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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415200/triangles-bridge-the-scales-quantifying-cellular-contributions-to-tissue-deformation
#1
Matthias Merkel, Raphaël Etournay, Marko Popović, Guillaume Salbreux, Suzanne Eaton, Frank Jülicher
In this article, we propose a general framework to study the dynamics and topology of cellular networks that capture the geometry of cell packings in two-dimensional tissues. Such epithelia undergo large-scale deformation during morphogenesis of a multicellular organism. Large-scale deformations emerge from many individual cellular events such as cell shape changes, cell rearrangements, cell divisions, and cell extrusions. Using a triangle-based representation of cellular network geometry, we obtain an exact decomposition of large-scale material deformation...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396828/the-impacts-of-climate-change-on-the-abundance-and-distribution-of-the-spotted-wing-drosophila-drosophila-suzukii-in-the-united-states-and-canada
#2
Aaron B Langille, Ellen M Arteca, Jonathan A Newman
D. suzukii is a relatively recent and destructive pest species to the North American soft-skinned fruit industry. Understanding this species' potential to shift in abundance and range due to changing climate is an important part of an effective mitigation and management strategy. We parameterized a temperature-driven D. suzukii population dynamics model using temperature data derived from several Global Circulation Models (CMIP5) with a range of relative concentration pathway (RCP) predictions. Mean consensus between the models suggest that without adaptation to both higher prolonged temperatures and higher short-term temperature events D...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396507/regulation-of-notch-signaling-by-the-heterogeneous-nuclear-ribonucleoprotein-hrp48-and-deltex-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#3
Debdeep Dutta, Maimuna Sali Paul, Ankita Singh, Mousumi Mutsuddi, Ashim Mukherjee
Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that is found to be involved in a number of cellular events throughout development. The deployment of Notch signaling pathway in numerous cellular contexts is possible due to its regulation at multiple levels. In an effort to identify the novel components integrated into the molecular circuitry affecting Notch signaling, we carried out a protein-protein interaction screen based on the identification of cellular protein complexes using co-immunoprecipitation followed by mass-spectrometry...
April 10, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396045/drosophila-p115-is-required-for-cdk1-activation-and-g2-m-cell-cycle-transition
#4
Consuelo Ibar, Álvaro Glavic
Golgi complex inheritance and its relationship with the cell cycle are central in cell biology. Golgi matrix proteins, known as golgins, are one of the components that underlie the shape and functionality of this organelle. In mammalian cells, golgins are phosphorylated during mitosis to allow fragmentation of the Golgi ribbon and they also participate in spindle dynamics; both processes are required for cell cycle progression. Little is known about the function of golgins during mitosis in metazoans in vivo...
April 7, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395731/a-nanobody-based-toolset-to-investigate-the-role-of-protein-localization-and-dispersal-in-drosophila
#5
Stefan Harmansa, Ilaria Alborelli, Dimitri Bieli, Emmanuel Caussinus, Markus Affolter
The role of protein localization along the apical-basal axis of polarized cells is difficult to investigate in vivo, partially due to lack of suitable tools. Here, we present the GrabFP system, a collection of four nanobody-based GFP-traps that localize to defined positions along the apical-basal axis. We show that the localization preference of the GrabFP traps can impose a novel localization on GFP-tagged target proteins and results in their controlled mislocalization. These new tools were used to mislocalize transmembrane and cytoplasmic GFP fusion proteins in the Drosophila wing disc epithelium and to investigate the effect of protein mislocalization...
April 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394891/xylosylation-of-the-notch-receptor-preserves-the-balance-between-its-activation-by-trans-delta-and-inhibition-by-cis-ligands-in-drosophila
#6
Tom V Lee, Ashutosh Pandey, Hamed Jafar-Nejad
The Drosophila glucoside xylosyltransferase Shams xylosylates Notch and inhibits Notch signaling in specific contexts including wing vein development. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying context-specificity of the shams phenotype is not known. Considering the role of Delta-Notch signaling in wing vein formation, we hypothesized that Shams might affect Delta-mediated Notch signaling in Drosophila. Using genetic interaction studies, we find that altering the gene dosage of Delta affects the wing vein and head bristle phenotypes caused by loss of Shams or by mutations in the Notch xylosylation sites...
April 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390875/effect-of-non-nutritive-sugars-to-decrease-the-survivorship-of-spotted-wing-drosophila-drosophila-suzukii
#7
Man-Yeon Choi, Siew Bee Tang, Seung-Joon Ahn, Kaushalya G Amarasekare, Peter Shearer, Jana C Lee
In this study, we investigated the effects of non-nutritive sugars and sugar alcohols on the survivorship of spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, and found erythritol and erythrose as potentially insecticidal to the fly. In a dose-dependent study, erythritol and erythrose significantly reduced fly longevity, with 100% mortality with 1, 0.5, 0.1 & 0.05M doses after feeding for 7days. When sucrose and erythritol solutions were provided separately to flies for 7days, there was no effect on survivorship regardless of erythritol concentrations...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383656/premosa-extracting-2d-surfaces-from-3d-microscopy-mosaics
#8
Corinna Blasse, Stephan Saalfeld, Raphaël Etournay, Andreas Sagner, Suzanne Eaton, Eugene W Myers
Motivation: A significant focus of biological research is to understand the development, organization and function of tissues. A particularly productive area of study is on single layer epithelial tissues in which the adherence junctions of cells form a 2D manifold that is fluorescently labeled. Given the size of the tissue, a microscope must collect a mosaic of overlapping 3D stacks encompassing the stained surface. Downstream interpretation is greatly simplified by preprocessing such a dataset as follows: (a) extracting and mapping the stained manifold in each stack into a single 2D projection plane, (b) correcting uneven illumination artifacts, (c) stitching the mosaic planes into a single, large 2D image, and (d) adjusting the contrast...
April 5, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376317/imaginal-disc-regeneration-takes-flight
#9
REVIEW
Iswar K Hariharan, Florenci Serras
Drosophila imaginal discs, the larval precursors of adult structures such as the wing and leg, are capable of regenerating after damage. During the course of regeneration, discs can sometimes generate structures that are appropriate for a different type of disc, a phenomenon termed transdetermination. Until recently, these phenomena were studied by physically fragmenting discs and then transplanting them into the abdomens of adult female flies. This field has experienced a renaissance following the development of genetic ablation systems that can damage precisely defined regions of the disc without the need for surgery...
April 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360132/dose-dependent-transduction-of-hedgehog-relies-on-phosphorylation-based-feedback-between-the-gpcr-smoothened-and-the-kinase-fused
#10
Matthieu Sanial, Isabelle Bécam, Line Hofmann, Julien Behague, Camilla Argüelles, Vanessa Gourhand, Lucia Bruzzone, Robert A Holmgren, Anne Plessis
Smoothened (SMO) is a GPCR-related protein required for the transduction of Hedgehog (HH). The HH gradient leads to graded phosphorylation of SMO, mainly by the PKA and CKI kinases. How thresholds in HH morphogen regulate SMO to promote switch-like transcriptional responses is a central unsolved issue. Using the wing imaginal disc model in Drosophila, we identified novel SMO phosphosites that enhance the effects of the PKA/CKI kinases on SMO accumulation, its localization at the plasma membrane and its activity...
March 30, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355214/a-new-paramutation-like-example-at-the-delta-gene-of-drosophila
#11
Maria Capovilla, Alain Robichon, Minoo Rassoulzadegan
The hereditary transmission of a phenotype independent from DNA sequence implies epigenetic effects. Paramutation is a heritable epigenetic phenomenon observed in plants and animals. To investigate paramutation in Drosophila, we used the P{ry+t7.2 = PZ}Dl05151 P-element insertion in the Drosophila melanogaster genome that causes a dominant visible phenotype: the presence of characteristic extra-veins in the fly wings. This extra-vein phenotype presents variable expressivity and incomplete penetrance. The insert is a PZ element located 680 bp upstream from the ATG of the Delta (Dl) gene, encoding the Notch ligand involved in wing vein development, and acts as a null allele...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348931/basal-tolerance-to-heat-and-cold-exposure-of-the-spotted-wing-drosophila-drosophila-suzukii
#12
Thomas Enriquez, Hervé Colinet
The spotted wing Drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, is a new pest in Europe and America which causes severe damages, mostly to stone fruit crops. Temperature and humidity are among the most important abiotic factors governing insect development and fitness. In many situations, temperature can become stressful thus compromising survival. The ability to cope with thermal stress depends on basal level of thermal tolerance. Basic knowledge on temperature-dependent mortality of D. suzukii is essential to facilitate management of this pest...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341448/the-drosophila-dock-family-protein-sponge-is-required-for-development-of-the-air-sac-primordium
#13
Kazushge Morishita, Dang Ngoc Anh Suong, Hideki Yoshida, Masamitsu Yamaguchi
Dedicator of cytokinesis (DOCK) family genes are known as DOCK1-DOCK11 in mammals. DOCK family proteins mainly regulate actin filament polymerization and/or depolymerization and are GEF proteins, which contribute to cellular signaling events by activating small G proteins. Sponge (Spg) is a Drosophila counterpart to mammalian DOCK3/DOCK4, and plays a role in embryonic central nervous system development, R7 photoreceptor cell differentiation, and adult thorax development. In order to conduct further functional analyses on Spg in vivo, we examined its localization in third instar larval wing imaginal discs...
March 21, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323621/smoc-can-act-as-both-an-antagonist-and-an-expander-of-bmp-signaling
#14
J Terrig Thomas, D Eric Dollins, Kristin R Andrykovich, Tehyen Chu, Brian G Stultz, Deborah A Hursh, Malcolm Moos
The matricellular protein SMOC (Secreted Modular Calcium binding protein) is conserved phylogenetically from vertebrates to arthropods. We showed previously that SMOC inhibits bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling downstream of its receptor via activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. In contrast, the most prominent effect of the Drosophila orthologue, pentagone (pent), is expanding the range of BMP signaling during wing patterning. Using SMOC deletion constructs we found that SMOC-∆EC, lacking the extracellular calcium binding (EC) domain, inhibited BMP2 signaling, whereas SMOC-EC (EC domain only) enhanced BMP2 signaling...
March 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323391/metagenomic-analysis-reveals-changes-of-the-drosophila-suzukii-microbiota-in-the-newly-colonised-regions
#15
Isabel Martinez-Sañudo, Mauro Simonato, Andrea Squartini, Nicola Mori, Laura Marri, Luca Mazzon
The spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is a highly polyphagous pest of a wide variety of wild or cultivated berry and stone fruit. Originating from Southeast Asia, it has recently invaded a wide range of regions in Europe and North-America. It is well known that insect microbiotas may significantly influence several aspects of the host biology and play an important role in invasive species introduction into new areas. However, in spite of the great economic importance of D...
March 21, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322734/the-activity-of-the-drosophila-vestigial-protein-is-modified-by-scalloped-dependent-phosphorylation
#16
Virginia L Pimmett, Hua Deng, Julie A Haskins, Rebecca J Mercier, Paul LaPointe, Andrew J Simmonds
The Drosophila vestigial gene is required for proliferation and differentiation of the adult wing and for differentiation of larval and adult muscle identity. Vestigial is part of a multi-protein transcription factor complex, which includes Scalloped, a TEAD-class DNA binding protein. Binding Scalloped is necessary for translocation of Vestigial into the nucleus. We show that Vestigial is extensively post-translationally modified and at least one of these modifications is required for proper function during development...
March 18, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315837/a-search-for-genes-mediating-the-growth-promoting-function-of-tgf%C3%AE-in-the-drosophila-melanogaster-wing-disc
#17
Covadonga F Hevia, Ana López-Varea, Nuria Esteban, Jose F de Celis
TGFβ signalling has a complex influence in cell proliferation, acting to stop cell division in differentiating cells, but also promoting cell division in immature cells. The activity of the pathway in Drosophila is mostly required to stimulate the proliferation of neural and epithelial tissues. Most interestingly, this function is not absolutely required for cell division, but it is needed for these tissues to reach their correct size. It is not known how TGFβ signalling promotes cell division in imaginal discs, or what are the interactions between TGFβ activity and other signalling pathways regulating cell proliferation...
March 17, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304234/antimutagenic-evaluation-of-traditional-medicinal-plants-from-south-america-peumus-boldus-and-cryptocarya-alba-using-drosophila-melanogaster
#18
Erico R Carmona, Marjorie Reyes-Díaz, Jorge Parodi, Claudio Inostroza-Blancheteau
Peumus boldus Mol. ("Boldo") and Cryptocarya alba Mol. Looser ("Peumo") are medicinal shrubs with wide geographical distribution in South America. Their leaves and fruits are commonly used in traditional medicine because they exhibit natural medicinal properties for treatment of liver disorders and rheumatism. However, there are no apparent data regarding potential protective effects on cellular genetic components. In order to examine potential mutagenic and/or antimutagenic effects of these medicinal plants, the Drosophila melanogaster (D...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304136/zebrafish-models-of-non-canonical-wnt-planar-cell-polarity-signalling-fishing-for-valuable-insight-into-vertebrate-polarized-cell-behavior
#19
REVIEW
Maria Jussila, Brian Ciruna
Planar cell polarity (PCP) coordinates the uniform orientation, structure and movement of cells within the plane of a tissue or organ system. It is beautifully illustrated in the polarized arrangement of bristles and hairs that project from specialized cell surfaces of the insect abdomen and wings, and pioneering genetic studies using the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, have defined a core signalling network underlying PCP. This core PCP/non-canonical Wnt signalling pathway is evolutionarily conserved, and studies in zebrafish have helped transform our understanding of PCP from a peculiarity of polarized epithelia to a more universal cellular property that orchestrates a diverse suite of polarized cell behaviors that are required for normal vertebrate development...
March 17, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300568/homeostatic-response-to-blocking-cell-division-in-drosophila-imaginal-discs-role-of-the-fat-dachsous-ft-ds-pathway
#20
Antonio J Montes, Ginés Morata
One major problem in developmental biology is the identification of the mechanisms that control the final size of tissues and organs. We are addressing this issue in the imaginal discs of Drosophila by analysing the response to blocking cell division in large domains in the wing and leg discs. The affected domains may be zones of restricted lineage like compartments, or zones of open lineage that may integrate cells from the surrounding territory. Our results reveal the existence of a powerful homeostatic mechanism that can compensate for gross differences in growth rates and builds structures of normal size...
March 11, 2017: Developmental Biology
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