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Drosophila wing

Jian Guo, Hong-Wen Tang, Jing Li, Norbert Perrimon, Dong Yan
N 6 -methyladenosine (m6 A), the most abundant chemical modification in eukaryotic mRNA, has been implicated in Drosophila sex determination by modifying Sex-lethal ( Sxl ) pre-mRNA and facilitating its alternative splicing. Here, we identify a sex determination gene, CG7358 , and rename it xio according to its loss-of-function female-to-male transformation phenotype. xio encodes a conserved ubiquitous nuclear protein of unknown function. We show that Xio colocalizes and interacts with all previously known m6 A writer complex subunits (METTL3, METTL14, Fl(2)d/WTAP, Vir/KIAA1429, and Nito/Rbm15) and that loss of xio is associated with phenotypes that resemble other m6 A factors, such as sexual transformations, Sxl splicing defect, held-out wings, flightless flies, and reduction of m6 A levels...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yvonne Young, Natasha Buckiewicz, Tristan A F Long
Since its arrival to North America less than a decade ago, the invasive Spotted-Wing Drosophila ( Drosophila suzukii ) has inflicted substantial economic losses on soft fruit agriculture due to its ability to oviposit into ripening fruits. More effective management approaches for this species are needed, but little is known about the factors that influence behavioral choices made by D. suzukii when selecting hosts, or the consequences that their offspring experience when developing in different environments...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Jinjin Zhu, Alison Ordway, Lena Weber, Kasun Buddika, Justin P Kumar
How different cells and tissues commit and determine their fates has been a central question in developmental biology since the seminal embryological experiments conducted by Wilhelm Roux and Hans Driesch in sea urchins and frogs. Here, we demonstrate that Polycomb group (PcG) proteins maintain Drosophila eye specification by suppressing the activation of alternative fate choices. The loss of PcG in the developing eye results in a cellular reprogramming event in which the eye is redirected to a wing fate. This fate transformation occurs with either the individual loss of Pc or the simultaneous reduction of PhoRC and Pax6...
March 12, 2018: Development
Shen-Ju Chou, Shubha Tole
A hundred years after Lhx2 ortholog apterous was identified as a critical regulator of wing development in Drosophila, LIM-HD gene family members have proved to be versatile and powerful components of the molecular machinery that executes the blueprint of embryogenesis across vertebrate and invertebrate species. Here, we focus on the spatio-temporally varied functions of LIM-homeodomain transcription factor LHX2 in the developing mouse forebrain. Right from its earliest known role in telencephalic and eye field patterning, to the control of the neuron-glia cell fate switch, and the regulation of axon pathfinding and dendritic arborization in late embryonic stages, LHX2 has been identified as a fundamental, temporally dynamic, always necessary, and often sufficient factor in a range of critical developmental phenomena...
March 6, 2018: Brain Research
Sabine Schürmann, Georg Steffes, Dominique Manikowski, Philipp Kastl, Ursula Malkus, Shyam Bandari, Stefanie Ohlig, Corinna Ortmann, Rocio Rebollido-Rios, Mandy Otto, Harald Nüsse, Daniel Hoffmann, Christian Klämbt, Milos Galic, Jürgen Klingauf, Kay Grobe
Cell fate determination during development often requires morphogen transport from producing to distant responding cells. Hedgehog (Hh) morphogens present a challenge to this concept, as all Hhs are synthesized as terminally lipidated molecules that form insoluble clusters at the surface of producing cells. While several proposed Hh transport modes tie directly into these unusual properties, the crucial step of Hh relay from producing cells to receptors on remote responding cells remains unresolved. Using wing development in Drosophila melanogaster as a model, we show that Hh relay and direct patterning of the 3-4 intervein region strictly depend on proteolytic removal of lipidated N-terminal membrane anchors...
March 9, 2018: ELife
Sofia Golenkina, Vishal Chaturvedi, Robert Saint, Michael J Murray
Netrin receptors of the DCC/NEO/UNC-40/Frazzled family have well established roles in cell migration and axon guidance but can also regulate epithelial features such as adhesion, polarity and adherens junction (AJ) stability. Previously, we have shown that overexpression of Drosophila Frazzled (Fra) in the peripodial epithelium (PE) inhibits wing disc eversion and also generates cellular protrusions typical of motile cells. Here, we tested whether the molecular pathways by which Fra inhibits eversion are distinct from those driving motility...
2018: PloS One
Michelle L Stoller, Orvelin Roman, Michael R Deans
The organization of polarized stereociliary bundles is critical for the function of the inner ear sensory receptor hair cells that detect sound and motion, and these cells present a striking example of Planar Cell Polarity (PCP); the coordinated orientation of polarized structures within the plane of an epithelium. PCP is best understood in Drosophila where the essential genes regulating PCP were first discovered, and functions for the core PCP proteins encoded by these genes have been deciphered through phenotypic analysis of core PCP gene mutants...
March 3, 2018: Developmental Biology
Anette Preiss, Anja C Nagel, Heiko Praxenthaler, Dieter Maier
Throughout the animal kingdom, the Notch signalling pathway allows cells to acquire diversified cell fates. Notch signals are translated into activation of Notch target genes by CSL transcription factors. In the absence of Notch signals, CSL together with co-repressors functions as a transcriptional repressor. In Drosophila, repression of Notch target genes involves the CSL homologue Suppressor of Hairless (Su(H)) and the Notch (N) antagonist Hairless (H) that together form a repressor complex. Guided by crystal structure, three mutations Su(H)LL, Su(H)LLF and Su(H)LLL were generated that specifically affect interactions with the repressor H, and were introduced into the endogenous Su(H) locus by gene engineering...
2018: PloS One
Howard M A Thistlewood, Paramjit Gill, Elizabeth H Beers, Peter W Shearer, Doug B Walsh, Brigitte M Rozema, Susanna Acheampong, Steve Castagnoli, Wee L Yee, Peter Smytheman, Alix B Whitener
Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), was monitored from 2010 to 2014 in 314-828 sites located in interior fruit-growing regions of OR and WA, United States, and BC, Canada, using traps baited with apple cider vinegar or sugar-water-yeast. Seasonal population dynamics and sex ratios were summarized for berry, cherry, stone fruit, grape, non-crop host plants, non-host sites, and for conventional IPM, certified organic, backyard, and feral sites, by region and year...
February 28, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Tatsuzo Nagai, Hisao Honda, Masahiko Takemura
The Drosophila wing exhibits a well-ordered cell pattern, especially along the posterior margin, where hair cells are arranged in a zigzag pattern in the lateral view. Based on an experimental result observed during metamorphosis of Drosophila, we considered that a pattern of initial cells autonomously develops to the zigzag pattern through cell differentiation, intercellular communication, and cell death (apoptosis) and performed computer simulations of a cell-based model of vertex dynamics for tissues. The model describes the epithelial tissue as a monolayer cell sheet of polyhedral cells...
February 27, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Jing Zhang, Deye Luo, Peng Wu, Haozhe Li, Hongyu Zhang, Weiwei Zheng
Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) in insects are essential for mating and oviposition host selection. How these OBPs respond to different hosts at the mRNA level and their effects on behavior remain poorly characterized. The oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis is a highly invasive agricultural pest with an extremely broad host range and high fecundity. Based on our previously constructed B. dorsalis transcriptome, six OBPs that were differentially expressed during three different physiological adult stages were identified...
February 16, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Yuichi Fukutomi, Keiji Matsumoto, Noriko Funayama, Shigeyuki Koshikawa
Diversified species of Drosophila (fruit fly) provide opportunities to study mechanisms of development and genetic changes responsible for evolutionary changes. In particular, the adult stage is a rich source of morphological traits for interspecific comparison, including wing pigmentation comparison. To study developmental differences among species, detailed observation and appropriate staging are required for precise comparison. Here we describe protocols for staging of pupal periods and quantification of wing pigmentation in a polka-dotted fruit fly, Drosophila guttifera...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Tiago Felipe Senes-Lopes, Jorge Alberto López, Viviane Souza do Amaral, José Brandão-Neto, Adriana Augusto de Rezende, Jefferson Romáryo Duarte da Luz, Zaira da Rosa Guterres, Maria das Graças Almeida
Medicinal plants have been used in primary healthcare since the earliest days of humankind. Turnera subulata and Spondias mombin × Spondias tuberosa are widely used in the Brazilian Northeast to treat several diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effects of the leaf extracts of these species by the somatic mutation and recombination test in the somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster wings. The experiments were performed using standard and high-bioactivation cross and three concentrations of the test substance [aqueous extract (AET and AES) at 5...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
Q Zeng, Y Wan, P Zhu, M Zhao, F Jiang, J Chen, M Tang, X Zhu, Y Li, H Zha, Y Wang, M Hu, X Mo, Y Zhang, Y Deng, Y Chen, X Fan, Y Chen, X Ye, R Bodmer, K Ocorr, Z Jiang, J Zhuang, W Yuan, X Wu
The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein families are a large class of transcription factors, which are associated with cell proliferation, tissue differentiation, and other important development process. We reported that the Nuclear localized protein-1 (Nulp1) might act as a novel bHLH transcriptional factor to mediate cellular functions. However, its role in development in vivo remains unknown. Here we show that Drosophila Nulp1 (dNulp1) mutants, generated by CRISPR/Cas9 targeting the Domain of Unknown Function (DUF654) in its C terminal, are partially homozygous lethal and the rare escapers have bent femurs, which are similar to the major manifestation of congenital bent-bone dysplasia in human Stuve-Weidemann syndrome...
February 12, 2018: Current Molecular Medicine
Minhee Kim, Jack P Tang, Nam-Sung Moon
Across metazoans, cell cycle progression is regulated by E2F family transcription factors that can function as either transcriptional activators or repressors. For decades, the Drosophila E2F family has been viewed as a streamlined RB/E2F network, consisting of one activator (dE2F1) and one repressor (dE2F2). Here, we report that an uncharacterized isoform of dE2F1, hereon called dE2F1b, plays an important function during development and is functionally distinct from the widely-studied dE2F1 isoform, dE2F1a...
February 8, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Kyra Campbell, Gaëlle Lebreton, Xavier Franch-Marro, Jordi Casanova
Several transcription factors have been identified that activate an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which endows cells with the capacity to break through basement membranes and migrate away from their site of origin. A key program in development, in recent years it has been shown to be a crucial driver of tumour invasion and metastasis. However, several of these EMT-inducing transcription factors are often expressed long before the initiation of the invasion-metastasis cascade as well as in non-invasive tumours...
February 8, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Yuji Jeong, Taejoon Kim, Suyeun Kim, Yoon-Ki Hong, Kyoung Sang Cho, Im-Soon Lee
The nuclear receptor-binding SET domain protein gene (NSD) family encodes a group of highly conserved SET domain-containing histone lysine methyltransferases that are important in multiple aspects of development in various organisms. The association of NSD1 duplications has been reported with growth retardation diseases in humans. In this study, to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms by which the overexpression of NSD1 influences the disease progression, we analyzed the gain-of-function mutant phenotypes of the Drosophila NSD using the GAL4/UAS system...
February 2, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
S Wang, Y Liu, J-J Zhou, J-K Yi, Y Pan, J Wang, X-X Zhang, J-X Wang, S Yang, J-H Xi
It is difficult to control Holotrichia parallela Motschulsky with chemical insecticides due to the larvae's soil-living habit, thus the pest has caused great economic losses in agriculture. In addition, uridine diphosphate-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) catalyze the glycosylation process of a variety of small lipophilic molecules with sugars to produce water-soluble glycosides, and play multiple roles in detoxification, endobiotic modulation, and sequestration in an insect. Some UGTs were found specifically expressed in antennae of Drosophila melanogaster and Spodoptera littoralis, and glucurono-conjugated odorants could not elicit any olfactory signals, suggesting that the UGTs may play roles in odorant inactivation by biotransformation...
February 5, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Florence Janody
How tissue growth is regulated during development and cancer is a fundamental question in biology. In this issue, Tsoumpekos et al. (2018. J. Cell Biol. and Forest et al. (2018. J. Cell Biol. identify Big bang (Bbg) as an important growth regulator of the Drosophila melanogaster wing imaginal disc.
January 31, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Qiumin Tan, Lorenzo Brunetti, Maxime W C Rousseaux, Hsiang-Chih Lu, Ying-Wooi Wan, Jean-Pierre Revelli, Zhandong Liu, Margaret A Goodell, Huda Y Zoghbi
Capicua (CIC) regulates a transcriptional network downstream of the RAS/MAPK signaling cascade. In Drosophila , CIC is important for many developmental processes, including embryonic patterning and specification of wing veins. In humans, CIC has been implicated in neurological diseases, including spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) and a neurodevelopmental syndrome. Additionally, we and others have reported mutations in CIC in several cancers. However, whether CIC is a tumor suppressor remains to be formally tested...
February 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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