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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144440/field-monitoring-of-drosophila-suzukii-and-associated-communities-in-south-eastern-france-as-a-pre-requisite-for-classical-biological-control
#1
Laurent Kremmer, Marcel Thaon, Nicolas Borowiec, Jean David, Marylène Poirié, Jean-Luc Gatti, Nicolas Ris
The spotted wing Drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Ds), became a major economic pest for fruit production since its establishment in Europe and America. Among potential control methods, only classical biological control appears to be a mean of sustainably regulating Ds in both cultivated and natural habitats. In the frame of risk assessment, pre-release surveys were carried out in a restricted but highly heterogeneous area in the south-east of France using traps and deliberate field exposures of Ds and D. melanogaster larvae/pupae...
November 16, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141951/selector-genes-display-tumor-cooperation-and-inhibition-in-drosophila-epithelium-in-a-developmental-context-dependent-manner
#2
Ram Prakash Gupta, Anjali Bajpai, Pradip Sinha
During animal development, selector genes determine identities of body segments and those of individual organs. Selector genes are also misexpressed in cancers, although their contributions to tumor progression per se remain poorly understood. Using a model of cooperative tumorigenesis, we show that gain of selector genes results in tumor cooperation, but in only select developmental domains of the wing, haltere and eye-antennal imaginal discs of Drosophila larva. Thus, the field selector, Eyeless (Ey), and the segment selector, Ultrabithorax (Ubx), readily cooperate to bring about neoplastic transformation of cells displaying somatic loss of the tumor suppressor, Lgl, but in only those developmental domains that express the homeo-box protein, Homothorax (Hth), and/or the Zinc-finger protein, Teashirt (Tsh)...
November 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130948/mapping-genomic-scaffolds-to-chromosomes-using-laser-capture-microdissection-in-application-to-hawaiian-picture-winged-drosophila
#3
Lin Kang, Phillip George, Donald K Price, Igor Sharakhov, Pawel Michalak
Next-generation sequencing technologies have led to a decreased cost and an increased throughput in genome sequencing. Yet, many genome assemblies based on short sequencing reads have been assembled only to the scaffold level due to the lack of sufficient chromosome mapping information. Traditional ways of mapping scaffolds to chromosomes require a large amount of laboratory work and time to generate genetic and/or physical maps. To address this problem, we conducted a rapid technique which uses laser capture microdissection and enables mapping scaffolds of de novo genome assemblies directly to chromosomes in Hawaiian picture-winged Drosophila...
November 8, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126440/chromatin-organization-changes-during-the-establishment-and-maintenance-of-the-postmitotic-state
#4
Yiqin Ma, Laura Buttitta
BACKGROUND: Genome organization changes during development as cells differentiate. Chromatin motion becomes increasingly constrained and heterochromatin clusters as cells become restricted in their developmental potential. These changes coincide with slowing of the cell cycle, which can also influence chromatin organization and dynamics. Terminal differentiation is often coupled with permanent exit from the cell cycle, and existing data suggest a close relationship between a repressive chromatin structure and silencing of the cell cycle in postmitotic cells...
November 10, 2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125862/peptidergic-control-in-a-fruit-crop-pest-the-spotted-wing-drosophila-drosophila-suzukii
#5
Caroline S Gough, Grace M Fairlamb, Petra Bell, Ronald J Nachman, Neil Audsley, R Elwyn Isaac
Neuropeptides play an important role in the regulation of feeding in insects and offer potential targets for the development of new chemicals to control insect pests. A pest that has attracted much recent attention is the highly invasive Drosophila suzukii, a polyphagous pest that can cause serious economic damage to soft fruits. Previously we showed by mass spectrometry the presence of the neuropeptide myosuppressin (TDVDHVFLRFamide) in the nerve bundle suggesting that this peptide is involved in regulating the function of the crop, which in adult dipteran insects has important roles in the processing of food, the storage of carbohydrates and the movement of food into the midgut for digestion...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121551/trans-generational-transmission-of-altered-phenotype-resulting-from-flubendiamide-induced-changes-in-apoptosis-in-larval-imaginal-discs-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#6
Saurabh Sarkar, Salma Khatun, Moumita Dutta, Sumedha Roy
The eye and wing morphology of Drosophila melanogaster maintain unique, stable pattern of genesis from larval eye and wing imaginal discs. Increased apoptosis in cells of eye and wing discs was found to be associated with flubendiamide (fluoride containing insecticide) exposure (at the range 0.25-10μg/mL) in D. melanogaster larvae. The chemical fed larvae on attaining adulthood revealed alterations in morphology and symmetry of their compound eyes and wings through scanning electron microscopy. Nearly 40% and 30% of flies (P generation) demonstrated alterations in eyes and wings respectively...
November 6, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109180/isolation-of-aggressive-behavior-mutants-in-drosophila%C3%A2-using-a-screen-for-wing-damage
#7
Shaun M Davis, Amanda L Thomas, Lingzhi Liu, Ian M Campbell, Herman A Dierick
Aggression is a complex social behavior that is widespread in nature. To date only a limited number of genes that affect aggression have been identified, in large part because the complexity of the phenotype makes screening difficult and time consuming regardless of the species that is studied. We discovered that aggressive group-housed Drosophila melanogaster males inflict damage on each other's wings, and show that wing damage negatively affects their ability to fly and mate. Using this wing-damage phenotype, we screened males from ~1,400 chemically mutagenized strains and found ~40 mutant strains with substantial wing damage...
November 6, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097673/hedgehog-mediated-degradation-of-ihog-adhesion-proteins-modulates-cell-segregation-in-drosophila-wing-imaginal-discs
#8
Elaine Y C Hsia, Ya Zhang, Hai Son Tran, Agnes Lim, Ya-Hui Chou, Ganhui Lan, Philip A Beachy, Xiaoyan Zheng
The Drosophila Hedgehog receptor functions to regulate the essential downstream pathway component, Smoothened, and to limit the range of signaling by sequestering Hedgehog protein signal within imaginal disc epithelium. Hedgehog receptor function requires both Patched and Ihog activity, the latter interchangeably encoded by interference hedgehog (ihog) or brother of ihog (boi). Here we show that Patched and Ihog activity are mutually required for receptor endocytosis and degradation, triggered by Hedgehog protein binding, and causing reduced levels of Ihog/Boi proteins in a stripe of cells at the anterior/posterior compartment boundary of the wing imaginal disc...
November 2, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080790/scalloped-a-member-of-the-hippo-tumor-suppressor-pathway-controls-mushroom-body-size-in-drosophila-brain-by-non-canonical-regulation-of-neuroblast-proliferation
#9
Basavanahalli Nanjundaiah Rohith, Baragur Venkatanarayanasetty Shyamala
Cell proliferation, growth and survival are three different basic processes which converge at determining a fundamental property -the size of an organism. Scalloped (Sd) is the first characterised transcriptional partner to Yorkie (Yki), the downstream effector of the Hippo pathway which is a highly potential and evolutionarily conserved regulator of organ size. Here we have studied the hypomorphic effect of sd on the development of Mushroom Bodies (MBs) in Drosophila brain. We show that, sd non-function results in an increase in the size of MBs...
November 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075833/transcriptome-profiling-of-neurosensory-perception-genes-in-wing-tissue-of-two-evolutionary-distant-insect-orders-diptera-drosophila-melanogaster-and-hemiptera-acyrthosiphon-pisum
#10
Sandra Agnel, Martine da Rocha, Alain Robichon
The neurogenesis and neuronal functions in insect wing have been understudied mainly due to technical hindrances that have prevented electrophysiology studies for decades. The reason is that the nano-architecture of the wing chemosensory bristles hampers the receptors accessibility of odorants/tastants to receptors in fixed setup, whereas in nature, the wing flapping mixes these molecules in bristle lymph. In this report, we analyzed the transcriptome of the wing tissue of two species phylogenetically strongly divergent: Drosophila melanogaster a generic model for diptera order (complete metamorphosis) and the aphid acyrthosiphon pisum, representative of hemiptera order (incomplete metamorphosis) for which a conditional winged/wingless polyphenism is under control of population density and resources...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Molecular Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065163/drosophila-vamp7-regulates-wingless-intracellular-trafficking
#11
Han Gao, Fang He, Xinhua Lin, Yihui Wu
Drosophila Wingless (Wg) is a morphogen that determines cell fate during development. Previous studies have shown that endocytic pathways regulate Wg trafficking and signaling. Here, we showed that loss of vamp7, a gene required for vesicle fusion, dramatically increased Wg levels and decreased Wg signaling. Interestingly, we found that levels of Dally-like (Dlp), a glypican that can interact with Wg to suppress Wg signaling at the dorsoventral boundary of the Drosophila wing, were also increased in vamp7 mutant cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064624/toxicity-to-and-egg-laying-avoidance-of-drosophila-suzukii-diptera-drosophilidae-caused-by-an-old-alternative-inorganic-insecticide-preparation
#12
Felipe Andreazza, Henry E Vacacela Ajila, Khalid Haddi, Felipe B Colares, Angelo Pallini, Eugênio E Oliveira
BACKGROUND: The application of synthetic insecticides remains the most used tool for the management of spotted-wing Drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). However, the management of this pest in the organic production of soft-skinned fruits is a complex task due to the restricted number of registered products. Here, we assessed the toxicity of lime-sulfur and evaluated whether lime-sulfur-treated strawberry plants affected the oviposition and development of D...
October 24, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057959/challenging-fret-based-e-cadherin-force-measurements-in-drosophila
#13
Dominik Eder, Konrad Basler, Christof M Aegerter
Mechanical forces play a critical role during embryonic development. Cellular and tissue wide forces direct cell migration, drive tissue morphogenesis and regulate organ growth. Despite the relevance of mechanics for these processes, our knowledge of the dynamics of mechanical forces in living tissues remains scarce. Recent studies have tried to address this problem with the development of tension sensors based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). These sensors are integrated into force bearing proteins and allow the measurement of mechanical tensions on subcellular structures...
October 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052556/forewings-match-the-formation-of-leading-edge-vortices-and-dominate-aerodynamic-force-production-in-revolving-insect-wings
#14
Di Chen, Dmitry Kolomenskiy, Toshiyuki Nakata, Hao Liu
In many flying insects, forewings and hindwings are coupled mechanically to achieve flapping flight synchronously while being driven by action of the forewings. How the forewings and hindwings as well as their morphologies contribute to aerodynamic force production and flight control remains unclear yet. Here we demonstrate that the forewings can produce most of the aerodynamic forces even with the hindwings removed through a computational fluid dynamic study of three revolving insect wing models, which are identical to the wing morphologies and Reynolds numbers of hawkmoth (Manduca sexta), bumblebee (Bombus ignitus) and fruitfly (Drosophila melanogaster)...
October 20, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051265/regulation-of-notch-signaling-by-rab7-and-rab8-requires-carboxyl-methylation-by-icmt
#15
Helen Court, Ian M Ahearn, Marc Amoyel, Erika A Bach, Mark R Philips
Isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methyltransferase (ICMT) methylesterifies C-terminal prenylcysteine residues of CaaX proteins and some RAB GTPases. Deficiency of either ICMT or NOTCH1 accelerates pancreatic neoplasia in Pdx1-Cre;LSL-Kras(G12D) mice, suggesting that ICMT is required for NOTCH signaling. We used Drosophila melanogaster wing vein and scutellar bristle development to screen Rab proteins predicted to be substrates for ICMT (ste14 in flies). We identified Rab7 and Rab8 as ICMT substrates that when silenced phenocopy ste14 deficiency...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045660/evaluation-of-off-season-potential-breeding-sources-for-spotted-wing-drosophila-drosophila-suzukii-matsumura-in-michigan
#16
Harit K Bal, Christopher Adams, Matthew Grieshop
It has been suggested that fruit wastes including dropped and unharvested fruits, and fruit byproducts (i.e., pomace) found in fruit plantings and cideries or wine-making facilities could serve as potential off-season breeding sites for spotted wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae)). This idea, however, has yet to be widely tested. The goal of our study was to determine the potential of dropped fruit and fruit wastes as Fall spotted wing Drosophila breeding resources in Michigan, USA...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038308/cell-dynamics-underlying-oriented-growth-of-the-drosophila-wing-imaginal-disc
#17
Natalie A Dye, Marko Popović, Stephanie Spannl, Raphaël Etournay, Dagmar Kainmüller, Suhrid Ghosh, Eugene W Myers, Frank Jülicher, Suzanne Eaton
Quantitative analysis of the dynamic cellular mechanisms shaping the Drosophila wing during its larval growth phase has been limited, impeding our ability to understand how morphogen patterns regulate tissue shape. Such analysis requires imaging explants under conditions that maintain both growth and patterning, as well as methods to quantify how much cellular behaviors change tissue shape. Here, we demonstrate a key requirement for the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) in the maintenance of numerous patterning systems in vivo and in explant culture...
October 16, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030610/angiotensin-converting-enzyme-ance-is-cooperatively-regulated-by-mad-and-pannier-in-drosophila-imaginal-discs
#18
Ah-Ram Kim, Eun-Bee Choi, Mi-Young Kim, Kwang-Wook Choi
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is an evolutionarily conserved peptidyl dipeptidase. Mammalian ACE converts angiotensin I to the active vasoconstrictor angiotensin II, thus playing a critical role for homeostasis of the renin-angiotensin system. In Drosophila, the ACE homolog Ance is expressed in specific regions of developing organs, but its regulatory mechanism has not been identified. Here we provide evidence that Ance expression is regulated by a combination of Mad and Pannier (Pnr) in imaginal discs...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028797/stat-wingless-and-nurf-38-determine-the-accuracy-of-regeneration-after-radiation-damage-in-drosophila
#19
Shilpi Verghese, Tin Tin Su
We report here a study of regeneration in Drosophila larval wing imaginal discs after damage by ionizing radiation. We detected faithful regeneration that restored a wing disc and abnormal regeneration that produced an extra wing disc. We describe a sequence of changes in cell number, location and fate that occur to produce an ectopic disc. We identified a group of cells that not only participate in ectopic disc formation but also recruit others to do so. STAT92E (Drosophila STAT3/5) and Nurf-38, which encodes a member of the Nucleosome Remodeling Factor complex, oppose each other in these cells to modulate the frequency of ectopic disc growth...
October 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994781/methods-for-imaging-intracellular-ph-of-the-follicle-stem-cell-lineage-in-live-drosophila-ovarian-tissue
#20
Sumitra Tatapudy, Marimar Benitez, Todd Nystul
Changes in intracellular pH (pHi) play important roles in the regulation of many cellular functions, including metabolism, proliferation, and differentiation. Typically, pHi dynamics are determined in cultured cells, which are amenable to measuring and experimentally manipulating pHi. However, the recent development of new tools and methodologies has made it possible to study pHi dynamics within intact, live tissue. For Drosophila research, one important development was the generation of a transgenic line carrying a pHi biosensor, mCherry::pHluorin...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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