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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641115/feature-integration-drives-probabilistic-behavior-in-the-drosophila-escape-response
#1
Catherine R von Reyn, Aljoscha Nern, W Ryan Williamson, Patrick Breads, Ming Wu, Shigehiro Namiki, Gwyneth M Card
Animals rely on dedicated sensory circuits to extract and encode environmental features. How individual neurons integrate and translate these features into behavioral responses remains a major question. Here, we identify a visual projection neuron type that conveys predator approach information to the Drosophila giant fiber (GF) escape circuit. Genetic removal of this input during looming stimuli reveals that it encodes angular expansion velocity, whereas other input cell type(s) encode angular size. Motor program selection and timing emerge from linear integration of these two features within the GF...
June 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637252/wheat-seed-weight-and-quality-differ-temporally-in-sensitivity-to-warm-or-cool-conditions-during-seed-development-and-maturation
#2
M Nasehzadeh, R H Ellis
Background and aims: Short periods of extreme temperature may affect wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) seed weight, but also quality. Temporal sensitivity to extreme temperature during seed development and maturation was investigated. Methods: Plants of 'Tybalt' grown at ambient temperature were moved to growth cabinets at 29/20 °C or 34/20 °C (2010), or 15/10 °C or 34/20 °C (2011), for successive 7-d periods from 7 DAA (days after anthesis) onwards, and also 7-65 DAA in 2011...
June 15, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630699/nutritional-correlates-of-monetary-diet-cost-in-young-middle-aged-and-older-japanese-women
#3
Keiko Shiraki, Kentaro Murakami, Hitomi Okubo, M Barbara E Livingstone, Satomi Kobayashi, Hitomi Suga, Satoshi Sasaki
Studies in many Western countries have consistently shown that monetary diet cost is positively associated with diet quality, but this may not necessarily be the case in Japan. This cross-sectional study examined the nutritional correlates of monetary diet cost among 3963 young (all 18 years old), 3800 middle-aged (mean age 48 years) and 2211 older (mean age 74 years) Japanese women. Dietary intakes were assessed using a comprehensive self-administered diet history questionnaire for young and middle-aged women and a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire for older women...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627579/correlation-analysis-of-protein-quality-characteristics-with-gluten-free-bread-properties
#4
S W Horstmann, M Foschia, E K Arendt
The interest in gluten-free cereal products has increased significantly over the last number of years and there is still a high demand for high quality products. This study aims to establish possible connections between protein properties and dough and bread quality which could advance the knowledge for gluten-free product development. The objective of the present study was to correlate protein properties with bread characteristics. Therefore, a wide range of tests (solubility, emulsifying, foaming, water hydration properties) was performed to characterize a range of food proteins (potato, pea, carob, lupin and soy)...
June 19, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627070/lack-of-immunogenicity-of-hydrolysed-wheat-flour-in-patients-with-coeliac-disease-after-a-short-term-oral-challenge
#5
R Mandile, S Picascia, C Parrella, A Camarca, M Gobbetti, L Greco, R Troncone, C Gianfrani, R Auricchio
BACKGROUND: A gluten-free diet is currently the only reliable therapeutic strategy that is approved for coeliac disease (CD). For many patients, however, compliance remains inadequate. AIM: To investigate the immunogenicity of wheat flour that was pre-treated with selected lactobacilli and fungal proteases (hydrolysed wheat gluten) in coeliac patients. METHODS: The immunogenicity of hydrolysed wheat gluten was evaluated both in vitro in intestinal T cell lines (TCLs) and in vivo in treated CD patients after a short-term gluten challenge...
June 19, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626005/the-auxin-biosynthetic-tryptophan-aminotransferase-related-tatar2-1-3a-increases-wheat-grain-yield
#6
An Shao, Wenying Ma, Xueqiang Zhao, Mengyun Hu, Xue He, Wan Teng, Hui Li, Yiping Tong
Controlling the major auxin biosynthetic pathway to manipulate the auxin content could be a target for genetic engineering of crops with desired traits, but little progress had been made because low or high auxin contents often cause developmental inhibition. Here, we performed a genome-wide analysis of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) to identify the tryptophan aminotransferase of Arabidopsis1/tryptophan aminotransferase-related (TAA1/TAR) genes that function in the tryptophan-dependent pathway of auxin biosynthesis...
June 16, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625740/comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-two-transgenic-low-gliadin-wheat-lines-and-non-transgenic-wheat-control
#7
María Dolores García-Molina, Vera Muccilli, Rosaria Saletti, Salvatore Foti, Stefania Masci, Francisco Barro
Gluten proteins are major determinants of the bread making quality of wheat, but also of important wheat-related disorders, including coeliac disease (CD), and allergies. We carried out a proteomic study using the total grain proteins from two low-gliadin wheat lines, obtained by RNAi, and the untransformed wild type as reference. The impact of silencing on both target and on non-target proteins was evaluated. Because of the great protein complexity, we performed separate analyses of four kernel protein fractions: gliadins and glutenin subunits, and metabolic and CM-like proteins, by using a classical 2D electrophoresis gel based approach followed by RP-HPLC/nESI-MS/MS...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624092/study-on-the-effects-of-wheat-bran-incorporation-on-water-mobility-and-biopolymer-behavior-during-bread-making-and-storage-using-time-domain-1-h-nmr-relaxometry
#8
S Hemdane, P J Jacobs, G M Bosmans, J Verspreet, J A Delcour, C M Courtin
Water binding is suggested to be key in the deleterious effect of wheat bran on bread quality. This study investigates water mobility and biopolymer behavior during bran-rich bread making and storage, using (1)H NMR. Coarse, ground, and pericarp-enriched bran were incorporated in bread dough, and their impact on freshly baked and stored bread properties was assessed. Compared to wheat flour control dough, bran incorporation resulted in a progressive immobilization of water during dough resting, which could be linked to changes in evolution of dough height during fermentation and oven rise...
December 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624085/multi-scale-nmr-and-mri-approaches-to-characterize-starchy-products
#9
R Kovrlija, C Rondeau-Mouro
This review deals with the use of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance techniques to monitor the behavior of starch as well as the migration and distribution of water during the processing or storage of starchy matrices. The aim is to emphasize the potentials of NMR techniques for the quantitative characterization of water transfers in starch-water systems on different length scales. Relaxation and self-diffusion experiments using low-field NMR spectrometry provided important information on the relationship between water dynamics and the microscopic organization of starch granules at various temperatures and water contents...
December 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622919/diet-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-bread-and-butter
#10
REVIEW
Mélanie K Rich, Eva Nouri, Pierre-Emmanuel Courty, Didier Reinhardt
Most plants entertain mutualistic interactions known as arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) with soil fungi (Glomeromycota) which provide them with mineral nutrients in exchange for reduced carbon from the plant. Mycorrhizal roots represent strong carbon sinks in which hexoses are transferred from the plant host to the fungus. However, most of the carbon in AM fungi is stored in the form of lipids. The absence of the type I fatty acid synthase (FAS-I) complex from the AM fungal model species Rhizophagus irregularis suggests that lipids may also have a role in nutrition of the fungal partner...
June 13, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621435/reduction-of-acrylamide-content-in-bread-crust-by-starch-coating
#11
Jie Liu, Xiaojie Liu, Yong Man, Yawei Liu
BACKGROUND: A technique of starch coating to reduce acrylamide content in bread crust was put forward. Bread was prepared according to the conventional procedure and corn or potato starch coating was brushed on the surface of the fermented dough prior to baking. RESULTS: Corn starch coating caused a decrease in acrylamide of 66.7% and 77.1% for outer and inner crust, respectively. The according decrease caused by potato starch coating was 68.4% and 77.4%, respectively...
June 16, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620398/genome-wide-association-study-of-grain-architecture-in-wild-wheat-aegilops-tauschii
#12
Sanu Arora, Narinder Singh, Satinder Kaur, Navtej S Bains, Cristobal Uauy, Jesse Poland, Parveen Chhuneja
Aegilops tauschii, the D-genome progenitor of Triticum aestivum, encompasses huge diversity for various traits of potential economic importance such as yield, biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, quality and nutrition. In the present study, variation for grain size in Ae. tauschii germplasm was studied and its genetic basis dissected using genome-wide association study (GWAS). Grain length, width, and weight evaluated in 177 Ae. tauschii accessions over 3 years showed near normal distribution with 1.74-, 1...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619368/preliminary-evidence-for-associations-between-molecular-markers-and-quantitative-traits-in-a-set-of-bread-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-cultivars-and-breeding-lines
#13
Babak Abdollahi Mandoulakani, Shilan Nasri, Sahar Dashchi, Sorour Arzhang, Iraj Bernousi, Hossein Abbasi Holasou
The identification of polymorphic markers associated with various quantitative traits allows us to test their performance for the exploitation of the extensive quantitative variation maintained in gene banks. In the current study, a set of 97 wheat germplasm accessions including 48 cultivars and 49 breeding lines were evaluated for 18 agronomic traits. The accessions were also genotyped with 23 ISSR, nine IRAP and 20 REMAP markers, generating a total of 658 clear and scorable bands, 86% of which were polymorphic...
June 12, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614658/effects-of-cultivar-and-nitrogen-nutrition-on-the-lipid-composition-of-wheat-flour
#14
Byoung Min, Irene Gonzalez-Thuillier, Stephen J Powers, Peter Wilde, Peter R Shewry, Richard P Haslam
Despite being minor components of flour, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) lipids contribute to grain processing. They are particularly important for bread making where they adsorb to the surface of gas bubbles formed during the proving stage of bread making, stabilizing the gas cells and improving gas retention within the dough. This contributes to the volume and texture of the loaf. However, little is understood about how their amount, composition and properties vary in response to genotype (G), environment (E) or G x E interactions...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606146/determinants-of-lifestyle-behavior-change-to-prevent-type-2-diabetes-in-high-risk-individuals
#15
N R den Braver, E de Vet, G Duijzer, J Ter Beek, S C Jansen, G J Hiddink, E J M Feskens, A Haveman-Nies
BACKGROUND: Although there are many effective lifestyle interventions for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) prevention, insight into effective intervention pathways, especially of long-term interventions, is often lacking. This study aims to provide insight into the effective intervention pathways of the SLIMMER diabetes prevention intervention using mediation analyses. METHODS: In total, 240 participants at increased risk of T2DM were included in the analyses over 18 months...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606120/household-food-insecurity-is-associated-with-a-higher-burden-of-obesity-and-risk-of-dietary-inadequacies-among-mothers-in-beirut-lebanon
#16
Lamis Jomaa, Farah Naja, Ruba Cheaib, Nahla Hwalla
BACKGROUND: Mixed evidence exists with respect to the association between household food insecurity (HFIS) and obesity in low-to-middle income countries (LMICs), particularly among women. This study aimed to measure socioeconomic correlates of HFIS and explores its association with dietary intake and odds of obesity among mothers in Lebanon, a middle-income country undergoing nutrition transition. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among a representative sample of households (n = 378) in Beirut, Lebanon...
June 12, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605873/associations-of-urban-environmental-pollution-with-health-related-physiological-traits-in-a-free-living-bird-species
#17
Petra Bauerová, Jitka Vinklerová, Jakub Hraníček, Vojtěch Čorba, Libor Vojtek, Jana Svobodová, Michal Vinkler
Urban environmental pollution results in contamination of the tissues of synanthropic organisms by toxic trace elements with potential impacts on human health. Passerine birds may serve as convenient indicators of such contamination. In this study we investigated the effect of blood and plumage contamination with heavy metals (lead Pb, cadmium Cd, copper Cu, chromium Cr) and arsenic metalloid (As) on condition, health and ornamental colour in free-living great tit (Parus major) males from 13 cities across the Czech Republic (EU), mist netted during the early breading season (April-May)...
June 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604589/fibre-related-dietary-patterns-socioeconomic-barriers-to-adequate-fibre-intake-in-polish-adolescents-a-short-report
#18
Beata Krusinska, Joanna Kowalkowska, Lidia Wadolowska, Justyna Weronika Wuenstel, Malgorzata Anna Slowinska, Ewa Niedzwiedzka
There is no complete explanation for the association between socioeconomic status (SES), fibre, and whole diet described by dietary patterns. The aim of this short report was to increase the understanding of adolescent dietary patterns related to fibre in their social context. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 1176 adolescents aged 13-18 years from central and north-eastern Poland. The overall SES was composed of five single factors: place of residence, self-declared economic situation of family, self-declared economic situation of household, paternal and maternal education...
June 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603035/evolution-of-the-mir5200-flowering-locus-t-flowering-time-regulon-in-the-temperate-grass-subfamily-pooideae
#19
Meghan McKeown, Marian Schubert, Jill C Preston, Siri Fjellheim
Flowering time is a carefully regulated trait controlled primarily through the action of the central genetic regulator, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). Recently it was demonstrated that a microRNA, miR5200, targets the end of the second exon of FT under short-day photoperiods in the grass subfamily Pooideae, thus preventing FT transcripts from reaching threshold levels under non-inductive conditions. Pooideae are an interesting group in that they rapidly diversified from the tropics into the northern temperate region during a major global cooling event spanning the Eocene-Oligocene transition...
June 8, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591632/bread-affects-clinical-parameters-and-induces-gut-microbiome-associated-personal-glycemic-responses
#20
Tal Korem, David Zeevi, Niv Zmora, Omer Weissbrod, Noam Bar, Maya Lotan-Pompan, Tali Avnit-Sagi, Noa Kosower, Gal Malka, Michal Rein, Jotham Suez, Ben Z Goldberg, Adina Weinberger, Avraham A Levy, Eran Elinav, Eran Segal
Bread is consumed daily by billions of people, yet evidence regarding its clinical effects is contradicting. Here, we performed a randomized crossover trial of two 1-week-long dietary interventions comprising consumption of either traditionally made sourdough-leavened whole-grain bread or industrially made white bread. We found no significant differential effects of bread type on multiple clinical parameters. The gut microbiota composition remained person specific throughout this trial and was generally resilient to the intervention...
June 6, 2017: Cell Metabolism
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