comparable levels of highly purified LPC for effects on broilers. Despite no differences in weight gain during the starter period, we discovered a significant increase in average villus length with lysolecithin and an increase in villus width with purified LPC...
April 24, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444251/effect-of-eu-electrical-stunning-conditions-on-breast-meat-quality-of-broiler-chickens
#16
F Sirri, M Petracci, M Zampiga, A Meluzzi
Electrical stunning is still the main stunning method used worldwide in commercial poultry plants. The stunning procedures in water bath stunners affect both bird welfare and meat quality attributes. The European Union (EU) Council Regulation 1099/2009 on the protection of the animal at the time of killing established the minimum current flow through an individual bird at a specified frequency to assure an effective stun that must last until the bird's death. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the application of different stunning current flows on the prevalence of hemorrhages (classified as 1 = no lesion, 2 = moderate, and 3 = severe lesion) and some quality traits (pHu, color, drip and cooking losses, and shear force) of chicken breast meat...
April 24, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444234/inferring-allele-frequency-trajectories-from-ancient-dna-indicates-that-selection-on-a-chicken-gene-coincided-with-changes-in-medieval-husbandry-practices
#17
Liisa Loog, Mark G Thomas, Ross Barnett, Richard Allen, Naomi Sykes, Ptolemaios D Paxinos, Ophelie Lebrasseur, Keith Dobney, Joris Peters, Andrea Manica, Greger Larson, Anders Eriksson
Ancient DNA provides an opportunity to infer the drivers of natural selection by linking allele frequency changes to temporal shifts in environment or cultural practices. However, analyses have often been hampered by uneven sampling and uncertainties in sample dating, as well as being confounded by demographic processes. Here we present a Bayesian statistical framework for quantifying the timing and strength of selection using ancient DNA that explicitly addresses these challenges. We applied this method to time series data for two loci: TSHR and BCDO2, both argued to have undergone strong and recent selection in domestic chickens...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441945/epidemiological-investigation-of-mycoplasma-synoviae-in-native-chicken-breeds-in-china
#18
Shi-Kai Sun, Xin Lin, Feng Chen, Ding-Ai Wang, Jun-Peng Lu, Jian-Ping Qin, Ting-Rong Luo
BACKGROUD: Mycoplasma synoviae (M. synoviae) is widely distributed around the world, and leads to serious economic losses in the world every year. Nevertheless, the incidence and epidemiology of M. synoviae infection in China have remained unclear. RESULTS: In this study we demonstrate that over 9773 broiler chicken flocks in 16 Chinese provinces were affected by M. synoviae between 2010 and 2015. Our epidemiological study revealed that M. synoviae was widely prevalent in multi-aged Chinese native breeder chickens, and the prevalence of M...
April 26, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441576/fate-and-redistribution-of-perfluoroalkyl-acids-through-afff-impacted-groundwater
#19
Jennifer Bräunig, Christine Baduel, Amy Heffernan, Anna Rotander, Eric Donaldson, Jochen F Mueller
Leaching of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from a local point source, a fire-fighting training area, has led to extensive contamination of a groundwater aquifer which has spread underneath part of a nearby town, Oakey, situated in the State of Queensland, Australia. Groundwater is extracted by residents from privately owned wells for daily activities such as watering livestock and garden beds. The concentration of 10 PFAAs in environmental and biological samples (water, soil, grass, chicken egg yolk, serum of horses, cattle and sheep), as well as human serum was investigated to determine the extent of contamination in the town and discuss fate and redistribution of PFAAs...
April 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441462/transcriptomic-profiling-of-a-chicken-lung-epithelial-cell-line-clec213-reveals-a-mitochondrial-respiratory-chain-activity-boost-during-influenza-virus-infection
#20
Léa Meyer, Olivier Leymarie, Christophe Chevalier, Evelyne Esnault, Marco Moroldo, Bruno Da Costa, Sonia Georgeault, Philippe Roingeard, Bernard Delmas, Pascale Quéré, Ronan Le Goffic
Avian Influenza virus (AIV) is a major concern for the global poultry industry. Since 2012, several countries have reported AIV outbreaks among domestic poultry. These outbreaks had tremendous impact on poultry production and socio-economic repercussion on farmers. In addition, the constant emergence of highly pathogenic AIV also poses a significant risk to human health. In this study, we used a chicken lung epithelial cell line (CLEC213) to gain a better understanding of the molecular consequences of low pathogenic AIV infection in their natural host...
2017: PloS One
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