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Marcia J Cooper, Leanne Mezzabotta, Joseph Murphy
PURPOSE: The objective of the current study was to examine food and culinary skills and knowledge of dietetic students. METHODS: An online bilingual survey was created using Survey Monkey(TM) to explore the skills, knowledge, and perceptions of undergraduate dietetic students regarding food and cooking. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were used to compare skills and knowledge of food and culinary concepts. RESULTS: The final sample included second- (n = 22) and third-year (n = 22) students within the Baccalauréat specialisé en sciences de la nutrition program at the University of Ottawa...
October 25, 2016: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
Jasmeet Singh, Imran Sheikh, Prachi Sharma, Satish Kumar, Shailender Kumar Verma, Rahul Kumar, Priyanka Mathpal, Sundip Kumar, Pritesh Vyas, H S Dhaliwal
High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMWGS) are responsible for dough elasticity and bread making quality of bread wheat. Related wild non-progenitor species, Aegilops kotschyi possesses higher molecular weight x and y glutenin subunits than the bread wheat cultivars. A wheat-Aegilops substitution line with 1U chromosome was used for the transfer of (HMWGS) of 1U to wheat by using pollen radiation hybridization approach. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis profiling showed different patterns of allelic variations with either the presence or absence of HMWGS, Glu-1A (1, null), Glu-1B (7, 7 + 8, 17 + 18) and Glu-1D (5 + 10, 2 + 12, null)...
September 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Natalia Sanchez-Aguadero, Luis Garcia-Ortiz, Maria C Patino-Alonso, Sara Mora-Simon, Manuel A Gomez-Marcos, Rosario Alonso-Dominguez, Benigna Sanchez-Salgado, Jose I Recio-Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: Postprandial glycaemic response affects cognitive and vascular function. The acute effect of breakfast glycaemic index on vascular parameters is not sufficiently known. Also, the influence of breakfasts with different glycaemic index on cognitive performance has been mostly studied in children and adolescents with varying results. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyse the postprandial effect of high and low glycaemic index breakfasts on vascular function and cognitive performance and their relationship with postprandial glycaemic response in healthy young adults...
October 24, 2016: Trials
Emily Morgan, Roger Levy
We ask whether word order preferences for binomial expressions of the form A and B (e.g. bread and butter) are driven by abstract linguistic knowledge of ordering constraints referencing the semantic, phonological, and lexical properties of the constituent words, or by prior direct experience with the specific items in questions. Using forced-choice and self-paced reading tasks, we demonstrate that online processing of never-before-seen binomials is influenced by abstract knowledge of ordering constraints, which we estimate with a probabilistic model...
October 21, 2016: Cognition
Elham Aslankoohi, Beatriz Herrera-Malaver, Mohammad Naser Rezaei, Jan Steensels, Christophe M Courtin, Kevin J Verstrepen
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is routinely used yeast in food fermentations because it combines several key traits, including fermentation efficiency and production of desirable flavors. However, the dominance of S. cerevisiae in industrial fermentations limits the diversity in the aroma profiles of the end products. Hence, there is a growing interest in non-conventional yeast strains that can help generate the diversity and complexity desired in today's diversified and consumer-driven markets. Here, we selected a set of non-conventional yeast strains to examine their potential for bread fermentation...
2016: PloS One
Owen Duncan, Josua Trösch, Ricarda Fenske, Nicolas L Taylor, A Harvey Millar
Yield and quality improvement of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is a focus in efforts to meet new demands from population growth and changing human diets. As the complexity of the wheat genome is unravelled, determining how it is used to build the protein machinery of wheat plants is a key next step in explaining detailed aspects of wheat growth and development. The specific functions of wheat organs during vegetative development and the role of metabolism, protein degradation and remobilisation in driving grain production are the foundations of crop performance and have recently become accessible through studies of the wheat proteome...
October 24, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Andrew N Reynolds, Ashley Duncan, Devonia Kruimer, Bernard J Venn
BACKGROUND: The level of glycated albumin in circulation is an indicator of blood glucose control over the preceding 2 weeks. It is not known if the level of glycated albumin in circulation relates to an individual's postprandial blood glucose response. METHODS: Eighty-four euglycemic young adults (21.1 [3.9] years, BMI 23.9 [4.0] kg/m(2) ) primarily of European descent underwent a fasted meal test of 50 g carbohydrate from white bread. Capillary blood was then sampled at regular intervals over 2 hours...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
Ryoko Tajima, Takeshi Kimura, Ayaka Enomoto, Kaede Yanoshita, Aki Saito, Satomi Kobayashi, Katsunori Masuda, Kaoruko Iida
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Prevention of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) through lifestyle modification is an important public health issue. Carbohydrate intake from soft drinks has received particular interest. Owing to differences in dietary habits, however, major contributors to the intake of dietary carbohydrates, such as rice, bread, and noodles, might have more influence on NAFLD prevalence in East Asian countries than consumption of soft drinks. We examined the relationship of the intake of rice, bread, and noodles, as well as overall carbohydrate intake, with NAFLD prevalence in middle-aged Japanese...
October 8, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Jingzhong Xie, Naxin Huo, Shenghui Zhou, Yi Wang, Guanghao Guo, Karin R Deal, Shuhong Ouyang, Yong Liang, Zhenzhong Wang, Lichan Xiao, Tingting Zhu, Tiezhu Hu, Vijay Tiwari, Jianwei Zhang, Hongxia Li, Zhongfu Ni, Yingyin Yao, Huiru Peng, Shengli Zhang, Olin D Anderson, Patrick E McGuire, Jan Dvorak, Ming-Cheng Luo, Zhiyong Liu, Yong Q Gu, Qixin Sun
Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, AABBDD) is an allohexaploid species derived from two rounds of interspecific hybridizations. A high-quality genome sequence assembly of diploid Aegilops tauschii, the donor of the wheat D genome, will provide a useful platform to study polyploid wheat evolution. A combined approach of BAC pooling and next-generation sequencing technology was employed to sequence the minimum tiling path (MTP) of 3176 BAC clones from the short arm of Ae. tauschii chromosome 3 (At3DS). The final assembly of 135 super-scaffolds with an N50 of 4...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
Laura Acevedo-Pacheco, Sergio O Serna-Saldívar
BACKGROUND: One way to diminish protein malnutrition in children is by enriching cereal-based flours for the manufacturing of maize tortillas, wheat flour tortillas, and yeast-leavened breads, which are widely consumed among low socio-economic groups. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine and compare the essential amino acid (EAA) scores, protein digestibility corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS), and in vivo protein quality (protein digestibility, protein efficiency ratio (PER), biological values (BV), and net protein utilization (NPU) values) of regular versus soybean-fortified maize tortillas, yeast-leavened bread, and wheat flour tortillas...
2016: Food & Nutrition Research
F Borrisser-Pairó, N Panella-Riera, M Gil, Z Kallas, M B Linares, M Egea, M D Garrido, M A Oliver
Boar taint is an unpleasant odour and flavour present in some entire male pigs that is due to the presence of androstenone and skatole. The aim of the study was to assess the sensitivity of 150 consumers to androstenone and to compare the acceptability and liking of meat from castrated and entire pigs, cooked with different cooking methods. Meat samples consisted of loins from castrated (CM) and entire male pigs (EM) with high levels of androstenone cooked by two cooking methods: sous-vide and fried/breaded with garlic and parsley...
October 13, 2016: Meat Science
Cameron S Gordon, Nandhakishore Rajagopalan, Eddy P Risseeuw, Marci Surpin, Fraser J Ball, Carla J Barber, Leann M Buhrow, Shawn M Clark, Jonathan E Page, Chris D Todd, Suzanne R Abrams, Michele C Loewen
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a well-characterized plant hormone, known to mediate developmental aspects as well as both abiotic and biotic stress responses. Notably, the exogenous application of ABA has recently been shown to increase susceptibility to the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum, the causative agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat and other cereals. However roles and mechanisms associated with ABA's modulation of pathogen responses remain enigmatic. Here the identification of putative ABA receptors from available genomic databases for Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) and Brachypodium distachyon (a model cereal) are reported...
2016: PloS One
Monika Garg, Hisashi Tsujimoto, Raj Kumar Gupta, Aman Kumar, Navneet Kaur, Rohit Kumar, Venkatesh Chunduri, Nand Kishor Sharma, Meenakshi Chawla, Saloni Sharma, Jaspreet Kaur Mundey
Wheat cultivars with wide introgression have strongly impacted global wheat production. Aegilops geniculata (MgUg) is an important wild relative with several useful traits that can be exploited for wheat improvement. Screening of Ae. geniculata addition lines indicated a negative effect of 1Ug and the positive effect of 1Mg chromosome on wheat dough strength. Negative effect of 1Ug is probably associated with variation in number and position of the tripeptide repeat motif in the high molecular weight glutenin (HMW-G) gene...
2016: PloS One
Karen Bell
Gender continues to be a relatively marginal issue in environmental justice debates and yet it remains an important aspect of injustice. To help redress the balance, this article explores women's experience of environmental justice through a review of the existing literature and the author's prior qualitative research, as well as her experience of environmental activism. The analysis confirms that women tend to experience inequitable environmental burdens (distributional injustice); and are less likely than men to have control over environmental decisions (procedural injustice), both of which impact on their health (substantive injustice)...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Yongsoon Park
A healthy lifestyle is important in CVD prevention and treatment through effects on modifiable CVD risk factors, particularly blood pressure. Although the major drawback is the low level of adherence over time, appropriate lifestyle changes may safely and effectively prevent and treat hypertension. The recommended dietary approaches that have been shown to be capable of reducing blood pressure are: salt restriction, moderation of alcohol consumption, high consumption of vegetables and fruits and low-fat and other types of diet, and weight reduction...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Giuseppe Crippa, Dorjan Zabzuni, Elena Bravi, Filippo Rossi
OBJECTIVE: Present data refers to a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study in which 30 mild-moderate hypertensive patients, received a dietary integration with Grana Padano DOP cheese to evaluate blood pressure (BP) changes.Cow-milk fermentation induced by Lactobacillus helveticus produces peptides with sustained ACE inhibitory activity, mainly dues to 2 tripeptides (valyl-prolyl-proline and isoleucil-prolyl-proline) that have shown to lower blood pressure (BP) in experimental animals and in humans...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Canan Ziylan, Annemien Haveman-Nies, Stefanie Kremer, Lisette C P G M de Groot
OBJECTIVES: Sufficient protein intake can decrease undernutrition risk among community-dwelling older adults. This study aimed to increase community-dwelling older adults' daily protein intake with acceptable and applicable protein-enriched bread and readymade meals at home. DESIGN: Double-blind randomized controlled trial of 2 weeks. SETTING: Senior residential center in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-two community-dwelling elderly residents (≥65 years) participated, with a mean age of 74...
October 14, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
L C Emebiri, M-K Tan, M El-Bouhssini, O Wildman, A Jighly, W Tadesse, F C Ogbonnaya
This research provides the first report of a major locus controlling wheat resistance to Sunn pest. It developed and validated SNP markers that will be useful for marker-assisted selection. Sunn pest (Eurygaster integriceps Puton) is the most destructive insect pest of bread wheat and durum wheat in West and Central Asia and East Europe. Breeding for resistance at the vegetative stage of growth is vital in reducing the damage caused by overwintered adult populations that feed on shoot and leaves of seedlings, and in reducing the next generation of pest populations (nymphs and adults), which can cause damage to grain quality by feeding on spikes...
October 15, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Justyna W Wuenstel, Lidia Wądołowska, Małgorzata A Słowinska, Ewa Niedźwiedzka, Joanna Kowalkowska, Lidia Kurp
AIM: The aim of this observational study was to investigate the intake of dietary fibre and its sources among Polish adolescents according to prevalence of overweight after adjustment for age and gender. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 1,565 students, including 48% boys and 52% girls aged 13-18 with normal weight, overweight and obesity. Dietary information was reported using the Block Screening Questionnaire for Fruit/Vegetable/Fibre Intake. The nutritional status was assessed on the basis of body mass and height measurements...
September 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
Soumya Swaminathan, Jotam G Pasipanodya, Geetha Ramachandran, A K Hemanth Kumar, Shashikant Srivastava, Devyani Deshpande, Eric Nuermberger, Tawanda Gumbo
BACKGROUND:  The role of drug concentrations in clinical outcomes in children with tuberculosis is unclear. Target concentrations for dose optimization are unknown. METHODS:  Plasma drug concentrations measured in Indian children with tuberculosis were modeled using compartmental pharmacokinetic analyses. The children were followed until end of therapy to ascertain therapy failure or death. An ensemble of artificial intelligence algorithms, including random forests, was used to identify predictors of clinical outcome from among 30 clinical, laboratory, and pharmacokinetic variables...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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