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Edimar Olegário de Campos Júnior, Rosiane Gomes da Silva Oliveira, Boscolli Barbosa Pereira, Henrique Nazareth Souto, Carlos Fernando Campos, Júlio Cesar Nepomuceno, Sandra Morelli
Exposure to certain pollutants induces a series of alterations in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that may result in genotoxic/mutagenic effects in exposed individuals. The present study aimed to monitor genotoxic, mutagenic, and recombinogenic potential and consequently water quality in two streams in the Paranaíba River basin in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using two bioindicator fish (Rhamdia quelen and Geophagus brasiliensis). The micronucleus (MN) test and somatic recombination and mutation test (SMART) were employed to assess DNA damage...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Xiangrui Li, Fangmei Zhang, Brad Coates, Yunhui Zhang, Xuguo Zhou, Dengfa Cheng
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short single-stranded non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression, particularly during development. In this study, 345 miRNAs were identified from the English green aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.), of which 168 were conserved and 177 were S. avenae-specific. Quantitative comparison of miRNA expression levels indicated that 16 and 12 miRNAs were significantly up-regulated in winged and wingless S. avenae small RNA libraries, respectively. Differential expression of these miRNAs was confirmed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR validation...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Junheon Kim, Miyeon Jang, Eunsik Shin, Jeongmin Kim, Si Hyeock Lee, Chung Gyoo Park
Fumigant and contact toxicities of 22 plant essential oils (EOs) from 14 families and their constituents against the adult spotted wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii were examined. Analyses by GC, GC-MS, and NMR led to the identification of 2, 16, 13, 4, 6, 9, and 10 compounds from Gaultheria fragrantissima, Croton anistatum, Illicium verum, Liquidamabar orientalis, Cinnamomum cassia, Rosa damasena, and Santalum album, respectively. In fumigant toxicity test, G. fragrantissima, C. anistatum, and I. verum exhibited 100, 93...
October 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Tripti Gupta, Arun Kumar, Cattenoz Pierre, K VijayRaghavan, Angela Giangrande
Collective migration is a complex process that contributes to build precise tissue and organ architecture. Several molecules involved in cell interaction control collective migration, but what their precise role is and how is their expression finely tuned to orchestrate the different steps of the process is poorly understood. Here we show that the timely and threshold expression of the Netrin receptor Frazzled triggers the initiation of glia migration in the Drosophila wing. Frazzled expression is induced by the Glide/Gcm transcription factor in a dose dependent manner...
October 14, 2016: ELife
Yongfeng Guo, Kerry Flegel, Jayashree Kumar, Daniel J McKay, Laura A Buttitta
During development cell proliferation and differentiation must be tightly coordinated to ensure proper tissue morphogenesis. Because steroid hormones are central regulators of developmental timing, understanding the links between steroid hormone signaling and cell proliferation is crucial to understanding the molecular basis of morphogenesis. Here we examined the mechanism by which the steroid hormone ecdysone regulates the cell cycle in Drosophila We find that a cell cycle arrest induced by ecdysone in Drosophila cell culture is analogous to a G2 cell cycle arrest observed in the early pupa wing...
October 13, 2016: Biology Open
Simon Restrepo, Jeremiah J Zartman, Konrad Basler
The ex vivo cultivation and live imaging of wing discs open exciting new research avenues by overcoming the limitations of end-point analysis of fixed tissues. Here we describe how to prepare an optimized wing disc culture medium (WM1) and how to dissect and arrange wing discs for cultivation and live imaging. This protocol enables the study of dynamic phenomena such as cell division and delamination as well as the use of pharmacological compounds and biosensors. Wing discs cultured and imaged as described here, maintain constant levels of proliferation during the first ten hours of culture...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jose Maria Carvajal-Gonzalez, Sonia Mulero-Navarro, Michael Smith, Marek Mlodzik
Most mutant alleles in the Fz-PCP pathway genes were discovered in classic Drosophila screens looking for recessive loss-of-function mutations. Nonetheless, although Fz-PCP signaling is sensitive to increased doses of PCP gene products, not many screens have been performed in the wing under genetically engineered Fz over-expression conditions, mostly because the Fz phenotypes were strong and/or not easy to score and quantify. Here we present a screen based on an unexpected mild Frizzled gain-of-function phenotype...
October 11, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Benjamin Fabian, Katharina Schneeberg, Rolf Georg Beutel
Genetically modified organisms are crucial for our understanding of gene regulatory networks, physiological processes and ontogeny. With modern molecular genetic techniques allowing the rapid generation of different Drosophila melanogaster mutants, efficient in-depth morphological investigations become an important issue. Anatomical studies can elucidate the role of certain genes in developmental processes and point out which parts of gene regulatory networks are involved in evolutionary changes of morphological structures...
October 6, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
Thomas K Smylla, Anette Preiss, Dieter Maier
Cell communication in metazoans requires the highly conserved Notch signaling pathway, which is subjected to strict regulation of both activation and silencing. In Drosophila melanogaster, silencing involves the assembly of a repressor complex by Hairless (H) on Notch target gene promoters. We previously found an in-frame internal ribosome entry site in the full length H transcript resulting in two H protein isoforms (H(p120) and H(p150)). Hence, H may repress Notch signalling activity in situations where cap-dependent translation is inhibited...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Minh Binh Nguyen, Linh Thuong Vuong, Kwang-Wook Choi
Notch signaling at the dorsoventral (DV) boundary is essential for patterning and growth of wings in Drosophila The WD40 domain protein Ebi has been implicated in the regulation of Notch signaling at the DV boundary. Here we show that Ebi regulates wing growth by antagonizing the function of the transmembrane protein Crumbs (Crb). Ebi physically binds to the extracellular domain of Crb (Crb(ext)), and this interaction is specifically mediated by WD40 repeats 7-8 of Ebi and a laminin G domain of Crb(ext) Wing notching resulting from reduced levels of Ebi is suppressed by decreasing the Crb function...
October 1, 2016: Development
David Pruyne
Formins are a widespread family of eukaryotic cytoskeleton-organizing proteins. Many species encode multiple formin isoforms, and for animals, much of this reflects the presence of multiple conserved subtypes. Earlier phylogenetic analyses identified seven major formin subtypes in animals (DAAM, DIAPH, FHOD, FMN, FMNL, INF, and GRID2IP/delphilin), but left a handful of formins, particularly from nematodes, unassigned. In this new analysis drawing from genomic data from a wider range of taxa, nine formin subtypes are identified that encompass all the animal formins analyzed here...
2016: PloS One
Cássio Resende de Morais, Ana Maria Bonetti, Stephan Malfitano Carvalho, Alexandre Azenha Alves de Rezende, Galber Rodrigues Araujo, Mário Antônio Spanó
Fipronil (FP) is an insecticide that belongs to the phenylpyrazole chemical family and is used to control pests by blocking GABA receptor at the entrance channel of the chlorine neurons. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mutagenic, recombinogenic and carcinogenic potential of FP. The mutagenic and recombinogenic effects were evaluated using the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) on wing cells of Drosophila melanogaster. Third instar larvae from standard (ST) and high bioactivation (HB) crosses were treated with different concentrations of FP (0...
December 2016: Chemosphere
Zhang Bo, Chen Xiaofang, Huang Xun, Yang Xiao
Chinese scientists have made significant achievements in the field of animal genetics in 2015. Incomplete statistics show that among all the publications of 2015 involving nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans), fly (Drosophila melanogaster), zebrafish (Danio rerio), African clawed frog (Xenopus) or mice (Mus musculus), about 1/5 publications are from China. Many innovative studies were published in high-impact international academic journals by Chinese scientists, including the identification of a putative magnetic receptor MagR, the genetic basis for the regulation of wing polyphenism in the insect brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens), DNA N(6)-methyladenine (6mA) modification in the Drosophila genome, a novel molecular mechanism regarding the dendritic spine pruning and maturation in the mammals, the mechanism for the CREB coactivator CRTC2 in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism, the control of systemic inflammation by neurotransmitter dopamine, the role of Gasdermin protein family in triggering pyroptosis, a parvalbumin-positive excitatory visual pathway to trigger fear responses in mice, etc...
June 20, 2016: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
Benjamin P Towler, Christopher I Jones, Kirsty L Harper, Joseph A Waldron, Sarah F Newbury
In a complex organism, cell proliferation and apoptosis need to be precisely controlled in order for tissues to develop correctly. Excessive cell proliferation can lead to diseases such as cancer. We have shown that the exoribonuclease Dis3L2 is required for the correct regulation of proliferation in a natural tissue within the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. Dis3L2 is a member of a highly conserved family of exoribonucleases that degrade RNA in a 3'-5' direction. We show that knockdown of dis3L2 in the Drosophila wing imaginal discs results in substantial wing overgrowth due to increased cellular proliferation rather than an increase in cell size...
September 14, 2016: RNA Biology
Matej Horvath, Zorana Mihajlovic, Vera Slaninova, Raquel Perez Gomez, Yuri Moshkin, Alena Krejci
The silent information regulator 1 (Sirt1) has previously been shown to have negative effects on the Notch pathway in several contexts. We bring evidence that Sirt1 has a positive effect on Notch activation in Drosophila, in the context of sensory organ precursor specification and during wing development. The phenotype of Sirt1 mutant resembles weak Notch loss of function phenotypes and genetic interactions of Sirt1 with the components of the Notch pathway also suggest a positive role of Sirt1 in Notch signalling...
September 13, 2016: Biochemical Journal
Ingo Bothe, Mary K Baylies
The skeletal muscle system is the largest organ in motile animals, constituting between 35 and 55% of the human body mass, and up to 75% of the body mass in flying organisms like Drosophila. The flight muscles alone in flying insects comprise up to 65% of total body mass. Not only is the musculature the largest organ system, it is also exquisitely complex, with single muscles existing in different shapes and sizes. These different morphologies allow for such different functions as the high-frequency beating of a wing in a hummingbird, the dilation of the pupil in a human eye, or the maintenance of posture in a giraffe's neck...
September 12, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Y Hirooka, C Hagizuka, I Ohshima
The water strider Limnogonus fossarum fossarum (F.) (Hemiptera: Gerridae) shows a macropterous, micropterous, and apterous polymorphism. Although a long photoperiod condition induces winged morphs, preliminary studies have revealed that crossing between winged morphs increased the proportion of macropterous individuals, suggesting that the genetic factors also affect wing-morph determination in this species. Assessing the genetic backgrounds of wing polymorphism requires constant and repeatable methods for rearing...
2016: Journal of Insect Science
Caitlin D Hanlon, Deborah J Andrew
Determining how organs attain precise positioning within an organism is a crucial facet of developmental biology. The Fox family winged-helix transcription factors are known to play key roles in development of multiple organs. Drosophila FoxL1 (aka Fd64A) is dynamically expressed in embryos but its function is completely uncharacterized. FoxL1 is expressed in a single group of body wall - muscles in the 2(nd) and 3(rd) thoracic segments, in homologous abdominal muscles at earlier stages, and in the hindgut mesoderm from early through late embryogenesis...
September 9, 2016: Developmental Biology
Miyeon Jang, Junheon Kim, Kyungjae Andrew Yoon, Si Hyeock Lee, Chung Gyoo Park
BACKGROUND: The spotted wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), is a globally invasive and serious pest of numerous soft-skinned fruit crops. Assessments were made of fumigant and contact toxicities of 12 Myrtaceae plant essential oils (EOs) and their components. For determining the mode of action of major components of active EOs, their activities against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and Glutathione S-transferase (GST) were also assessed. RESULTS: Strong fumigant and contact toxicities were observed from EOs of Eucalyptus citriodora and Melaleuca teretifolia...
September 8, 2016: Pest Management Science
S Santosh Kumar, Yaning Sun, Sige Zou, Jiarong Hong
Drosophila is an excellent model organism towards understanding the cognitive function, aging and neurodegeneration in humans. The effects of aging and other long-term dynamics on the behavior serve as important biomarkers in identifying such changes to the brain. In this regard, we are presenting a new imaging technique for lifetime monitoring of Drosophila in 3D at spatial and temporal resolutions capable of resolving the motion of limbs and wings using holographic principles. The developed system is capable of monitoring and extracting various behavioral parameters, such as ethograms and spatial distributions, from a group of flies simultaneously...
2016: Scientific Reports
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