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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815867/baseline-susceptibility-of-spotted-wing-drosophila-drosophila-suzukii-to-four-key-insecticide-classes
#1
Steven Van Timmeren, David Mota-Sanchez, John C Wise, Rufus Isaacs
BACKGROUND: The invasive drosophilid pest, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, is affecting berry production in most fruit-producing regions of the world. Chemical control is the dominant management approach, creating concern for insecticide resistance in this pest. We compared the insecticide susceptibility of D. suzukii populations collected from conventional, organic, or insecticide-free blueberry sites. RESULTS: The sensitivity of D. suzukii to malathion and spinetoram declined slightly across the three years of monitoring, whereas it was more consistent for methomyl and zeta-cypermethrin...
August 16, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800588/non-lethal-genotyping-of-tribolium-castaneum-adults-using-genomic-dna-extracted-from-wing-tissue
#2
Frederic Strobl, J Alexander Ross, Ernst H K Stelzer
The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum has become the second most important insect model organism and is frequently used in developmental biology, genetics and pest-associated research. Consequently, the methodological arsenal increases continuously, but many routinely applied techniques for Drosophila melanogaster and other insect species are still unavailable. For example, a protocol for non-lethal genotyping has not yet been adapted but is particularly useful when individuals with known genotypes are required for downstream experiments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782874/in-vivo-imaging-reveals-mitophagy-independence-in-the-maintenance-of-axonal-mitochondria-during-normal-aging
#3
Xu Cao, Haiqiong Wang, Zhao Wang, Qingyao Wang, Shuang Zhang, Yuanping Deng, Yanshan Fang
Mitophagy is thought to be a critical mitochondrial quality control mechanism in neurons and has been extensively studied in neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. However, little is known about how mitochondria are maintained in the lengthy neuronal axons in the context of physiological aging. Here, we utilized the unique Drosophila wing nerve model and in vivo imaging to rigorously profile changes in axonal mitochondria during aging. We revealed that mitochondria became fragmented and accumulated in aged axons...
August 7, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763637/sodium-fluoride-adversely-affects-ovarian-development-and-reproduction-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#4
Salma Khatun, Prem Rajak, Moumita Dutta, Sumedha Roy
The study demonstrates the effects of chronic sub-lethal exposure of sodium fluoride (NaF) on reproductive structure and function of female Drosophila melanogaster. As a part of treatment, flies were maintained in food supplemented with sub-lethal concentrations of NaF (10-100 μg/mL). Fecundity, ovarian morphology, presence and profusion of viable cells from ovary and fat body were taken into consideration for evaluating changes in reproductive homeostasis. Wing length (a factor demonstrating body size and reproductive fitness) was also monitored after NaF exposure...
July 29, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760811/patterning-of-the-drosophila-l2-vein-is-driven-by-regulatory-interactions-between-region-specific-transcription-factors-expressed-in-response-to-dpp-signalling
#5
Mercedes Martín, Cristina M Ostalé, Jose F de Celis
Pattern formation relies on the generation of transcriptional landscapes regulated by signalling pathways. A paradigm of epithelial patterning is the distribution of vein territories in the Drosophila wing disc. In this tissue, Decapentaplegic signalling regulates its target genes at different distances from the source of the ligand. The transformation of signalling into coherent territories of gene expression requires regulatory cross-interactions between these target genes. Here we analyse the mechanisms generating the domain of knirps expression in the presumptive L2 vein of the wing imaginal disc...
July 31, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753614/the-drosophila-duox-maturation-factor-is-a-key-component-of-a-positive-feedback-loop-that-sustains-regeneration-signaling
#6
Sumbul Jawed Khan, Syeda Nayab Fatima Abidi, Andrea Skinner, Yuan Tian, Rachel K Smith-Bolton
Regenerating tissue must initiate the signaling that drives regenerative growth, and sustain that signaling long enough for regeneration to complete. How these key signals are sustained is unclear. To gain a comprehensive view of the changes in gene expression that occur during regeneration, we performed whole-genome mRNAseq of actively regenerating tissue from damaged Drosophila wing imaginal discs. We used genetic tools to ablate the wing primordium to induce regeneration, and carried out transcriptional profiling of the regeneration blastema by fluorescently labeling and sorting the blastema cells, thus identifying differentially expressed genes...
July 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746859/release-of-applied-mechanical-loading-stimulates-intercellular-calcium-waves-in-drosophila-wing%C3%A2-discs
#7
Cody E Narciso, Nicholas M Contento, Thomas J Storey, David J Hoelzle, Jeremiah J Zartman
Mechanical forces are critical but poorly understood inputs for organogenesis and wound healing. Calcium ions (Ca(2+)) are critical second messengers in cells for integrating environmental and mechanical cues, but the regulation of Ca(2+) signaling is poorly understood in developing epithelial tissues. Here we report a chip-based regulated environment for microorgans that enables systematic investigations of the crosstalk between an organ's mechanical stress environment and biochemical signaling under genetic and chemical perturbations...
July 25, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744001/an-intrinsic-mechanism-controls-reactivation-of-neural-stem-cells-by-spindle-matrix-proteins
#8
Song Li, Chwee Tat Koe, Su Ting Tay, Angie Lay Keng Tan, Shenli Zhang, Yingjie Zhang, Patrick Tan, Wing-Kin Sung, Hongyan Wang
The switch between quiescence and proliferation is central for neurogenesis and its alteration is linked to neurodevelopmental disorders such as microcephaly. However, intrinsic mechanisms that reactivate Drosophila larval neural stem cells (NSCs) to exit from quiescence are not well established. Here we show that the spindle matrix complex containing Chromator (Chro) functions as a key intrinsic regulator of NSC reactivation downstream of extrinsic insulin/insulin-like growth factor signalling. Chro also prevents NSCs from ire-entering quiescence at later stages...
July 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743877/chronic-activation-of-jnk-jak-stat-and-oxidative-stress-signalling-causes-the-loser-cell-status
#9
Iwo Kucinski, Michael Dinan, Golnar Kolahgar, Eugenia Piddini
Cell competition is a form of cell interaction that causes the elimination of less fit cells, or losers, by wild-type (WT) cells, influencing overall tissue health. Several mutations can cause cells to become losers; however, it is not known how. Here we show that Drosophila wing disc cells carrying functionally unrelated loser mutations (Minute and mahjong) display the common activation of multiple stress signalling pathways before cell competition and find that these pathways collectively account for the loser status...
July 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743798/essential-basal-cytonemes-take-up-hedgehog-in-the-drosophila-wing-imaginal-disc
#10
Weitao Chen, Hai Huang, Ryo Hatori, Thomas B Kornberg
Morphogen concentration gradients that extend across developmental fields form by dispersion from source cells. In the Drosophila wing disc, Hedgehog (Hh) produced by posterior compartment cells distributes in a concentration gradient to adjacent cells of the anterior compartment. We monitored Hh:GFP after pulsed expression and analyzed movements and co-localization of Hh, Patched (Ptc) and Smoothened (Smo) proteins tagged with GFP or mCherry and expressed at physiological levels from bacterial artificial chromosome transgenes...
July 25, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727418/combining-tof-sims-imaging-mass-spectrometry-and-cars-microspectroscopy-reveals-lipid-patterns-reminiscent-of-gene-expression-patterns-in-the-wing-imaginal-disc-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#11
Florian Marty, Gianluca Rago, Donald F Smith, Xiaoli Gao, Gert B Eijkel, Luke MacAleese, Mischa Bonn, Erich Brunner, Konrad Basler, Ron M A Heeren
Using label-free ToF-SIMS imaging mass spectrometry, we generated a map of small molecules differentially expressed in the Drosophila wing imaginal disc. The distributions of these moieties were in line with gene expression patterns observed during wing imaginal disc development. Combining ToF-SIMS imaging and coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) microspectroscopy allowed us to locally identify acylglycerols as the main constituents of the pattern differentiating the future body wall tissue from the wing blade tissue...
July 20, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708826/intestinal-stem-cell-overproliferation-resulting-from-inactivation-of-the-apc-tumor-suppressor-requires-the-transcription-cofactors-earthbound-and-erect-wing
#12
Ai Tian, Hassina Benchabane, Zhenghan Wang, Chloe Zimmerman, Nan Xin, Jessica Perochon, Gabriela Kalna, Owen J Sansom, Chao Cheng, Julia B Cordero, Yashi Ahmed
Wnt/β-catenin signal transduction directs intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation during homeostasis. Hyperactivation of Wnt signaling initiates colorectal cancer, which most frequently results from truncation of the tumor suppressor Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). The β-catenin-TCF transcription complex activates both the physiological expression of Wnt target genes in the normal intestinal epithelium and their aberrantly increased expression in colorectal tumors. Whether mechanistic differences in the Wnt transcription machinery drive these distinct levels of target gene activation in physiological versus pathological states remains uncertain, but is relevant for the design of new therapeutic strategies...
July 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697337/basement-membrane-manipulation-in-drosophila-wing-discs-affects-dpp-retention-but-not-growth-mechanoregulation
#13
Mengqi Ma, Xueya Cao, Jianli Dai, José C Pastor-Pareja
Basement membranes (BMs) are extracellular matrix polymers basally underlying epithelia, where they regulate cell signaling and tissue mechanics. Constriction by the BM shapes Drosophila wing discs, a well-characterized model of tissue growth. Recently, the hypothesis that mechanical factors govern wing growth has received much attention, but it has not been definitively tested. In this study, we manipulated BM composition to cause dramatic changes in tissue tension. We found that increased tissue compression when perlecan was knocked down did not affect adult wing size...
July 10, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696218/non-canonical-decapentaplegic-signaling-activates-matrix-metalloproteinase-1-to-restrict-hedgehog-activity-and-limit-ectopic-eye-differentiation-in-drosophila
#14
Poonam Aggarwal, Jayati Gera, Saikat Ghosh, Lolitika Mandal, Sudip Mandal
One of the pertinent issues associated with cellular plasticity is to understand how the delicate balance between the determined state of cells and the extent to which they can transdetermine is maintained. Employing the well-established model of generating ectopic eyes in developing wing discs of Drosophila by ectopic eyeless expression, we provide evidence for the genetic basis of this mechanism. By both loss-of-function and gain-of-function genetic analyses, we demonstrate that Matrix metalloproteinase 1 (Mmp1) plays an important role in regulating the extent of ectopic ommatidial differentiation...
July 10, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684627/inwardly-rectifying-potassium-channels-regulate-dpp-release-in-the-drosophila-wing-disc
#15
Giri Raj Dahal, Sarala Joshi Pradhan, Emily Anne Bates
Loss of embryonic ion channel function leads to morphological defects, but the underlying reason for these defects remains elusive. Here, we show that inwardly-rectifying potassium (Irk) channels regulate release of a Drosophila bone morphogenetic protein (BMP/Dpp) in the developing fly wing and this is necessary for developmental signaling. Inhibition of Irk channels decreases the incidence of distinct Dpp-GFP release events above baseline fluorescence while leading to broader distribution of Dpp-GFP. Work by others in different cell types show Irk channels regulate peptide release by modulating membrane potential and calcium levels...
July 6, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677915/dusky-works-upstream-of-four-jointed-and-forked-in-wing-morphogenesis-in-tribolium-castaneum
#16
C Li, B Li, S Ma, P Lü, K Chen
Dusky (dy) is required for cytoskeletal reorganization during wing morphogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster, but which genes participate together with dy for wing morphogenesis has remained unclear. In Tribolium castaneum, dy is highly expressed at the late embryonic stage. Tissue-specific expression analysis indicated high expression levels of dy in the epidermis, head and fat body of late-stage larvae. RNA interference (RNAi) targeting dy significantly decreased adult wing size and caused improper folding of the elytra...
July 5, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675374/dpp-controls-growth-and-patterning-in-drosophila-wing-precursors-through-distinct-modes-of-action
#17
Pablo Sanchez Bosch, Ruta Ziukaite, Cyrille Alexandre, Konrad Basler, Jean-Paul B Vincent
Dpp, a member of the BMP family, is a morphogen that specifies positional information in Drosophila wing precursors. In this tissue, Dpp expressed along the anterior-posterior boundary forms a concentration gradient that controls the expression domains of target genes, which in turn specify the position of wing veins. Dpp also promotes growth in this tissue. The relationship between the spatio-temporal profile of Dpp signalling and growth has been the subject of debate, which has intensified recently with the suggestion that the stripe of Dpp is dispensable for growth...
July 4, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675373/dpp-from-the-anterior-stripe-of-cells-is-crucial-for-the-growth-of-the-drosophila-wing-disc
#18
Shinya Matsuda, Markus Affolter
The Dpp morphogen gradient derived from the anterior stripe of cells is thought to control growth and patterning of the Drosophila wing disc. However, the spatial-temporal requirement of dpp for growth and patterning remained largely unknown. Recently, two studies re-addressed this question. By generating a conditional null allele, one study proposed that the dpp stripe is critical for patterning but not for growth. In contrast, using a membrane-anchored nanobody to trap Dpp, the other study proposed that Dpp dispersal from the stripe is required for patterning and also for medial wing disc growth, at least in the posterior compartment...
July 4, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675372/boundary-dpp-promotes-growth-of-medial-and-lateral-regions-of-the-drosophila-wing
#19
Lara Barrio, Marco Milan
The gradient of Decapentaplegic (Dpp) in the Drosophila wing has served as a paradigm to characterize the role of morphogens in regulating patterning. However, the role of this gradient in regulating tissue size is a topic of intense debate as proliferative growth is homogenous. Here we combined the Gal4/UAS system and a temperature-sensitive Gal80 molecule to induce RNAi-mediated depletion of dpp and characterise the spatial and temporal requirement of Dpp in promoting growth. We show that Dpp emanating from the AP compartment boundary is required throughout development to promote growth by regulating cell proliferation and tissue size...
July 4, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672824/myrtaceae-plant-essential-oils-and-their-%C3%AE-triketone-components-as-insecticides-against-drosophila-suzukii
#20
Chung Gyoo Park, Miyeon Jang, Eunsik Shin, Junheon Kim
Spotted wing drosophila (SWD, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), Diptera: Drosophilidae) is recognized as an economically important pest in North America and Europe as well as in Asia. Assessments were made for fumigant and contact toxicities of six Myrtaceae plant essential oils (EOs) and their components to find new alternative types of insecticides active against SWD. Among the EOs tested, Leptospermum citratum EO, consisting mainly of geranial and neral, exhibited effective fumigant activity. Median lethal dose (LD50; mg/L) values of L...
June 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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