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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029078/prebiotic-potential-of-pectin-and-pectic-oligosaccharides-to-promote-anti-inflammatory-commensal-bacteria-in-the-human-colon
#1
Wing Sun Faith Chung, Marjolein Meijerink, Birgitte Zeuner, Jesper Holck, Petra Louis, Anne Meyer, Jerry M Wells, Harry J Flint, Sylvia H Duncan
Dietary plant cell wall carbohydrates are important in modulating the composition and metabolism of the complex gut microbiota, which can impact on health. Pectin is a major component of plant cell walls. Based on studies in model systems and available bacterial isolates and genomes, the capacity to utilize pectins for growth is widespread among colonic Bacteroidetes but relatively uncommon among Firmicutes. One Firmicutes species promoted by pectin is Eubacterium eligens. E. eligens DSM3376 utilizes apple pectin and encodes a broad repertoire of pectinolytic enzymes, including a highly abundant pectate lyase of around 200 kDa that is expressed constitutively...
October 3, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028797/stat-wingless-and-nurf-38-determine-the-accuracy-of-regeneration-after-radiation-damage-in-drosophila
#2
Shilpi Verghese, Tin Tin Su
We report here a study of regeneration in Drosophila larval wing imaginal discs after damage by ionizing radiation. We detected faithful regeneration that restored a wing disc and abnormal regeneration that produced an extra wing disc. We describe a sequence of changes in cell number, location and fate that occur to produce an ectopic disc. We identified a group of cells that not only participate in ectopic disc formation but also recruit others to do so. STAT92E (Drosophila STAT3/5) and Nurf-38, which encodes a member of the Nucleosome Remodeling Factor complex, oppose each other in these cells to modulate the frequency of ectopic disc growth...
October 13, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028179/reconstructing-one-articulated-networks-with-distance-matrices
#3
Kuang-Yu Chang, Yun Cui, Siu-Ming Yiu, Wing-Kai Hon
Given a distance matrix M that represents evolutionary distances between any two species, an edge-weighted phylogenetic network N is said to satisfy M if between any pair of species, there exists a path in N with a length equal to the corresponding entry in M. In this article, we consider a special class of networks called a one-articulated network, which is a proper superset of galled trees. We show that if the distance matrix M is derived from an ultrametric one-articulated network N (i.e., for any species X and Y, the entry [Formula: see text] is equal to the shortest distance between X and Y in N), we can re-construct a network that satisfies M in [Formula: see text] time, where n denotes the number of species; further, the reconstructed network is guaranteed to be the simplest, in a sense that the number of hybrid nodes is minimized...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Computational Biology: a Journal of Computational Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027795/photochromic-heterocycle-fused-thieno-3-2-b-phosphole-oxides-as-visible-light-switches-without-sacrificing-photoswitching-efficiency
#4
Nathan Man-Wai Wu, Maggie Ng, Wai Han Lam, Hok-Lai Wong, Vivian Wing-Wah Yam
A series of novel photochromic thieno[3,2-b]phosphole oxides has been shown to demonstrate photochromism without the need for the use of high-energy ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation while maintaining promising photochromic properties such as excellent thermal irreversibility, robust fatigue resistance, and high photoswitching efficiency. Promising visible light-induced photochromic properties have been realized by the new molecular design, in which various π systems have been incorporated into the weakly aromatic phosphole backbone instead of the conventional modification of the peripheral diaryl units that usually leads to a drastic reduction of the photochromic quantum yields (ϕO→C and ϕC→O < 0...
October 13, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027521/wing-and-body-kinematics-measurement-and-force-analyses-of-landing-in-fruit-flies
#5
Chong Shen, Mao Sun
In this paper, we analyzed the body and wing kinematics and mechanics in fruit flies' landings on a vertical pole. By high-speed video techniques and CFD method, we exhibited the detailed process of landing as follows. A fruit fly first decelerates and enters a near-hover state approximately 25 mm away from the vertical pole, then starts approaching the pole in acceleration till one of its front-legs touches the pole (touchdown). Just before touchdown, the fly's acceleration is around 6 ms<sup>-2</sup>; at touchdown, it experiences an almost instant deceleration of several g (gravitational acceleration), approximately all of which results from the leg force...
October 13, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025747/uncoupling-protein-2-inhibits-myointimal-hyperplasia-in-preclinical-animal-models-of-vascular-injury
#6
Yan Zhang, Yaolei Zhang, Wei Li, Peijian Wang, Rui Gu, Yaxing Feng, Shujie Wei, Ke Peng, Yunrong Zhang, Linan Su, Qiang Wang, De Li, Dachun Yang, Wing Tak Wong, Yongjian Yang, Shuangtao Ma
BACKGROUND: Intracoronary stent restenosis, characterized by excessive smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation and myointimal hyperplasia, remains a clinical challenge. Mitochondrial membrane potential has been linked to the proliferative rate of SMCs. This study aimed to screen a critical gene regulating mitochondrial potential and to confirm its effects on myointimal formation in preclinical animal models. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed transcriptome screening for genes differentially expressed in ligated versus unligated mouse carotid arteries...
October 12, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025016/cohort-profile-nichd-fetal-growth-studies-singletons-and-twins
#7
Jagteshwar Grewal, Katherine L Grantz, Cuilin Zhang, Anthony Sciscione, Deborah A Wing, William A Grobman, Roger B Newman, Ronald Wapner, Mary E D'Alton, Daniel Skupski, Michael P Nageotte, Angela C Ranzini, John Owen, Edward K Chien, Sabrina Craigo, Paul S Albert, Sungduk Kim, Mary L Hediger, Germaine M Buck Louis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 8, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024848/incorporation-of-surface-plasmon-resonance-with-novel-valinomycin-doped-chitosan-graphene-oxide-thin-film-for-sensing-potassium-ion
#8
Afiq Azri Zainudin, Yap Wing Fen, Nor Azah Yusof, Sura Hmoud Al-Rekabi, Mohd Adzir Mahdi, Nur Alia Sheh Omar
In this study, the combination of novel valinomycin doped chitosan-graphene oxide (C-GO-V) thin film and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) system for potassium ion (K(+)) detection has been developed. The novel C-GO-V thin film was deposited on the gold surface using spin coating technique. The system was used to monitor SPR signal for K(+) in solution with and without C-GO-V thin film. The K(+) can be detected by measuring the SPR signal when C-GO-V thin film is exposed to K(+) in solution. The sensor produces a linear response for K(+) ion up to 100ppm with sensitivity and detection limit of 0...
October 5, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024526/construction-of-discrete-pentanuclear-platinum-ii-stacks-with-extended-metal-metal-interactions-by-using-phosphorescent-platinum-ii-tweezers
#9
Fred Ka-Wai Kong, Alan Kwun-Wa Chan, Maggie Ng, Kam-Hung Low, Vivian Wing-Wah Yam
Discrete pentanuclear Pt(II) stacks were prepared by the host-guest adduct formation between multinuclear tweezer-type Pt(II) complexes. The formation of the Pt(II) stacks in solution was accompanied by color changes and the turning on of near-infrared emission resulting from Pt⋅⋅⋅Pt and π-π interactions. The X-ray crystal structure revealed the formation of a discrete 1:1 adduct, in which a linear stack of five Pt(II) centers with extended Pt⋅⋅⋅Pt interactions was observed. Additional binding affinity and stability have been achieved through a multinuclear host-guest system...
October 11, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023707/guidelines-for-the-use-of-flow-cytometry-and-cell-sorting-in-immunological-studies
#10
Andrea Cossarizza, Hyun-Dong Chang, Andreas Radbruch, Immanuel Andrä, Francesco Annunziato, Petra Bacher, Vincenzo Barnaba, Luca Battistini, Wolfgang M Bauer, Sabine Baumgart, Burkhard Becher, Wolfgang Beisker, Claudia Berek, Alfonso Blanco, Giovanna Borsellino, Philip E Boulais, Ryan R Brinkman, Martin Büscher, Dirk H Busch, Timothy P Bushnell, Xuetao Cao, Andrea Cavani, Pratip K Chattopadhyay, Qingyu Cheng, Sue Chow, Mario Clerici, Anne Cooke, Antonio Cosma, Lorenzo Cosmi, Ana Cumano, Van Duc Dang, Derek Davies, Sara De Biasi, Genny Del Zotto, Silvia Della Bella, Paolo Dellabona, Günnur Deniz, Mark Dessing, Andreas Diefenbach, James Di Santo, Francesco Dieli, Andreas Dolf, Vera S Donnenberg, Thomas Dörner, Götz R A Ehrhardt, Elmar Endl, Pablo Engel, Britta Engelhardt, Charlotte Esser, Bart Everts, Christine S Falk, Todd A Fehniger, Andrew Filby, Simon Fillatreau, Marie Follo, Irmgard Förster, John Foster, Gemma A Foulds, Paul S Frenette, David Galbraith, Natalio Garbi, Maria Dolores García-Godoy, Kamran Ghoreschi, Lara Gibellini, Christoph Goettlinger, Carl S Goodyear, Andrea Gori, Jane Grogan, Mor Gross, Andreas Grützkau, Daryl Grummitt, Jonas Hahn, Quirin Hammer, Anja E Hauser, David L Haviland, David Hedley, Guadalupe Herrera, Martin Herrmann, Falk Hiepe, Tristan Holland, Pleun Hombrink, Jessica P Houston, Bimba F Hoyer, Bo Huang, Christopher A Hunter, Anna Iannone, Hans-Martin Jäck, Beatriz Jávega, Stipan Jonjic, Kerstin Juelke, Steffen Jung, Toralf Kaiser, Tomas Kalina, Baerbel Keller, Srijit Khan, Deborah Kienhöfer, Thomas Kroneis, Désirée Kunkel, Christian Kurts, Pia Kvistborg, Joanne Lannigan, Olivier Lantz, Anis Larbi, Salome LeibundGut-Landmann, Michael D Leipold, Megan K Levings, Virginia Litwin, Yanling Liu, Michael Lohoff, Giovanna Lombardi, Lilly Lopez, Amy Lovett-Racke, Erik Lubberts, Burkhard Ludewig, Enrico Lugli, Holden T Maecker, Glòria Martrus, Giuseppe Matarese, Christian Maueröder, Mairi McGrath, Iain McInnes, Henrik E Mei, Fritz Melchers, Susanne Melzer, Dirk Mielenz, Kingston Mills, Jenny Mjösberg, Jonni Moore, Barry Moran, Alessandro Moretta, Lorenzo Moretta, Tim R Mosmann, Susann Müller, Werner Müller, Christian Münz, Gabriele Multhoff, Luis Enrique Munoz, Kenneth M Murphy, Toshinori Nakayama, Milena Nasi, Christine Neudörfl, John Nolan, Sussan Nourshargh, José-Enrique O'Connor, Wenjun Ouyang, Annette Oxenius, Raghav Palankar, Isabel Panse, Pärt Peterson, Christian Peth, Jordi Petriz, Daisy Philips, Winfried Pickl, Silvia Piconese, Marcello Pinti, A Graham Pockley, Malgorzata Justyna Podolska, Carlo Pucillo, Sally A Quataert, Timothy R D J Radstake, Bartek Rajwa, Jonathan A Rebhahn, Diether Recktenwald, Ester B M Remmerswaal, Katy Rezvani, Laura G Rico, J Paul Robinson, Chiara Romagnani, Anna Rubartelli, Jürgen Ruland, Shimon Sakaguchi, Francisco Sala-de-Oyanguren, Yvonne Samstag, Sharon Sanderson, Birgit Sawitzki, Alexander Scheffold, Matthias Schiemann, Frank Schildberg, Esther Schimisky, Stephan A Schmid, Steffen Schmitt, Kilian Schober, Thomas Schüler, Axel Ronald Schulz, Ton Schumacher, Cristiano Scotta, T Vincent Shankey, Anat Shemer, Anna-Katharina Simon, Josef Spidlen, Alan M Stall, Regina Stark, Christina Stehle, Merle Stein, Tobit Steinmetz, Hannes Stockinger, Yousuke Takahama, Attila Tarnok, ZhiGang Tian, Gergely Toldi, Julia Tornack, Elisabetta Traggiai, Joe Trotter, Henning Ulrich, Marlous van der Braber, René A W van Lier, Marcello Veldhoen, Salvador Vento-Asturias, Paulo Vieira, David Voehringer, Hans-Dieter Volk, Konrad von Volkmann, Ari Waisman, Rachael Walker, Michael D Ward, Klaus Warnatz, Sarah Warth, James V Watson, Carsten Watzl, Leonie Wegener, Annika Wiedemann, Jürgen Wienands, Gerald Willimsky, James Wing, Peter Wurst, Liping Yu, Alice Yue, Qianjun Zhang, Yi Zhao, Susanne Ziegler, Jakob Zimmermann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022791/x-bolt-unforeseen-placement-complication-case-report
#11
A D Clarke, Jbt Herron, J L McVie
With the introduction of the World Hip Trauma Evaluation Four clinical trial, fixation of pertrochanteric neck of femur fractures is becoming a hot topic. In this trial, the novel X-Bolt expanding bolt implant is being compared with the current gold standard of a sliding hip screw. We present a previously undescribed complication when inserting the bolt into the femoral head, where the expandable wings penetrate the femoral neck due to misplacement of the bone crusher or the X-Bolt prosthesis. This unforeseen complication required the introduction of several additional corrective intraoperative steps...
September 15, 2017: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021918/protection-of-calves-by-a-prefusion-stabilized-bovine-rsv-f-vaccine
#12
Baoshan Zhang, Lei Chen, Chiara Silacci, Michelle Thom, Jeffrey C Boyington, Aliaksandr Druz, M Gordon Joyce, Efrain Guzman, Wing-Pui Kong, Yen-Ting Lai, Guillaume B E Stewart-Jones, Yaroslav Tsybovsky, Yongping Yang, Tongqing Zhou, Ulrich Baxa, John R Mascola, Davide Corti, Antonio Lanzavecchia, Geraldine Taylor, Peter D Kwong
Bovine respiratory syncytial virus, a major cause of respiratory disease in calves, is closely related to human RSV, a leading cause of respiratory disease in infants. Recently, promising human RSV-vaccine candidates have been engineered that stabilize the metastable fusion (F) glycoprotein in its prefusion state; however, the absence of a relevant animal model for human RSV has complicated assessment of these vaccine candidates. Here, we use a combination of structure-based design, antigenic characterization, and X-ray crystallography to translate human RSV F stabilization into the bovine context...
March 8, 2017: NPJ Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021549/protease-resistance-of-porcine-acidic-mammalian-chitinase-under-gastrointestinal-conditions-implies-that-chitin-containing-organisms-can-be-sustainable-dietary-resources
#13
Eri Tabata, Akinori Kashimura, Satoshi Wakita, Misa Ohno, Masayoshi Sakaguchi, Yasusato Sugahara, Yasutada Imamura, Shiro Seki, Hitoshi Ueda, Vaclav Matoska, Peter O Bauer, Fumitaka Oyama
Chitin, a polymer of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc), is a major structural component in chitin-containing organism including crustaceans, insects and fungi. Mammals express two chitinases, chitotriosidase (Chit1) and acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase). Here, we report that pig AMCase is stable in the presence of other digestive proteases and functions as chitinolytic enzyme under the gastrointestinal conditions. Quantification of chitinases expression in pig tissues using quantitative real-time PCR showed that Chit1 mRNA was highly expressed in eyes, whereas the AMCase mRNA was predominantly expressed in stomach at even higher levels than the housekeeping genes...
October 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020872/paediatric-tuberculous-osteomyelitis-of-the-thumb-metacarpal-bone
#14
Nawal El Houmami, Pierre-Edouard Fournier, Wing-Yuk Ip
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery, European Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020740/positive-and-relaxed-selection-associated-with-flight-evolution-and-loss-in-insect-transcriptomes
#15
T Fatima Mitterboeck, Shanlin Liu, Sarah J Adamowicz, Jinzhong Fu, Rui Zhang, Wenhui Song, Karen Meusemann, Xin Zhou
The evolution of powered flight is a major innovation that has facilitated the success of insects. Previously, studies of birds, bats, and insects have detected molecular signatures of differing selection regimes in energy-related genes associated with flight evolution and/or loss. Here, using DNA sequences from more than 1000 nuclear and mitochondrial protein-coding genes obtained from insect transcriptomes, we conduct a broader exploration of which gene categories display positive and relaxed selection at the origin of flight as well as with multiple independent losses of flight...
October 1, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020077/flight-aerodynamics-in-enantiornithines-information-from-a-new-chinese-early-cretaceous-bird
#16
Di Liu, Luis M Chiappe, Francisco Serrano, Michael Habib, Yuguang Zhang, Qinjing Meng
We describe an exquisitely preserved new avian fossil (BMNHC-PH-919) from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of eastern Inner Mongolia, China. Although morphologically similar to Cathayornithidae and other small-sized enantiornithines from China's Jehol Biota, many morphological features indicate that it represents a new species, here named Junornis houi. The new fossil displays most of its plumage including a pair of elongated, rachis-dominated tail feathers similarly present in a variety of other enantiornithines...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019957/application-of-multilayer-perceptron-with-automatic-relevance-determination-on-weed-mapping-using-uav-multispectral-imagery
#17
Afroditi A Tamouridou, Thomas K Alexandridis, Xanthoula E Pantazi, Anastasia L Lagopodi, Javid Kashefi, Dimitris Kasampalis, Georgios Kontouris, Dimitrios Moshou
Remote sensing techniques are routinely used in plant species discrimination and of weed mapping. In the presented work, successful Silybum marianum detection and mapping using multilayer neural networks is demonstrated. A multispectral camera (green-red-near infrared) attached on a fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was utilized for the acquisition of high-resolution images (0.1 m resolution). The Multilayer Perceptron with Automatic Relevance Determination (MLP-ARD) was used to identify the S. marianum among other vegetation, mostly Avena sterilis L...
October 11, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019939/creating-affording-situations-coaching-through-animate-objects
#18
Chris Baber, Ahmad Khattab, Martin Russell, Joachim Hermsdörfer, Alan Wing
We explore the ways in which animate objects can be used to cue actions as part of coaching in Activities of Daily Living (ADL). In this case, changing the appearance or behavior of a physical object is intended to cue actions which are appropriate for a given context. The context is defined by the intention of the users, the state of the objects and the tasks for which these objects can be used. We present initial design prototypes and simple user trials which explore the impact of different cues on activity...
October 11, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019756/imaging-of-skeletal-disorders-caused-by-fibroblast-growth-factor-receptor-gene-mutations
#19
Kiran M Sargar, Achint K Singh, Simon C Kao
Fibroblast growth factors and fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) play important roles in human axial and craniofacial skeletal development. FGFR1, FGFR2, and FGFR3 are crucial for both chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. Mutations in the genes encoding FGFRs, types 1-3, are responsible for various skeletal dysplasias and craniosynostosis syndromes. Many of these disorders are relatively common in the pediatric population, and diagnosis is often challenging. These skeletal disorders can be classified based on which FGFR is affected...
October 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018904/kyphosis-and-incident-falls-among-community-dwelling-older-adults
#20
C McDaniels-Davidson, A Davis, D Wing, C Macera, S P Lindsay, J T Schousboe, J F Nichols, D M Kado
Hyperkyphosis commonly affects older persons and is associated with morbidity and mortality. Many have hypothesized that hyperkyphosis increases fall risk. Within this prospective study of older adults, kyphosis was significantly associated with incident falls over 1 year. Measures of hyperkyphosis could enhance falls risk assessments during primary care office visits. INTRODUCTION: To determine the association between four measures of kyphosis and incident and injurious falls in older persons...
October 10, 2017: Osteoporosis International
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