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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339978/increase-of-somatic-cell-mutations-in-oxidative-damage-sensitive-drosophila
#1
Ryota Koike, Tomoyo Uchiyama, Sakae Arimoto-Kobayashi, Keinosuke Okamoto, Tomoe Negishi
Background: Oxidative damage is an important genotoxic source for almost all organisms. To efficiently detect mutations induced by oxidative damage, we previously developed a urate-null Drosophila strain. Using this Drosophila strain, we showed the mutagenic activity of environmental cigarette smoke (ECS) and the herbicide paraquat, which are known to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, we examined the mutagenic activities of carcinogenic mutagens that are considered to cause mutations by adduct formation, alkylation, or crosslinking of cellular DNA in the oxidative damage-sensitive Drosophila to evaluate how the oxidative damage induced by these mutagens is involved in causing mutations...
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326288/drosophila-big-bang-regulates-the-apical-cytocortex-and-wing-growth-through-junctional-tension
#2
Giorgos Tsoumpekos, Linda Nemetschke, Elisabeth Knust
Growth of epithelial tissues is regulated by a plethora of components, including signaling and scaffolding proteins, but also by junctional tension, mediated by the actomyosin cytoskeleton. However, how these players are spatially organized and functionally coordinated is not well understood. Here, we identify the Drosophila melanogaster scaffolding protein Big bang as a novel regulator of growth in epithelial cells of the wing disc by ensuring proper junctional tension. Loss of big bang results in the reduction of the regulatory light chain of nonmuscle myosin, Spaghetti squash...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326287/the-apical-scaffold-big-bang-binds-to-spectrins-and-regulates-the-growth-of-drosophila-melanogaster-wing-discs
#3
Elodie Forest, Rémi Logeay, Charles Géminard, Diala Kantar, Florence Frayssinoux, Lisa Heron-Milhavet, Alexandre Djiane
During development, cell numbers are tightly regulated, ensuring that tissues and organs reach their correct size and shape. Recent evidence has highlighted the intricate connections between the cytoskeleton and the regulation of the key growth control Hippo pathway. Looking for apical scaffolds regulating tissue growth, we describe that Drosophila melanogaster big bang (Bbg), a poorly characterized multi-PDZ scaffold, controls epithelial tissue growth without affecting epithelial polarity and architecture...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324767/glass-promotes-the-differentiation-of-neuronal-and-non-neuronal-cell-types-in-the-drosophila-eye
#4
Carolyn A Morrison, Hao Chen, Tiffany Cook, Stuart Brown, Jessica E Treisman
Transcriptional regulators can specify different cell types from a pool of equivalent progenitors by activating distinct developmental programs. The Glass transcription factor is expressed in all progenitors in the developing Drosophila eye, and is maintained in both neuronal and non-neuronal cell types. Glass is required for neuronal progenitors to differentiate as photoreceptors, but its role in non-neuronal cone and pigment cells is unknown. To determine whether Glass activity is limited to neuronal lineages, we compared the effects of misexpressing it in neuroblasts of the larval brain and in epithelial cells of the wing disc...
January 11, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324742/functional-characterization-of-adaptive-variation-within-a-cis-regulatory-element-influencing-drosophila-melanogaster-growth
#5
Amanda Glaser-Schmitt, John Parsch
Gene expression variation is a major contributor to phenotypic diversity within species and is thought to play an important role in adaptation. However, examples of adaptive regulatory polymorphism are rare, especially those that have been characterized at both the molecular genetic level and the organismal level. In this study, we perform a functional analysis of the Drosophila melanogaster CG9509 enhancer, a cis-regulatory element that shows evidence of adaptive evolution in populations outside the species' ancestral range in sub-Saharan Africa...
January 11, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322640/conserved-roles-of-osiris-genes-in-insect-development-polymorphism-and-protection
#6
Chris R Smith, Claire Morandin, Moataz Noureddine, Swati Pant
Much of the variation among insects is derived from the different ways that chitin has been molded to form rigid structures, both internal and external. In this study, we identify a highly conserved expression pattern in an insect-only gene family, the Osiris genes, that is essential for development, but also plays a significant role in phenotypic plasticity and in immunity/toxicity responses. The majority of Osiris genes exist in a highly syntenic cluster, and the cluster itself appears to have arisen very early in the evolution of insects...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312571/systematic-analysis-reveals-tumor-enhancing-and-suppressing-micrornas-in-drosophila-epithelial-tumors
#7
Zhiqiang Shu, Yi-Chun Huang, William H Palmer, Yoichiro Tamori, Gengqiang Xie, Hui Wang, Nan Liu, Wu-Min Deng
Despite their emergence as an important class of noncoding RNAs involved in cancer cell transformation, invasion, and migration, the precise role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in tumorigenesis remains elusive. To gain insights into how miRNAs contribute to primary tumor formation, we conducted an RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis of Drosophila wing disc epithelial tumors induced by knockdown of a neoplastic tumor-suppressor gene (nTSG) lethal giant larvae (lgl), combined with overexpression of an active form of oncogene Ras (RasV12 ), and identified 51 mature miRNAs that changed significantly in tumorous discs...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298422/winged-eye-induces-transdetermination-of-drosophila-imaginal-disc-by-acting-in-concert-with-a-histone-methyltransferase-su-var-3-9
#8
Keita Masuko, Naoyuki Fuse, Kanae Komaba, Tomonori Katsuyama, Rumi Nakajima, Hirofumi Furuhashi, Shoichiro Kurata
Drosophila imaginal disc cells exhibit a remarkable ability to convert cell fates in response to various perturbations, a phenomenon called transdetermination (TD). We previously identified winged eye (wge) as a factor that induces eye-to-wing TD upon overexpression in eye imaginal discs, but the molecular mechanisms underlying TD have remained largely unclear. Here, we found that wge induces various histone modifications and enhances the methylation of Lys9 on histone H3 (H3K9), a feature of heterochromatin...
January 2, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274230/crispr-cas9-and-active-genetics-based-trans-species-replacement-of-the-endogenous-drosophilakni-l2-crm-reveals-unexpected-complexity
#9
Xiang-Ru Shannon Xu, Valentino Matteo Gantz, Natalia Siomava, Ethan Bier
The knirps (kni) locus encodes transcription factors required for induction of the L2 wing vein in Drosophila. Here, we employ diverse CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing tools to generate a series of targeted lesions within the endogenous cis-regulatory module (CRM) required for kni expression in the L2 vein primordium. Phenotypic analysis of these 'in locus' mutations based on both expression of Kni protein and adult wing phenotypes, reveals novel unexpected features of L2-CRM function including evidence for a chromosome pairing-dependent process that promotes transcription...
December 23, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247145/distinct-subsets-of-eve-pericardial-cells-stabilise-cardiac-outflow-and-contribute-to-hox-triggered-heart-morphogenesis-in-drosophila
#10
Monika Zmojdzian, Svetlana de Joussineau, Jean Philippe Da Ponte, Krzysztof Jagla
The Drosophila heart, composed of discrete subsets of cardioblasts and pericardial cells, undergoes Hox-triggered anterior-posterior morphogenesis, leading to a functional subdivision into heart proper and aorta, with its most anterior part forming a funnel-shaped cardiac outflow. Cardioblasts differentiate into Tin-positive 'working myocytes' and Svp-expressing ostial cells. However, developmental fates and functions of heart-associated pericardial cells remain elusive. Here we show that the pericardial cells that express transcription factor Even Skipped adopt distinct fates along the anterior-posterior axis...
December 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225171/ctbp-represses-dpp-signaling-as-a-dimer
#11
B I Cai-Li, Fei Meng, Lin Yang, Lin Cheng, Ping Wang, C H E N Meng-Meng, Ming Fang, Hao Xie
C-terminal binding protein (CtBP) is a highly conserved transcriptional co-repressor in animal development and human diseases. In Drosophila, CtBP is critical for fly development and is thought to exert its repressive roles in many signaling pathways including Dpp/BMP pathway. Here we provide evidence that although wild type CtBP negatively and dominantly influences Dpp signaling in fly presumptive wings, mutant CtBP unable to form dimer does not, indicating that dimerization is required for the repression role of CtBP in Dpp signaling in vivo...
December 7, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225023/origins-and-specification-of-the-drosophila-wing
#12
David Requena, Jose Andres Álvarez, Hugo Gabilondo, Ryan Loker, Richard S Mann, Carlos Estella
The insect wing is a key evolutionary innovation that was essential for insect diversification. Yet despite its importance, there is still debate about its evolutionary origins. Two main hypotheses have been proposed: the paranotal hypothesis, which suggests that wings evolved as an extension of the dorsal thorax, and the gill-exite hypothesis, which proposes that wings were derived from a modification of a pre-existing branch at the dorsal base (subcoxa) of the leg. Here, we address this question by studying how wing fates are initially specified during Drosophila embryogenesis, by characterizing a cis-regulatory module (CRM) from the snail (sna) gene, sna-DP (for dorsal primordia)...
November 30, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203880/evidence-for-a-novel-function-of-awd-in-maintenance-of-genomic-stability
#13
Patrizia Romani, Serena Duchi, Giuseppe Gargiulo, Valeria Cavaliere
The abnormal wing discs (awd) gene encodes the Drosophila homolog of NME1/NME2 metastasis suppressor genes. Awd acts in multiple tissues where its function is critical in establishing and maintaining epithelial integrity. Here, we analysed awd gene function in Drosophila epithelial cells using transgene-mediated RNA interference and genetic mosaic analysis. We show that awd knockdown in larval wing disc epithelium leads to chromosomal instability (CIN) and induces apoptosis mediated by activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase...
December 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196707/crumbs-moesin-and-yurt-regulate-junctional-stability-and-dynamics-for-a-proper-morphogenesis-of-the-drosophila-pupal-wing-epithelium
#14
Pauline Salis, Francois Payre, Philippe Valenti, Elsa Bazellieres, André Le Bivic, Giovanna Mottola
The Crumbs (Crb) complex is a key epithelial determinant. To understand its role in morphogenesis, we examined its function in the Drosophila pupal wing, an epithelium undergoing hexagonal packing and formation of planar-oriented hairs. Crb distribution is dynamic, being stabilized to the subapical region just before hair formation. Lack of crb or stardust, but not DPatj, affects hexagonal packing and delays hair formation, without impairing epithelial polarities but with increased fluctuations in cell junctions and perimeter length, fragmentation of adherens junctions and the actomyosin cytoskeleton...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194761/development-and-use-of-a-piggybac-based-jumpstarter-system-in-drosophila-suzukii
#15
Fu-Chyun Chu, William Klobasa, Nathaniel Grubbs, Marcé D Lorenzen
Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, is an invasive pest that primarily attacks fresh, soft-skinned fruit. Although others have reported successful integration of marked piggyBac elements into the D. suzukii genome, with a very respectable transgenesis rate of ∼16%, here we take this work a step further by creating D. suzukii jumpstarter strains. These were generated through integration of a fluorescent-marked Minos element carrying a heat shock protein 70-driven piggyBac transposase gene. We demonstrate that there is a dramatic increase in transformation rates when germline transformation is performed in a transposase-expressing background...
December 1, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189094/fijiwingspolarity-an-open-source-toolkit-for-semi-automated-detection-of-cell-polarity
#16
Leonard L Dobens, Anna Shipman, Jeffrey D Axelrod
Epithelial cells are defined by apical-basal and planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling, the latter of which establishes an orthogonal plane of polarity in the epithelial sheet. PCP signaling is required for normal cell migration, differentiation, stem cell generation and tissue repair, and defects in PCP have been associated with developmental abnormalities, neuropathologies and cancers. While the molecular mechanism of PCP is incompletely understood, the deepest insights have come from Drosophila, where PCP is manifest in hairs and bristles across the adult cuticle and organization of the ommatidia in the eye...
November 30, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180689/a-new-a-p-compartment-boundary-and-organizer-in-holometabolous-insect-wings
#17
Roohollah Abbasi, Jeffrey M Marcus
Decades of research on the highly modified wings of Drosophila melanogaster has suggested that insect wings are divided into two Anterior-Posterior (A-P) compartments separated by an axis of symmetry. This axis of symmetry is created by a developmental organizer that establishes symmetrical patterns of gene expression that in turn pattern the A-P axis of the wing. Butterflies possess more typical insect wings and butterfly wing colour patterns provide many landmarks for studies of wing structure and development...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172069/antimutagenic-action-of-the-live-yeast-can-be-transmitted-to-the-offspring-of-drosophila-melanogaster-a-genetic-study-using-the-wing-spot-assay
#18
Emilio Pimentel, Martha P Cruces
The present study evaluates whether the protective effect of live yeast (LY) against direct and indirect mutagenic agents, persists in the offspring from individuals fed with LY. The wing-spot test in Drosophila was used; four different mates were performed: a) neither females nor males were fed with LY-enriched food (NLYxNLY); b) only females were fed (LYxNLY); c) males were fed (NLYxLY) or d) both progenitors were fed (LYxLY). Results confirm that LY strongly stimulates fecundity in females but not in males and provides strength to the egg for survive...
November 20, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167281/polytene-chromosome-structure-and-somatic-genome-instability
#19
Allan C Spradling
Polytene chromosomes have for 80 years provided the highest resolution view of interphase genome structure in an animal cell nucleus. These chromosomes represent the normal genomic state of nearly all Drosophila larval and many adult cells, and a better understanding of their striking banded structure has been sought for decades. A more recently appreciated characteristic of Drosophila polytene cells is somatic genome instability caused by unfinished replication (UR). Repair of stalled forks generates enough deletions in polytene salivary gland cells to alter 10%-90% of the DNA strands within more than 100 UR regions comprising 20% of the euchromatic genome...
November 22, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166655/how-well-do-you-know-your-mutation-complex-effects-of-genetic-background-on-expressivity-complementation-and-ordering-of-allelic-effects
#20
Christopher H Chandler, Sudarshan Chari, Alycia Kowalski, Lin Choi, David Tack, Michael DeNieu, William Pitchers, Anne Sonnenschein, Leslie Marvin, Kristen Hummel, Christian Marier, Andrew Victory, Cody Porter, Anna Mammel, Julie Holms, Gayatri Sivaratnam, Ian Dworkin
For a given gene, different mutations influence organismal phenotypes to varying degrees. However, the expressivity of these variants not only depends on the DNA lesion associated with the mutation, but also on factors including the genetic background and rearing environment. The degree to which these factors influence related alleles, genes, or pathways similarly, and whether similar developmental mechanisms underlie variation in the expressivity of a single allele across conditions and among alleles is poorly understood...
November 2017: PLoS Genetics
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