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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913118/forces-controlling-organ-growth-and-size
#1
REVIEW
Dominik Eder, Christof Aegerter, Konrad Basler
One of the fundamental questions in developmental biology is what determines the final size and shape of an organ. Recent research strongly emphasizes that besides cell-cell communication, biophysical principals govern organ development. The architecture and mechanics of a tissue guide cellular processes such as movement, growth or differentiation. Furthermore, mechanical cues do not only regulate processes at a cellular level but also provide constant feedback about size and shape on a tissue scale. Here we review several models and experimental systems which are contributing to our understanding of the roles mechanical forces play during organ development...
November 29, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909948/little-effect-of-hsp90-inhibition-on-the-quantitative-wing-traits-variation-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#2
Kazuo H Takahashi
Drosophila wings have been a model system to study the effect of HSP90 on quantitative trait variation. The effect of HSP90 inhibition on environmental buffering of wing morphology varies among studies while the genetic buffering effect of it was examined in only one study and was not detected. Variable results so far might show that the genetic background influences the environmental and genetic buffering effect of HSP90. In the previous studies, the number of the genetic backgrounds used is limited. To examine the effect of HSP90 inhibition with a larger number of genetic backgrounds than the previous studies, 20 wild-type strains of Drosophila melanogaster were used in this study...
December 1, 2016: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899511/drosophila-crumbs-prevents-ectopic-notch-activation-in-developing-wings-by-inhibiting-ligand-independent-endocytosis
#3
Linda Nemetschke, Elisabeth Knust
Many signalling components are apically restricted in epithelial cells, and receptor localisation and abundance is key for morphogenesis and tissue homeostasis. Hence, controlling apicobasal epithelial polarity is crucial for proper signalling. Notch is a ubiquitously expressed, apically localised receptor, which performs a plethora of functions; therefore, its activity has to be tightly regulated. Here, we show that Drosophila Crumbs, an evolutionarily conserved polarity determinant, prevents Notch endocytosis in developing wings through direct interaction between the two proteins...
December 1, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897227/fold-formation-at-the-compartment-boundary-of-drosophila-wing-requires-yki-signaling-to-suppress-jnk-dependent-apoptosis
#4
Suning Liu, Jie Sun, Dan Wang, Gert O Pflugfelder, Jie Shen
Compartment boundaries prevent cell populations of different lineage from intermingling. In many cases, compartment boundaries are associated with morphological folds. However, in the Drosophila wing imaginal disc, fold formation at the anterior/posterior (A/P) compartment boundary is suppressed, probably as a prerequisite for the formation of a flat wing surface. Fold suppression depends on optomotor-blind (omb). Omb mutant animals develop a deep apical fold at the A/P boundary of the larval wing disc and an A/P cleft in the adult wing...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893747/analysis-of-the-function-of-apoptosis-during-imaginal-wing-disc-regeneration-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#5
Sandra Diaz-Garcia, Sara Ahmed, Antonio Baonza
Regeneration is the ability that allows organisms to replace missing organs or lost tissue after injuries. This ability requires the coordinated activity of different cellular processes, including programmed cell death. Apoptosis plays a key role as a source of signals necessary for regeneration in different organisms. The imaginal discs of Drosophila melanogaster provide a particularly well-characterised model system for studying the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying regeneration. Although it has been shown that signals produced by apoptotic cells are needed for homeostasis and regeneration of some tissues of this organism, such as the adult midgut, the contribution of apoptosis to disc regeneration remains unclear...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886661/bacterial-diversity-shift-determined-by-different-diets-in-the-gut-of-the-spotted-wing-fly-drosophila-suzukii-is-primarily-reflected-on-acetic-acid-bacteria
#6
Violetta Vacchini, Elena Gonella, Elena Crotti, Erica M Prosdocimi, Fabio Mazzetto, Bessem Chouaia, Matteo Callegari, Francesca Mapelli, Mauro Mandrioli, Alberto Alma, Daniele Daffonchio
The pivotal role of diet in shaping gut microbiota has been evaluated in different animal models, including insects. Drosophila flies harbour an inconstant microbiota among which acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are important components. Here, we investigated the bacterial and AAB components of the invasive pest Drosophila suzukii microbiota, by studying the same insect population separately grown on fruit-based or non-fruit artificial diet. AAB were highly prevalent in the gut under both diets (90 and 92% infection rates with fruits and artificial diet, respectively)...
November 25, 2016: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878071/flies-evolved-small-bodies-and-cells-at-high-or-fluctuating-temperatures
#7
Gregory J Adrian, Marcin Czarnoleski, Michael J Angilletta
Recent theory predicts that the sizes of cells will evolve according to fluctuations in body temperature. Smaller cells speed metabolism during periods of warming but require more energy to maintain and repair. To evaluate this theory, we studied the evolution of cell size in populations of Drosophila melanogaster held at either a constant temperature (16°C or 25°C) or fluctuating temperatures (16 and 25°C). Populations that evolved at fluctuating temperatures or a constant 25°C developed smaller thoraxes, wings, and cells than did flies exposed to a constant 16°C...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814354/scribbled-optimizes-bmp-signaling-through-its-receptor-internalization-to-the-rab5-endosome-and-promote-robust-epithelial-morphogenesis
#8
Jinghua Gui, Yunxian Huang, Osamu Shimmi
Epithelial cells are characterized by apical-basal polarity. Intrinsic factors underlying apical-basal polarity are crucial for tissue homeostasis and have often been identified to be tumor suppressors. Patterning and differentiation of epithelia are key processes of epithelial morphogenesis and are frequently regulated by highly conserved extrinsic factors. However, due to the complexity of morphogenesis, the mechanisms of precise interpretation of signal transduction as well as spatiotemporal control of extrinsic cues during dynamic morphogenesis remain poorly understood...
November 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813696/chromatin-changes-in-smarcal1-deficiency-a-hypothesis-for-the-gene-expression-alterations-of-schimke-immuno-osseous-dysplasia
#9
Marie Morimoto, Kunho Choi, Cornelius F Boerkoel, Kyoung Sang Cho
Mutations in SMARCAL1, which encodes a DNA annealing helicase with roles in DNA replication fork restart, DNA repair, and gene expression modulation, cause Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia (SIOD), an autosomal recessive disease characterized by skeletal dysplasia, renal disease, T-cell immunodeficiency, and arteriosclerosis. The clinical features of SIOD arise from pathological changes in gene expression; however, the underlying mechanism for these gene expression alterations remains unclear. We hypothesized that changes of the epigenome alter gene expression in SIOD...
November 4, 2016: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807168/a-defensive-kicking-behavior-in-response-to-mechanical-stimuli-mediated-by-drosophila-wing-margin-bristles
#10
Jiefu Li, Wei Zhang, Zhenhao Guo, Sophia Wu, Lily Yeh Jan, Yuh-Nung Jan
: Mechanosensation, one of the fastest sensory modalities, mediates diverse behaviors including those pertinent for survival. It is important to understand how mechanical stimuli trigger defensive behaviors. Here, we report that Drosophila melanogaster adult flies exhibit a kicking response against invading parasitic mites over their wing margin with ultrafast speed and high spatial precision. Mechanical stimuli that mimic the mites' movement evoke a similar kicking behavior. Further, we identified a TRPV channel, Nanchung, and a specific Nanchung-expressing neuron under each recurved bristle that forms an array along the wing margin as being essential sensory components for this behavior...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795616/the-elaborate-postural-display-of-courting-drosophila-persimilis-flies-produces-substrate-borne-vibratory-signals
#11
Mónica Vega Hernández, Caroline Cecile Gabrielle Fabre
Sexual selection has led to the evolution of extraordinary and elaborate male courtship behaviors across taxa, including mammals and birds, as well as some species of flies. Drosophila persimilis flies perform complex courtship behaviors found in most Drosophila species, which consist of visual, air-borne, gustatory and olfactory cues. In addition, Drosophila persimilis courting males also perform an elaborate postural display that is not found in most other Drosophila species. This postural display includes an upwards contortion of their abdomen, specialized movements of the head and forelegs, raising both wings into a "wing-posture" and, most remarkably, the males proffer the female a regurgitated droplet...
2016: Journal of Insect Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791172/differential-growth-triggers-mechanical-feedback-that-elevates-hippo-signaling
#12
Yuanwang Pan, Idse Heemskerk, Consuelo Ibar, Boris I Shraiman, Kenneth D Irvine
Mechanical stress can influence cell proliferation in vitro, but whether it makes a significant contribution to growth control in vivo, and how it is modulated and experienced by cells within developing tissues, has remained unclear. Here we report that differential growth reduces cytoskeletal tension along cell junctions within faster-growing cells. We propose a theoretical model to explain the observed reduction of tension within faster-growing clones, supporting it by computer simulations based on a generalized vertex model...
October 26, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791132/endocytosis-of-wingless-via-a-dynamin-independent-pathway-is-necessary-for-signaling-in-drosophila-wing-discs
#13
Anupama Hemalatha, Chaitra Prabhakara, Satyajit Mayor
Endocytosis of ligand-receptor complexes regulates signal transduction during development. In particular, clathrin and dynamin-dependent endocytosis has been well studied in the context of patterning of the Drosophila wing disc, wherein apically secreted Wingless (Wg) encounters its receptor, DFrizzled2 (DFz2), resulting in a distinctive dorso-ventral pattern of signaling outputs. Here, we directly track the endocytosis of Wg and DFz2 in the wing disc and demonstrate that Wg is endocytosed from the apical surface devoid of DFz2 via a dynamin-independent CLIC/GEEC pathway, regulated by Arf1, Garz, and class I PI3K...
October 25, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784612/forces-shaping-the-drosophila-wing
#14
REVIEW
M C Diaz de la Loza, B J Thompson
How genes encode the three-dimensional shape of tissues is a fascinating problem in biology. Pioneering genetic studies in the fruit fly Drosophila have identified key genes that control the generation of force patterns in the developing wing. Shortrange force patterns generated by planar polarisedmyosins can promote boundary formation and tissue elongation during the larval wing disc stage. Long-range force patterns are also crucial to shaping the wing during the pupal stage. We review the different ways in which both local and global force patterns can be generated, such as: patterned acto-myosin contractility, patterned anchorage to the extracellular matrix, and patterned tissue growth...
October 23, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778314/disintegrating-the-fly-a-mutational-perspective-on-phenotypic-integration-and-covariation
#15
Annat Haber, Ian Dworkin
The structure of environmentally induced phenotypic covariation can influence the effective strength and magnitude of natural selection. Yet our understanding of the factors that contribute to and influence the evolutionary lability of such covariation is poor. Most studies have either examined environmental variation without accounting for covariation, or examined phenotypic and genetic covariation without distinguishing the environmental component. In this study, we examined the effect of mutational perturbations on different properties of environmental covariation, as well as mean shape...
October 25, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777339/assessing-genotoxicity-of-diuron-on-drosophila-melanogaster-by-the-wing-spot-test-and-the-wing-imaginal-disk-comet-assay
#16
Ricardo I Peraza-Vega, América N Castañeda-Sortibrán, Mahara Valverde, Emilio Rojas, Rosario Rodríguez-Arnaiz
The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of the herbicide diuron in the wing-spot test and a novel wing imaginal disk comet assay in Drosophila melanogaster The wing-spot test was performed with standard (ST) and high-bioactivation (HB) crosses after providing chronic 48 h treatment to third instar larvae. A positive dose-response effect was observed in both crosses, but statistically reduced spot frequencies were registered for the HB cross compared with the ST. This latter finding suggests that metabolism differences play an important role in the genotoxic effect of diuron...
October 24, 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774671/centriole-positioning-in-epithelial-cells-and-its-intimate-relationship-with-planar-cell-polarity
#17
Jose Maria Carvajal-Gonzalez, Sonia Mulero-Navarro, Marek Mlodzik
Planar cell polarity (PCP)-signaling and associated tissue polarization are evolutionarily conserved. A well documented feature of PCP-signaling in vertebrates is its link to centriole/cilia positioning, although the relationship of PCP and ciliogenesis is still debated. A recent report in Drosophila established that Frizzled (Fz)-PCP core signaling has an instructive input to polarized centriole positioning in non-ciliated Drosophila wing epithelia as a PCP read-out. Here, we review the impact of this observation in the context of recent descriptions of the relationship(s) of core Fz-PCP signaling and cilia/centriole positioning in epithelial and non-epithelial cells...
October 24, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767391/assessment-of-genotoxic-mutagenic-and-recombinogenic-potential-of-water-resources-in-the-parana%C3%A3-ba-river-basin-of-brazil-a-case-study
#18
Edimar Olegário de Campos Júnior, Rosiane Gomes da Silva Oliveira, Boscolli Barbosa Pereira, Henrique Nazareth Souto, Carlos Fernando Campos, Júlio Cesar Nepomuceno, Sandra Morelli
Exposure to certain pollutants induces a series of alterations in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that may result in genotoxic/mutagenic effects in exposed individuals. The present study aimed to monitor genotoxic, mutagenic, and recombinogenic potential and consequently water quality in two streams in the Paranaíba River basin in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using two bioindicator fish (Rhamdia quelen and Geophagus brasiliensis). The micronucleus (MN) test and somatic recombination and mutation test (SMART) were employed to assess DNA damage...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762301/comparative-profiling-of-micrornas-in-the-winged-and-wingless-english-grain-aphid-sitobion-avenae-f-homoptera-aphididae
#19
Xiangrui Li, Fangmei Zhang, Brad Coates, Yunhui Zhang, Xuguo Zhou, Dengfa Cheng
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short single-stranded non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression, particularly during development. In this study, 345 miRNAs were identified from the English green aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.), of which 168 were conserved and 177 were S. avenae-specific. Quantitative comparison of miRNA expression levels indicated that 16 and 12 miRNAs were significantly up-regulated in winged and wingless S. avenae small RNA libraries, respectively. Differential expression of these miRNAs was confirmed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR validation...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742359/fumigant-and-contact-toxicity-of-22-wooden-essential-oils-and-their-major-components-against-drosophila-suzukii-diptera-drosophilidae
#20
Junheon Kim, Miyeon Jang, Eunsik Shin, Jeongmin Kim, Si Hyeock Lee, Chung Gyoo Park
Fumigant and contact toxicities of 22 plant essential oils (EOs) from 14 families and their constituents against the adult spotted wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii were examined. Analyses by GC, GC-MS, and NMR led to the identification of 2, 16, 13, 4, 6, 9, and 10 compounds from Gaultheria fragrantissima, Croton anistatum, Illicium verum, Liquidamabar orientalis, Cinnamomum cassia, Rosa damasena, and Santalum album, respectively. In fumigant toxicity test, G. fragrantissima, C. anistatum, and I. verum exhibited 100, 93...
October 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
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