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Guillem Ylla, Maria-Dolors Piulachs, Xavier Belles
BACKGROUND: Do miRNAs contribute to specify the germ-band type and the body structure in the insect embryo? Our goal was to address that issue by studying the changes in miRNA expression along the ontogeny of the German cockroach Blattella germanica, which is a short germ-band and hemimetabolan species. RESULTS: We sequenced small RNA libraries representing 11 developmental stages of B. germanica ontogeny (with especial emphasis on embryogenesis) and the changes in miRNA expression were examined...
October 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
Xiaonan Fu, George Dimopoulos, Jinsong Zhu
Drastic changes in gene expression occur after adult female mosquitoes take a blood meal and use the nutrients for egg maturation. A growing body of evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to this tightly controlled tissue- and stage-specific gene expression. To investigate the role of miRNAs, we monitored miRNA expression in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae during the 72-h period immediately after blood feeding. We also measured the association of miRNAs with Argonaute 1 (Ago1) and Argonaute 2 (Ago2) to assess the functional status of individual miRNA species...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
Hua Luo, Xiao Li, Julie M Claycomb, Howard D Lipshitz
Metazoan embryos undergo a maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) during which maternal gene products are eliminated and the zygotic genome becomes transcriptionally active. During this process RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and the microRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC) target maternal mRNAs for degradation. In Drosophila, the Smaug (SMG), Brain tumor (BRAT) and Pumilio (PUM) RBPs bind to and direct the degradation of largely distinct subsets of maternal mRNAs. SMG has also been shown to be required for zygotic synthesis of mRNAs and several members of the miR-309 family of microRNAs (miRNAs) during the MZT...
September 2, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Yang Zhang, Bo Zhao, Sourav Roy, Tusar T Saha, Vladimir A Kokoza, Ming Li, Alexander S Raikhel
Obligatory blood-triggered reproductive strategy is an evolutionary adaptation of mosquitoes for rapid egg development. It contributes to the vectorial capacity of these insects. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying reproductive processes is of particular importance. Here, we report that microRNA-309 (miR-309) plays a critical role in mosquito reproduction. A spatiotemporal expression profile of miR-309 displayed its blood feeding-dependent onset and ovary-specific manifestation in female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes...
August 16, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Maria Ninova, Matthew Ronshaugen, Sam Griffiths-Jones
MicroRNAs are short non-protein-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and are essential for the embryonic development of multicellular animals. Comparative genome-scale analyses have revealed that metazoan evolution is accompanied by the continuous acquisition of novel microRNA genes. This suggests that novel microRNAs may promote innovation and diversity in development. We determined the evolutionary origins of extant Drosophila microRNAs and estimated the sequence divergence between the 130 orthologous microRNAs in Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila virilis, separated by 63 million years of evolution...
March 2014: RNA
Jenn-Yah Yu, Steven H Reynolds, Steve D Hatfield, Halyna R Shcherbata, Karin A Fischer, Ellen J Ward, Dang Long, Ye Ding, Hannele Ruohola-Baker
It is important to understand the regulation of stem cell division because defects in this process can cause altered tissue homeostasis or cancer. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Dacapo (Dap), a p21/p27 homolog, acts downstream of the microRNA (miRNA) pathway to regulate the cell cycle in Drosophila melanogaster germline stem cells (GSCs). Tissue-extrinsic signals, including insulin, also regulate cell division of GSCs. We report that intrinsic and extrinsic regulators intersect in GSC division control; the Insulin receptor (InR) pathway regulates Dap levels through miRNAs, thereby controlling GSC division...
May 2009: Development
Frédéric Biemar, Robert Zinzen, Matthew Ronshaugen, Victor Sementchenko, J Robert Manak, Michael S Levine
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate posttranscriptional gene activity by binding to specific sequences in the 3' UTRs of target mRNAs. A number of metazoan miRNAs have been shown to exhibit tissue-specific patterns of expression. Here, we investigate the possibility that localized expression is mediated by tissue-specific enhancers, comparable to those seen for protein-coding genes. Two miRNA loci in Drosophila melanogaster are investigated, the mir-309-6 polycistron (8-miR) and the mir-1 gene. The 8-miR locus contains a cluster of eight distinct miRNAs that are transcribed in a common precursor RNA...
November 1, 2005: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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