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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935711/distinct-regenerative-potential-of-trunk-and-appendages-of-drosophila-mediated-by-jnk-signalling
#1
Raquel Martín, Noelia Pinal, Ginés Morata
The Drosophila body comprises a central part, the trunk, and outgrowths of the trunk, the appendages. Much is known about appendage regeneration, but little about the trunk. As the wing imaginal disc contains a trunk component, the notum, and a wing appendage, we have investigated the response to ablation of these two components. We find that in contrast with the strong regenerative response of the wing, the notum does not regenerate. Nevertheless, the elimination of the wing primordium elicits a proliferative response of notum cells, but they do not regenerate wing; they form a notum duplicate...
September 21, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930557/dna-replication%C3%A2-machinery-is-required-for-development-in%C3%A2-drosophila
#2
Hidetsugu Kohzaki, Maki Asano, Yota Murakami
 In Drosophila, some factors involved in chromosome replication seem to be involved in gene amplification and endoreplication, which are actively utilized in particular tissue development, but direct evidence has not been shown. Therefore, we examined the effect of depletion of replication factors on these processes. First, we confirmed RNAi knockdown can be used for the depletion of replication factors by comparing the phenotypes of RNAi knockdown and deletion or point mutants of the components of DNA licensing factor, MCM2, MCM4 and Cdt1...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924042/alternative-cleavage-of-the-bone-morphogenetic-protein-bmp-gbb-produces-ligands-with-distinct-developmental-functions-and-receptor-preference
#3
Edward N Anderson, Kristi A Wharton
The family of TGF-β and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling proteins have numerous developmental and physiological roles. They are made as proprotein dimers, then cleaved by proprotein convertases to release the C-terminal domain as an active ligand dimer. Multiple proteolytic processing sites in Glass bottom boat (Gbb), the Drosophila BMP7 ortholog, can produce distinct ligand forms. Cleavage at the S1 or atypical S0 site in Gbb produces Gbb15, the conventional small BMP ligand, while NS site cleavage produces a larger Gbb38 ligand...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920944/the-dosage-dependent-effect-exerted-by-the-nm23-h1-h2-homolog-ndk-1-on-distal-tip-cell-migration-in-c-elegans
#4
Zsolt Farkas, Luca Fancsalszky, Éva Saskői, Alexandra Gráf, Krisztián Tárnok, Anil Mehta, Krisztina Takács-Vellai
Abnormal regulation of cell migration and altered rearrangement of the cytoskeleton are fundamental properties of metastatic cells. The first identified metastasis suppressor NM23-H1, which displays nucleoside-diphosphate kinase (NDPK) activity is involved in these processes. NM23-H1 inhibits the migratory and invasive potential of some cancer cells. Correspondingly, numerous invasive cancer cell lines (eg, breast, colon, oral, hepatocellular carcinoma, and melanoma) display low endogenous NM23 levels. In this review, we summarize mechanisms, which are linked to the anti-metastatic activity of NM23...
September 18, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918952/a-dual-function-for-prickle-in-regulating-frizzled-stability-during-feedback-dependent-amplification-of-planar-polarity
#5
Samantha J Warrington, Helen Strutt, Katherine H Fisher, David Strutt
The core planar polarity pathway coordinates epithelial cell polarity during animal development, and loss of its activity gives rise to a range of defects, from aberrant morphogenetic cell movements to failure to correctly orient structures, such as hairs and cilia. The core pathway functions via a mechanism involving segregation of its protein components to opposite cells ends, where they form asymmetric intracellular complexes that couple cell-cell polarity. This segregation is a self-organizing process driven by feedback interactions between the core proteins themselves...
September 7, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913870/mimicry-in-butterflies-co-option-and-a-bag-of-magnificent-developmental-genetic-tricks
#6
REVIEW
Riddhi Deshmukh, Saurav Baral, A Gandhimathi, Muktai Kuwalekar, Krushnamegh Kunte
Butterfly wing patterns are key adaptations that are controlled by remarkable developmental and genetic mechanisms that facilitate rapid evolutionary change. With swift advancements in the fields of genomics and genetic manipulations, identifying the regulators of wing development and mimetic wing patterns has become feasible even in nonmodel organisms such as butterflies. Recent mapping and gene expression studies have identified single switch loci of major effects such as transcription factors and supergenes as the main drivers of adaptive evolution of mimetic and polymorphic butterfly wing patterns...
September 14, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900135/hedgehog-signalling-is-required-for-cell-survival-in-drosophila-wing-pouch-cells
#7
Juan Lu, Dan Wang, Jie Shen
An appropriate balance between cell survival and cell death is essential for correct pattern formation in the animal tissues and organs. Previous studies have shown that the short-range signalling molecule Hedgehog (Hh) is required for cell proliferation and pattern formation in the Drosophila central wing discs. Signal transduction by one of the Hh targets, the morphogen Decapentaplegic (Dpp), is required for not only cell proliferation, but also cell survival in the pouch cells. However, Hh function in cell survival and cell death has not been revealed...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894124/effects-of-purified-or-plant-produced-cry-proteins-on-drosophila-melanogaster-diptera-drosophilidae-larvae
#8
Simone Haller, Jörg Romeis, Michael Meissle
Although genetically engineered crops producing insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are grown worldwide, few studies cover effects of Bt crops or Cry proteins on dipteran species in an agricultural context. We tested the toxicity of six purified Cry proteins and of Bt cotton and Bt maize tissue on Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae) as a surrogate for decomposing Diptera. ELISA confirmed the presence of Cry proteins in plant material, artificial diet, and fly larvae, and concentrations were estimated...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893155/genotoxic-evaluation-of-different-sizes-of-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-and-ionic-form-by-smart-allium-and-comet-assay
#9
Şöhret Yüksek Kaygisiz, İbrahim Hakkı Ciğerci
In this study, the genotoxic potential of <50 nm, <100 nm iron oxide (Fe2O3) nanoparticles (IONPs) and ionic form were investigated using the wing somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) and Allium and comet assays. In the SMART assay, different concentrations (1, 2, 5 and 10 mM) of NPs and ionic forms were fed to transheterozygous larvae of Drosophila melanogaster. No significant genotoxic effect was observed in <100 nm NPs and ionic form, while <50 nm IONPs showed genotoxicity at 1 and 10 mM concentrations...
January 1, 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887318/ubcd1-regulates-hedgehog-signaling-by-directly-modulating-ci-ubiquitination-and-processing
#10
Chenyu Pan, Yue Xiong, Xiangdong Lv, Yuanxin Xia, Shuo Zhang, Hao Chen, Jialin Fan, Wenqing Wu, Feng Liu, Hailong Wu, Zhaocai Zhou, Lei Zhang, Yun Zhao
The Hh pathway controls many morphogenetic processes in metazoans and plays important roles in numerous pathologies and in cancer. Hh signaling is mediated by the activity of the Gli/Ci family of transcription factors. Several studies in Drosophila have shown that ubiquitination by the ubiquitin E3 ligases Slimb and Rdx(Hib) plays a crucial role in controlling Ci stability dependent on the levels of Hh signals. If Hh levels are low, Slimb adds K11- and K48-linked poly-ubiquitin chains on Ci resulting in partial degradation...
September 8, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872253/genome-wide-scans-between-two-honeybee-populations-reveal-putative-signatures-of-human-mediated-selection
#11
M Parejo, D Wragg, D Henriques, A Vignal, M Neuditschko
Human-mediated selection has left signatures in the genomes of many domesticated animals, including the European dark honeybee, Apis mellifera mellifera, which has been selected by apiculturists for centuries. Using whole-genome sequence information, we investigated selection signatures in spatially separated honeybee subpopulations (Switzerland, n = 39 and France, n = 17). Three different test statistics were calculated in windows of 2 kb (fixation index, cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity and cross-population composite likelihood ratio) and combined into a recently developed composite selection score...
September 4, 2017: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870996/vestigial-like-3-is-a-novel-ets1-interacting-partner-and-regulates-trigeminal-nerve-formation-and-cranial-neural-crest-migration
#12
Emilie Simon, Nadine Thézé, Sandrine Fédou, Pierre Thiébaud, Corinne Faucheux
Drosophila Vestigial is the founding member of a protein family containing a highly conserved domain, called Tondu that mediates their interaction with members of the TEAD family of transcription factors (Scalloped in Drosophila). In Drosophila, the Vestigial/Scalloped complex controls wing development by regulating the expression of target genes through binding to MCAT sequences. In vertebrates, there are four Vestigial-like genes whose functions are still not well understood. Here we describe the regulation and function of vestigial-like 3 (vgll3) during Xenopus early development...
September 4, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866639/over-expression-of-mirna-9-generates-muscle-hypercontraction-through-translational-repression-of-the-troponin-t-in-drosophila%C3%A2-indirect-flight-muscles
#13
Prasanna Katti, Divesh Thimmaya, Aditi Madan, Upendra Nongthomba
miRNAs are small non-coding endogenous RNAs, typically 21-23 nucleotides long, that regulate gene expression, usually post-transcriptionally by binding to the 3'-UTR of target mRNA, thus blocking translation. The expression of several miRNAs is significantly altered during cardiac hypertrophy, myocardial ischemia, fibrosis, heart failure and other cardiac myopathies. Recent studies have implicated miR-9 in myocardial hypertrophy. However a detailed mechanism remains obscure. In this study, we have addressed the roles of miR-9 in muscle development and function using the genetically tractable model system, the indirect flight muscles (IFMs) of Drosophila melanogaster Bioinformatics analysis identified 135 potential miR-9a targets, of which 27 genes were associated with Drosophila muscle development...
September 2, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829945/cycd-cdk4-and-discontinuities-in-dpp-signaling-activate-torc1-in-the-drosophila-wing-disc
#14
Jesús Romero-Pozuelo, Constantinos Demetriades, Phillip Schroeder, Aurelio A Teleman
The molecular mechanisms regulating animal tissue size during development are unclear. This question has been extensively studied in the Drosophila wing disc. Although cell growth is regulated by the kinase TORC1, no readout exists to visualize TORC1 activity in situ in Drosophila. Both the cell cycle and the morphogen Dpp are linked to tissue growth, but whether they regulate TORC1 activity is not known. We develop here an anti-phospho-dRpS6 antibody that detects TORC1 activity in situ. We find, unexpectedly, that TORC1 activity in the wing disc is patchy...
August 21, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827391/a-fixation-method-to-preserve-cultured-cell-cytonemes-facilitates-mechanistic-interrogation-of-morphogen-transport
#15
William J Bodeen, Suresh Marada, Ashley Truong, Stacey K Ogden
During development, extracellular cues guiding cell fate determination are provided by morphogens. One mechanism by which morphogens are proposed to traverse extracellular space is by traveling along specialized filopodia called cytonemes. These cellular highways extend between signal producing and receiving cells to enable direct morphogen delivery. Although genetic studies support cytoneme involvement in morphogen transport, mechanistic insight into how they are regulated is limited due to technical challenges associated with performing cell biological analysis of the delicate filopodial structures...
August 21, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821399/timed-knickkopf-function-is-essential-for-wing-cuticle-formation-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#16
Kaixia Li, Xubo Zhang, Ying Zuo, Weimin Liu, Jianzhen Zhang, Bernard Moussian
The insect cuticle is an extracellular matrix that consists of the polysaccharide chitin, proteins, lipids and organic molecules that are arranged in distinct horizontal layers. In Drosophila melanogaster, these layers are not formed sequentially, but, at least partially, at the same time. Timing of the underlying molecular mechanisms is conceivably crucial for cuticle formation. To study this issue, we determined the time period during which the function of Knickkopf (Knk), a key factor of chitin organization, is required for wing cuticle differentiation in D...
August 15, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815867/baseline-susceptibility-of-spotted-wing-drosophila-drosophila-suzukii-to-four-key-insecticide-classes
#17
Steven Van Timmeren, David Mota-Sanchez, John C Wise, Rufus Isaacs
BACKGROUND: The invasive drosophilid pest, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, is affecting berry production in most fruit-producing regions of the world. Chemical control is the dominant management approach, creating concern for insecticide resistance in this pest. We compared the insecticide susceptibility of D. suzukii populations collected from conventional, organic, or insecticide-free blueberry sites. RESULTS: The sensitivity of D. suzukii to malathion and spinetoram declined slightly across the three years of monitoring, whereas it was more consistent for methomyl and zeta-cypermethrin...
August 16, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800588/non-lethal-genotyping-of-tribolium-castaneum-adults-using-genomic-dna-extracted-from-wing-tissue
#18
Frederic Strobl, J Alexander Ross, Ernst H K Stelzer
The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum has become the second most important insect model organism and is frequently used in developmental biology, genetics and pest-associated research. Consequently, the methodological arsenal increases continuously, but many routinely applied techniques for Drosophila melanogaster and other insect species are still unavailable. For example, a protocol for non-lethal genotyping has not yet been adapted but is particularly useful when individuals with known genotypes are required for downstream experiments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782874/in-vivo-imaging-reveals-mitophagy-independence-in-the-maintenance-of-axonal-mitochondria-during-normal-aging
#19
Xu Cao, Haiqiong Wang, Zhao Wang, Qingyao Wang, Shuang Zhang, Yuanping Deng, Yanshan Fang
Mitophagy is thought to be a critical mitochondrial quality control mechanism in neurons and has been extensively studied in neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. However, little is known about how mitochondria are maintained in the lengthy neuronal axons in the context of physiological aging. Here, we utilized the unique Drosophila wing nerve model and in vivo imaging to rigorously profile changes in axonal mitochondria during aging. We revealed that mitochondria became fragmented and accumulated in aged axons...
October 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763637/sodium-fluoride-adversely-affects-ovarian-development-and-reproduction-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#20
Salma Khatun, Prem Rajak, Moumita Dutta, Sumedha Roy
The study demonstrates the effects of chronic sub-lethal exposure of sodium fluoride (NaF) on reproductive structure and function of female Drosophila melanogaster. As a part of treatment, flies were maintained in food supplemented with sub-lethal concentrations of NaF (10-100 μg/mL). Fecundity, ovarian morphology, presence and profusion of viable cells from ovary and fat body were taken into consideration for evaluating changes in reproductive homeostasis. Wing length (a factor demonstrating body size and reproductive fitness) was also monitored after NaF exposure...
November 2017: Chemosphere
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