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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549619/a-mechanical-model-for-diversified-insect-wing-margin-shapes
#1
Yukitaka Ishimoto, Kaoru Sugimura
The wings in different insect species are morphologically distinct with regards to their size, outer contour (margin) shape, venation, and pigmentation. The basis of the diversity of wing margin shapes remains unknown, despite the fact that gene networks governing the Drosophila wing development have been well characterised. Among the different types of wing margin shapes, smoothly curved contour is the most frequently found and implies the existence of a highly organised, multicellular mechanical structure...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544122/pupal-emergence-pattern-in-cactophilic-drosophila-and-the-effect-of-host-plants
#2
Eduardo M Soto, Julián Padró, Pablo Milla Carmona, Diego T Tuero, Valeria P Carreira, Ignacio M Soto
Drosophila buzzatii and D. koepferae are sibling cactophilic species. The former breeds primarily on prickly pears (genus Opuntia) whereas the latter breeds on columnar cacti of the genera Cereus and Trichocereus, although with certain degree of niche overlapping. We examined the interspecific differences in diurnal temporal patterns of adult emergence from puparia and evaluated whether this behavior is affected by rearing in the different cactus hosts available in nature. We detected important host-dependent genetic variation for this trait differentially affecting the emergence schedule of these species...
May 23, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541831/genotoxicity-and-antigenotoxicity-assessments-of-the-flavonoid-vitexin-by-the-drosophila-melanogaster-somatic-mutation-and-recombination-test
#3
Liliane Menezes Fernandes, Zaira da Rosa Guterres, Igor Vivian Almeida, Veronica Elisa Pimenta Vicentini
Vitexin is a C-glycosylated flavone found in various medicinal plants with several proven biological properties such as anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities. Considering that the human population consumes many foods that contain this flavonoid, the objective of this study was to investigate the genotoxic and the antigenotoxic potentials of vitexin by the SMART (Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test) in Drosophila melanogaster wings, in vivo. To evaluate the genotoxic activity, larvae obtained from standard (ST) and high bioactivation (HB) crosses were chronically treated with different concentrations of vitexin (0...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536147/hormone-dependent-control-of-developmental-timing-through-regulation-of-chromatin-accessibility
#4
Christopher M Uyehara, Spencer L Nystrom, Matthew J Niederhuber, Mary Leatham-Jensen, Yiqin Ma, Laura A Buttitta, Daniel J McKay
Specification of tissue identity during development requires precise coordination of gene expression in both space and time. Spatially, master regulatory transcription factors are required to control tissue-specific gene expression programs. However, the mechanisms controlling how tissue-specific gene expression changes over time are less well understood. Here, we show that hormone-induced transcription factors control temporal gene expression by regulating the accessibility of DNA regulatory elements. Using the Drosophila wing, we demonstrate that temporal changes in gene expression are accompanied by genome-wide changes in chromatin accessibility at temporal-specific enhancers...
May 23, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531323/effect-of-chemical-ratios-of-a-microbial-based-feeding-attractant-on-trap-catch-of-drosophila-suzukii-diptera-drosophilidae
#5
Dong H Cha, Peter J Landolt, Todd B Adams
Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, spotted wing drosophila, can be trapped with a feeding attractant based on wine and vinegar volatiles and consisting of acetic acid, ethanol, acetoin, and methionol. Using that four-component blend, we found that the catch of spotted wing drosophila increased with increases in the release rate of acetoin (from 0.5 mg/d to 34 mg/d) from polyethylene sachet dispensers, and with increases in the concentrations of acetic acid (from 0.25% to 4%) or ethanol (from 0.08% to 2%) when dispensed in the trap drowning solution...
May 22, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526754/oxygenation-and-adenosine-deaminase-support-growth-and-proliferation-of-ex-vivo-cultured-drosophila-wing-imaginal-discs
#6
Katrin Strassburger, Franziska K Lorbeer, Marilena Lutz, Fabian Graf, Michael Boutros, Aurelio A Teleman
The Drosophila wing imaginal disc has been an important model system over the past decades for discovering novel biology related to development, signaling, and epithelial morphogenesis. Novel experimental approaches would be enabled by a culturing setup allowing ex vivo cultures of wing discs. Current setups, however, are not able to sustain both growth and cell-cycle progression of wing discs ex vivo. We discover here a setup requiring both oxygenation of the tissue and adenosine deaminase activity in the medium, which supports both growth and proliferation of wing discs for 9 hours...
May 19, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523823/cost-benefit-analysis-of-controlling-the-spotted-wing-drosophila-drosophila-suzukii-matsumura-spread-and-infestation-of-soft-fruits-in-trentino-northern-italy
#7
Emanuele Del Fava, Claudio Ioriatti, Alessia Melegaro
BACKGROUND: We assessed the economic impact of the invasive pest Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) on the soft fruit industry (strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, and blueberries) in Trentino, Northern Italy, using cost-benefit analysis. A conventional integrated pest management (IPM) based on insecticide, mass trapping and cultural measures is compared to an upgraded IPM strategy based on exclusion netting. Costs and benefits associated with the change between the two are estimated in order to evaluate the most profitable strategy from the societal point of view...
May 19, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521947/ultrabithorax-and-the-evolution-of-insect-forewing-hindwing-differentiation
#8
REVIEW
Yoshinori Tomoyasu
Decades have passed since the stunning four-winged phenotype of the Drosophila Ultrabithorax (Ubx) mutant was reported, and accumulating knowledge obtained from studies on Ubx in Drosophila has provided a framework to investigate the role of Ubx during insect wing evolution. With several new insights emerging from recent studies in non-Drosophila insects, along with the outcomes of genomic studies focused on identifying Ubx targets, it appears to be an appropriate time to revisit the Drosophila paradigm regarding insect wing development and evolution...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512185/cap-n-collar-promotes-tissue-regeneration-by-regulating-ros-and-jnk-signaling-in-the-drosophila-wing-imaginal-disc
#9
Amanda R Brock, Mabel Seto, Rachel K Smith-Bolton
Regeneration is a complex process that requires an organism to recognize and repair tissue damage, as well as grow and pattern new tissue. Here we describe a genetic screen to identify novel regulators of regeneration. We ablated the Drosophila melanogaster larval wing primordium by inducing apoptosis in a spatially and temporally controlled manner and allowed the tissue to regenerate and repattern. To identify genes that regulate regeneration, we carried out a dominant modifier screen by assessing the amount and quality of regeneration in adult wings heterozygous for isogenic deficiencies...
May 16, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495961/an-evolutionarily-conserved-role-of-presenilin-in-neuronal-protection-in-the-aging-drosophila-brain
#10
Jongkyun Kang, Sarah Shin, Norbert Perrimon, Jie Shen
Mutations in the Presenilin genes are the major genetic cause of Alzheimer's disease. Presenilin and Nicastrin are essential components of γ-secretase, a multi-subunit protease that cleaves Type I transmembrane proteins. Genetic studies in mice previously demonstrated that conditional inactivation of Presenilin or Nicastrin in excitatory neurons of the postnatal forebrain results in memory deficits, synaptic impairment and age-dependent neurodegeneration. The roles of Drosophila Presenilin (Psn) and Nicastrin (Nct) in the adult fly brain, however, are unknown...
May 11, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492967/a-test-for-gene-flow-among-sympatric-and-allopatric-hawaiian-picture-winged-drosophila
#11
Lin Kang, Harold R Garner, Donald K Price, Pawel Michalak
The Hawaiian Drosophila are one of the most species-rich endemic groups in Hawaii and a spectacular example of adaptive radiation. Drosophila silvestris and D. heteroneura are two closely related picture-winged Drosophila species that occur sympatrically on Hawaii Island and are known to hybridize in nature, yet exhibit highly divergent behavioral and morphological traits driven largely through sexual selection. Their closest-related allopatric species, D. planitibia from Maui, exhibits hybrid male sterility and reduced behavioral reproductive isolation when crossed experimentally with D...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Molecular Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490499/development-of-an-optimized-synthetic-notch-receptor-as-an-in-vivo-cell-cell-contact-sensor
#12
Li He, Jiuhong Huang, Norbert Perrimon
Detection and manipulation of direct cell-cell contact in complex tissues is a fundamental and challenging problem in many biological studies. Here, we report an optimized Notch-based synthetic receptor (synNQ) useful to study direct cell-cell interactions in Drosophila With the synNQ system, cells expressing a synthetic receptor, which contains Notch activation machinery and a downstream transcriptional activator, QF, are activated by a synthetic GFP ligand expressed by contacting neighbor cells. To avoid cis-inhibition, mutually exclusive expression of the synthetic ligand and receptor is achieved using the "flippase-out" system...
May 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488382/neuron-specific-knockdown-of-the-drosophila-fat-induces-reduction-of-life-span-deficient-locomotive-ability-shortening-of-motoneuron-terminal-branches-and-defects-in-axonal-targeting
#13
Aya Nakamura, Ryo Tanaka, Kazushige Morishita, Hideki Yoshida, Yujiro Higuchi, Hiroshi Takashima, Masamitsu Yamaguchi
Mutations in FAT4 gene, one of the human FAT family genes, have been identified in Van Maldergem syndrome (VMS) and Hennekam lymphangiectasia-lymphedema syndrome (HS). The FAT4 gene encodes a large protein with extracellular cadherin repeats, EGF-like domains and Laminin G-like domains. FAT4 plays a role in tumor suppression and planar cell polarity. Drosophila contains a human FAT4 homologue, fat. Drosophila fat has been mainly studied with Drosophila eye and wing systems. Here, we specially knocked down Drosophila fat in nerve system...
May 9, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476867/regulatory-mechanisms-of-metamorphic-neuronal-remodeling-revealed-through-a-genome-wide-modifier-screen-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#14
Dahong Chen, Tingting Gu, Tom N Pham, Montgomery J Zachary, Randall S Hewes
During development, neuronal remodeling shapes neuronal connections to establish fully mature and functional nervous systems. Our previous studies have shown that the RNA binding factor alan shepard (shep) is an important regulator of neuronal remodeling during metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster, and loss of shep leads to smaller soma size and fewer neurites in a stage-dependent manner. To shed light on the mechanisms by which shep regulates neuronal remodeling, we conducted a genetic modifier screen for suppressors of shep-dependent wing expansion defects and cellular morphological defects in a set of peptidergic neurons, the bursicon neurons, that promote post-eclosion wing expansion...
May 5, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467418/a-kcnc3-mutation-causes-a-neurodevelopmental-non-progressive-sca13-subtype-associated-with-dominant-negative-effects-and-aberrant-egfr-trafficking
#15
Swati Khare, Jerelyn A Nick, Yalan Zhang, Kira Galeano, Brittany Butler, Habibeh Khoshbouei, Sruti Rayaprolu, Tyisha Hathorn, Laura P W Ranum, Lisa Smithson, Todd E Golde, Martin Paucar, Richard Morse, Michael Raff, Julie Simon, Magnus Nordenskjöld, Karin Wirdefeldt, Diego E Rincon-Limas, Jada Lewis, Leonard K Kaczmarek, Pedro Fernandez-Funez, Harry S Nick, Michael F Waters
The autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a diverse group of neurological disorders anchored by the phenotypes of motor incoordination and cerebellar atrophy. Disease heterogeneity is appreciated through varying comorbidities: dysarthria, dysphagia, oculomotor and/or retinal abnormalities, motor neuron pathology, epilepsy, cognitive impairment, autonomic dysfunction, and psychiatric manifestations. Our study focuses on SCA13, which is caused by several allelic variants in the voltage-gated potassium channel KCNC3 (Kv3...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415200/triangles-bridge-the-scales-quantifying-cellular-contributions-to-tissue-deformation
#16
Matthias Merkel, Raphaël Etournay, Marko Popović, Guillaume Salbreux, Suzanne Eaton, Frank Jülicher
In this article, we propose a general framework to study the dynamics and topology of cellular networks that capture the geometry of cell packings in two-dimensional tissues. Such epithelia undergo large-scale deformation during morphogenesis of a multicellular organism. Large-scale deformations emerge from many individual cellular events such as cell shape changes, cell rearrangements, cell divisions, and cell extrusions. Using a triangle-based representation of cellular network geometry, we obtain an exact decomposition of large-scale material deformation...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396828/the-impacts-of-climate-change-on-the-abundance-and-distribution-of-the-spotted-wing-drosophila-drosophila-suzukii-in-the-united-states-and-canada
#17
Aaron B Langille, Ellen M Arteca, Jonathan A Newman
D. suzukii is a relatively recent and destructive pest species to the North American soft-skinned fruit industry. Understanding this species' potential to shift in abundance and range due to changing climate is an important part of an effective mitigation and management strategy. We parameterized a temperature-driven D. suzukii population dynamics model using temperature data derived from several Global Circulation Models (CMIP5) with a range of relative concentration pathway (RCP) predictions. Mean consensus between the models suggest that without adaptation to both higher prolonged temperatures and higher short-term temperature events D...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396507/regulation-of-notch-signaling-by-the-heterogeneous-nuclear-ribonucleoprotein-hrp48-and-deltex-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#18
Debdeep Dutta, Maimuna Sali Paul, Ankita Singh, Mousumi Mutsuddi, Ashim Mukherjee
Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that is found to be involved in a number of cellular events throughout development. The deployment of Notch signaling pathway in numerous cellular contexts is possible due to its regulation at multiple levels. In an effort to identify the novel components integrated into the molecular circuitry affecting Notch signaling, we carried out a protein-protein interaction screen based on the identification of cellular protein complexes using co-immunoprecipitation followed by mass-spectrometry...
April 10, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396045/drosophila-p115-is-required-for-cdk1-activation-and-g2-m-cell-cycle-transition
#19
Consuelo Ibar, Álvaro Glavic
Golgi complex inheritance and its relationship with the cell cycle are central in cell biology. Golgi matrix proteins, known as golgins, are one of the components that underlie the shape and functionality of this organelle. In mammalian cells, golgins are phosphorylated during mitosis to allow fragmentation of the Golgi ribbon and they also participate in spindle dynamics; both processes are required for cell cycle progression. Little is known about the function of golgins during mitosis in metazoans in vivo...
April 8, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395731/a-nanobody-based-toolset-to-investigate-the-role-of-protein-localization-and-dispersal-in-drosophila
#20
Stefan Harmansa, Ilaria Alborelli, Dimitri Bieli, Emmanuel Caussinus, Markus Affolter
The role of protein localization along the apical-basal axis of polarized cells is difficult to investigate in vivo, partially due to lack of suitable tools. Here, we present the GrabFP system, a collection of four nanobody-based GFP-traps that localize to defined positions along the apical-basal axis. We show that the localization preference of the GrabFP traps can impose a novel localization on GFP-tagged target proteins and results in their controlled mislocalization. These new tools were used to mislocalize transmembrane and cytoplasmic GFP fusion proteins in the Drosophila wing disc epithelium and to investigate the effect of protein mislocalization...
April 11, 2017: ELife
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