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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727418/combining-tof-sims-imaging-mass-spectrometry-and-cars-microspectroscopy-reveals-lipid-patterns-reminiscent-of-gene-expression-patterns-in-the-wing-imaginal-disc-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#1
Florian Marty, Gianluca Rago, Donald F Smith, Xiaoli Gao, Gert B Eijkel, Luke MacAleese, Mischa Bonn, Erich Brunner, Konrad Basler, Ron M A Heeren
Using label-free ToF-SIMS imaging mass spectrometry, we generated a map of small molecules differentially expressed in the Drosophila wing imaginal disc. The distributions of these moieties were in line with gene expression patterns observed during wing imaginal disc development. Combining ToF-SIMS imaging and coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) microspectroscopy allowed us to locally identify acylglycerols as the main constituents of the pattern differentiating the future body wall tissue from the wing blade tissue...
July 20, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708826/intestinal-stem-cell-overproliferation-resulting-from-inactivation-of-the-apc-tumor-suppressor-requires-the-transcription-cofactors-earthbound-and-erect-wing
#2
Ai Tian, Hassina Benchabane, Zhenghan Wang, Chloe Zimmerman, Nan Xin, Jessica Perochon, Gabriela Kalna, Owen J Sansom, Chao Cheng, Julia B Cordero, Yashi Ahmed
Wnt/β-catenin signal transduction directs intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation during homeostasis. Hyperactivation of Wnt signaling initiates colorectal cancer, which most frequently results from truncation of the tumor suppressor Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). The β-catenin-TCF transcription complex activates both the physiological expression of Wnt target genes in the normal intestinal epithelium and their aberrantly increased expression in colorectal tumors. Whether mechanistic differences in the Wnt transcription machinery drive these distinct levels of target gene activation in physiological versus pathological states remains uncertain, but is relevant for the design of new therapeutic strategies...
July 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697337/basement-membrane-manipulation-in-drosophila-wing-discs-affects-dpp-retention-but-not-growth-mechanoregulation
#3
Mengqi Ma, Xueya Cao, Jianli Dai, José C Pastor-Pareja
Basement membranes (BMs) are extracellular matrix polymers basally underlying epithelia, where they regulate cell signaling and tissue mechanics. Constriction by the BM shapes Drosophila wing discs, a well-characterized model of tissue growth. Recently, the hypothesis that mechanical factors govern wing growth has received much attention, but it has not been definitively tested. In this study, we manipulated BM composition to cause dramatic changes in tissue tension. We found that increased tissue compression when perlecan was knocked down did not affect adult wing size...
July 10, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696218/non-canonical-decapentaplegic-signaling-activates-matrix-metalloproteinase-1-to-restrict-hedgehog-activity-and-limit-ectopic-eye-differentiation-in-drosophila
#4
Poonam Aggarwal, Jayati Gera, Saikat Ghosh, Lolitika Mandal, Sudip Mandal
One of the pertinent issues associated with cellular plasticity is to understand how the delicate balance between the determined state of cells and the extent to which they can transdetermine is maintained. Employing the well-established model of generating ectopic eyes in developing wing discs of Drosophila by ectopic eyeless expression, we provide evidence for the genetic basis of this mechanism. By both loss-of-function and gain-of-function genetic analyses, we demonstrate that Matrix metalloproteinase 1 (Mmp1) plays an important role in regulating the extent of ectopic ommatidial differentiation...
July 10, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684627/inwardly-rectifying-potassium-channels-regulate-dpp-release-in-the-drosophila-wing-disc
#5
Giri Raj Dahal, Sarala Joshi Pradhan, Emily Anne Bates
Loss of embryonic ion channel function leads to morphological defects, but the underlying reason for these defects remains elusive. Here, we show that inwardly-rectifying potassium (Irk) channels regulate release of a Drosophila bone morphogenetic protein (BMP/Dpp) in the developing fly wing and this is necessary for developmental signaling. Inhibition of Irk channels decreases the incidence of distinct Dpp-GFP release events above baseline fluorescence while leading to broader distribution of Dpp-GFP. Work by others in different cell types show Irk channels regulate peptide release by modulating membrane potential and calcium levels...
July 6, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677915/dusky-works-upstream-of-four-jointed-and-forked-in-wing-morphogenesis-in-tribolium-castaneum
#6
C Li, B Li, S Ma, P Lü, K Chen
Dusky (dy) is required for cytoskeletal reorganization during wing morphogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster, but which genes participate together with dy for wing morphogenesis has remained unclear. In Tribolium castaneum, dy is highly expressed at the late embryonic stage. Tissue-specific expression analysis indicated high expression levels of dy in the epidermis, head and fat body of late-stage larvae. RNA interference (RNAi) targeting dy significantly decreased adult wing size and caused improper folding of the elytra...
July 5, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675374/dpp-controls-growth-and-patterning-in-drosophila-wing-precursors-through-distinct-modes-of-action
#7
Pablo Sanchez Bosch, Ruta Ziukaite, Cyrille Alexandre, Konrad Basler, Jean-Paul B Vincent
Dpp, a member of the BMP family, is a morphogen that specifies positional information in Drosophila wing precursors. In this tissue, Dpp expressed along the anterior-posterior boundary forms a concentration gradient that controls the expression domains of target genes, which in turn specify the position of wing veins. Dpp also promotes growth in this tissue. The relationship between the spatio-temporal profile of Dpp signalling and growth has been the subject of debate, which has intensified recently with the suggestion that the stripe of Dpp is dispensable for growth...
July 4, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675373/dpp-from-the-anterior-stripe-of-cells-is-crucial-for-the-growth-of-the-drosophila-wing-disc
#8
Shinya Matsuda, Markus Affolter
The Dpp morphogen gradient derived from the anterior stripe of cells is thought to control growth and patterning of the Drosophila wing disc. However, the spatial-temporal requirement of dpp for growth and patterning remained largely unknown. Recently, two studies re-addressed this question. By generating a conditional null allele, one study proposed that the dpp stripe is critical for patterning but not for growth. In contrast, using a membrane-anchored nanobody to trap Dpp, the other study proposed that Dpp dispersal from the stripe is required for patterning and also for medial wing disc growth, at least in the posterior compartment...
July 4, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675372/boundary-dpp-promotes-growth-of-medial-and-lateral-regions-of-the-drosophila-wing
#9
Lara Barrio, Marco Milan
The gradient of Decapentaplegic (Dpp) in the Drosophila wing has served as a paradigm to characterize the role of morphogens in regulating patterning. However, the role of this gradient in regulating tissue size is a topic of intense debate as proliferative growth is homogenous. Here we combined the Gal4/UAS system and a temperature-sensitive Gal80 molecule to induce RNAi-mediated depletion of dpp and characterise the spatial and temporal requirement of Dpp in promoting growth. We show that Dpp emanating from the AP compartment boundary is required throughout development to promote growth by regulating cell proliferation and tissue size...
July 4, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672824/myrtaceae-plant-essential-oils-and-their-%C3%AE-triketone-components-as-insecticides-against-drosophila-suzukii
#10
Chung Gyoo Park, Miyeon Jang, Eunsik Shin, Junheon Kim
Spotted wing drosophila (SWD, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), Diptera: Drosophilidae) is recognized as an economically important pest in North America and Europe as well as in Asia. Assessments were made for fumigant and contact toxicities of six Myrtaceae plant essential oils (EOs) and their components to find new alternative types of insecticides active against SWD. Among the EOs tested, Leptospermum citratum EO, consisting mainly of geranial and neral, exhibited effective fumigant activity. Median lethal dose (LD50; mg/L) values of L...
June 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671940/expanding-signaling-molecule-wavefront-model-of-cell-polarization-in-the-drosophila-wing-primordium
#11
Juliana C Wortman, Marcos Nahmad, Peng Cheng Zhang, Arthur D Lander, Clare C Yu
In developing tissues, cell polarization and proliferation are regulated by morphogens and signaling pathways. Cells throughout the Drosophila wing primordium typically show subcellular localization of the unconventional myosin Dachs on the distal side of cells (nearest the center of the disc). Dachs localization depends on the spatial distribution of bonds between the protocadherins Fat (Ft) and Dachsous (Ds), which form heterodimers between adjacent cells; and the Golgi kinase Four-jointed (Fj), which affects the binding affinities of Ft and Ds...
July 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659123/semi-automated-quantitative-drosophila-wings-measurements
#12
Sheng Yang Michael Loh, Yoshitaka Ogawa, Sara Kawana, Koichiro Tamura, Hwee Kuan Lee
BACKGROUND: Drosophila melanogaster is an important organism used in many fields of biological research such as genetics and developmental biology. Drosophila wings have been widely used to study the genetics of development, morphometrics and evolution. Therefore there is much interest in quantifying wing structures of Drosophila. Advancement in technology has increased the ease in which images of Drosophila can be acquired. However such studies have been limited by the slow and tedious process of acquiring phenotypic data...
June 28, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644726/cytotoxic-and-genotoxic-actions-of-casiopeina-iii-ea-cas-iii-ea-in-somatic-and-germ-cells-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#13
L M Vidal, E Pimentel, M P Cruces, S Hernández, L Ruiz-Azuara
Casiopeinas® are a group of newly synthesized drugs designed to treat cancer. These copper (Cu) complexes exhibit cytostatic, cytotoxic, genotoxic, and antineoplastic activities through different mechanisms of action. To evaluate the influence of these compounds, some in vivo studies were performed using predominantly somatic cells. The aim of the present study was to examine the cytotoxic and genotoxic actions of Casiopeina III-Ea (Cas III-Ea) in somatic as well as germ cells of Drosophila melanogaster. For cytotoxicity, the productivity and some morphometric parameters were measured and genotoxicity was assessed by means of the somatic mutation and recombination test assay in the wing...
2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642270/heritable-micro-environmental-variance-covaries-with-fitness-in-an-outbred-population-of-drosophila-serrata
#14
Jacqueline L Sztepanacz, Katrina McGuigan, Mark W Blows
The genetic basis of stochastic variation within a defined environment, and the consequences of such micro-environmental variance for fitness are poorly understood. Using a multigenerational breeding design in Drosophila serrata, we demonstrated that the micro-environmental variance in a set of morphological wing traits in a randomly mating population had significant additive genetic variance in most single wing traits. Although heritability was generally low (< 1%), coefficients of additive genetic variance were of a magnitude typical of other morphological traits, indicating that the micro-environmental variance is an evolvable trait...
June 22, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642242/specific-expression-and-function-of-the-six3-optix-in-drosophila-serially-homologous-organs
#15
Amer Al Khatib, Natalia Siomava, Antonella Iannini, Nico Posnien, Fernando Casares
Organ size and pattern results from the integration of two positional information systems. One global, encoded by the Hox genes, links organ type with position along the main body axis. Within specific organs, local information is conveyed by signaling molecules that regulate organ growth and pattern. The mesothoracic (T2) wing and the metathoracic (T3) haltere of Drosophila represent a paradigmatic example of this coordination. The Hox gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx), expressed in the developing T3, selects haltere identity by, among other processes, modulating the production and signaling efficiency of Dpp, a BMP2-like molecule that acts as a major regulator of size and pattern...
June 22, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631994/gene-expression-and-morphogenesis-during-the-deposition-of-drosophila-wing-cuticle
#16
Paul N Adler
The exoskeleton of insects and other arthropods is a very versatile material that is characterized by a complex multilayer structure. In Sobala and Adler (2016) we analyzed the process of wing cuticle deposition by RNAseq and electron microscopy. In this extra view we discuss the unique aspects of the envelope the first and most outermost layer and the gene expression program seen at the end of cuticle deposition. We discussed the role of undulae in the deposition of cuticle and how the hydrophobicity of wing cuticle arises...
February 17, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611255/a-kinome-rnai-screen-in-drosophila-identifies-novel-genes-interacting-with-lgl-apkc-and-crb-cell-polarity-genes-in-epithelial-tissues
#17
Linda M Parsons, Nicola A Grzeschik, Kasun Amaratunga, Peter Burke, Leonie M Quinn, Helena E Richardson
In both Drosophila melanogaster and mammalian systems, epithelial structure and underlying cell polarity are essential for proper tissue morphogenesis and organ growth. Cell polarity interfaces with multiple cellular processes that are regulated by the phosphorylation status of large protein networks. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms that coordinate cell polarity with tissue growth, we screened a boutique collection of RNAi stocks targeting the kinome for their capacity to modify Drosophila 'cell polarity' eye and wing phenotypes...
June 13, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578657/in-vivo-screening-reveals-interactions-between-drosophila-manf-and-genes-involved-in-the-mitochondria-and-the-ubiquinone-synthesis-pathway
#18
Riitta Lindström, Päivi Lindholm, Mari Palgi, Mart Saarma, Tapio I Heino
BACKGROUND: Mesencephalic Astrocyte-derived Neurotrophic Factor (MANF) and Cerebral Dopamine Neurotrophic Factor (CDNF) form an evolutionarily conserved family of neurotrophic factors. Orthologues for MANF/CDNF are the only neurotrophic factors as yet identified in invertebrates with conserved amino acid sequence. Previous studies indicate that mammalian MANF and CDNF support and protect brain dopaminergic system in non-cell-autonomous manner. However, MANF has also been shown to function intracellularly in the endoplasmic reticulum...
June 2, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574763/the-dark-side-of-hippo-signaling-a-cancer-promoter-role
#19
Brandon Dunn, Xianjue Ma
The Hippo signaling pathway regulates organ size and tissue homeostasis. Given this role it is unsurprising that dysregulation of this pathway has implications for cancer progression. A convincing body of literature shows that the Hippo pathway serves a tumor suppressive function with its inactivation leading to massive overgrowth. However, additional studies have also shown that activation of Hippo signaling can promote tumor progression. It remains unknown how a single pathway can produce such diametrically opposed effects...
June 2, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566535/right-time-right-place-the-temporal-regulation-of-developmental-gene-expression
#20
REVIEW
Sophia A Praggastis, Carl S Thummel
Many studies have focused on defining the critical transcription factors that specify tissue morphogenesis and differentiation. Our understanding of how these spatial regulators are deployed in the proper temporal order, however, has remained less clear. In this issue of Genes & Development, Uyehara and colleagues (pp. 862-875) provide new insights into the mechanisms by which temporal and spatial regulators are coordinated to control Drosophila wing development during metamorphosis.
May 1, 2017: Genes & Development
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