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Neuro plasticity

Stefano Magni, François Gagné, Chantale André, Camilla Della Torre, Joëlle Auclair, Houda Hanana, Camilla Carla Parenti, Francesco Bonasoro, Andrea Binelli
Microplastics (MPs), plastic debris smaller than 5mm, are widely found in both marine and freshwater ecosystems. However, few studies regarding their hazardous effects on inland water organisms, have been conducted. For this reason, the aim of our research was the evaluation of uptake and chronic toxicity of two mixtures (MIXs) of virgin polystyrene microbeads (PMs) of 10μm and 1μm in size (MIX 1, with 5×105 of 1μmsizePMs/L and 5×105 of 10μmsizePMs/L, and MIX 2 with 2×106 of 1μmsizePMs/L and 2×106 of 10μmsizePMs/L) on freshwater zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Mollusca: Bivalvia) during 6 exposure days...
March 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jacque P K Ip, Ikue Nagakura, Jeremy Petravicz, Keji Li, Erik A C Wiemer, Mriganka Sur
Microdeletion of a region in chromosome 16p11.2 increases susceptibility to autism. Although this region contains exons of 29 genes, disrupting only a small segment of the region, which spans 5 genes, is sufficient to cause autistic traits. One candidate gene in this critical segment is MVP , which encodes for the major vault protein (MVP) that has been implicated in regulation of cellular transport mechanisms. MVP expression levels in MVP +/- mice closely phenocopy those of 16p11.2 mutant mice, suggesting that MVP +/- mice may serve as a model of MVP function in 16p11...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Meiyuan Yang, Yaobin Li, Lei Hu, Dan Luo, Yi Zhang, Xue Xiao, Guilin Li, Lixia Zhang, Gaochun Zhu
Lead (Pb) exposure has been shown to affect presynaptic neurotransmitter release in the animal and cell models. The mechanism by which Pb exposure impairs neurotransmitter release remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of Pb exposure on synaptic vesicle protein 2C (SV2C) and its molecular mechanism. SV2C promoter region contains a neuron-restrictive silencer element (NRSE) binding motif. Neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF) is a transcription repressor that regulates gene expression by binding to NRSE...
March 2, 2018: Toxicology
Ahreum Baek, Ji Hyun Kim, Soonil Pyo, Joon-Ho Jung, Eun Jee Park, Sung Hoon Kim, Sung-Rae Cho
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive therapy that has been implicated in treatment of serious neurological disorders. However, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the effects of rTMS remain unclear. Therefore, this study examined the differential effects of repetitive magnetic stimulation (rMS) in an in vitro neuronal model of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, depending on low and high frequency. Neuro-2a cells were differentiated with retinoic acid and established for in vitro neuronal model of I/R injury under a subsequent 3 h of oxygen and glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) condition...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Konstantin Zarudnyi, Adnan Mehonic, Luca Montesi, Mark Buckwell, Stephen Hudziak, Anthony J Kenyon
Resistance switching, or Resistive RAM (RRAM) devices show considerable potential for application in hardware spiking neural networks (neuro-inspired computing) by mimicking some of the behavior of biological synapses, and hence enabling non-von Neumann computer architectures. Spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) is one such behavior, and one example of several classes of plasticity that are being examined with the aim of finding suitable algorithms for application in many computing tasks such as coincidence detection, classification and image recognition...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Yangsheng Chen, Li Xu, Heidi Q H Xie, Tuan Xu, Hualing Fu, Songyan Zhang, Rui Sha, Yingjie Xia, Bin Zhao
Several cohort studies have reported that dioxin and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls might impair the nervous system and lead to neurological or neurodegenerative diseases in the elder people, but there is limited research on the involved mechanism. By using microarray analysis, we figured out the differentially expressed genes between brain samples from SD rats after low-dose (0.1μg/(kg▪bw)) dioxin exposure for six months and controls. To investigate the function changes in the course of dioxin exposure, Gene Ontology (GO) annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis were performed on the differentially expressed genes...
December 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Joydip Das, Noemi Kedei, Jessica S Kelsey, Youngki You, Satyabrata Pany, Gary A Mitchell, Nancy E Lewin, Peter M Blumberg
Munc13-1 is a presynaptic active-zone protein essential for neurotransmitter release and presynaptic plasticity in the brain. This multi-domain scaffold protein contains a C1 domain that binds to the activator diacylglycerol/phorbol ester. Although the C1 domain bears close structural homology with the C1 domains of protein kinase C (PKC), the tryptophan residue at position 22 (588 in the full-length Munc13-1) occludes the activator binding pocket, which is not the case for PKC. To elucidate the role of this tryptophan, we generated W22A, W22K, W22D, W22Y and W22F substitutions in the full-length Munc13-1, expressed the GFP- tagged constructs in Neuro-2a cells, and measured their membrane translocation in response to phorbol ester treatment by imaging of the live cells using confocal microscopy...
December 15, 2017: Biochemistry
Martina Giordani, Marcello Berto, Michele Di Lauro, Carlo A Bortolotti, Michele Zoli, Fabio Biscarini
In this work, we demonstrate the ultrasensitive and selective detection of dopamine by means of a neuro-inspired device platform without the need of a specific recognition moiety. The sensor is a whole organic device featuring two electrodes made of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate-PEDOT:PSS-patterned on a polydymethylsiloxane-PDMS-flexible substrate. One electrode is pulsed with a train of voltage square waves, to mimic the presynaptic neuron behavior, while the other is used to record the displacement current, mimicking the postsynaptic neuron...
December 22, 2017: ACS Sensors
M Jun, Q Xiaolong, Y Chaojuan, P Ruiyuan, W Shukun, W Junbing, H Li, C Hong, C Jinbo, W Rong, L Yajin, M Lanqun, W Fengchao, W Zhiying, A Jianxiong, W Yun, Z Xia, Z Chen, Y Zengqiang
Extracellular ATP is a widespread cell-to-cell signaling molecule in the brain, where it functions as a neuromodulator by activating glia and neurons. Although ATP exerts multiple effects on synaptic plasticity and neuro-glia interactions, as well as in mood disorders, the source and regulation of ATP release remain to be elaborated. Here, we define Calhm2 as an ATP-releasing channel protein based on in vitro and in vivo models. Conventional knockout and conditional astrocyte knockout of Calhm2 both lead to significantly reduced ATP concentrations, loss of hippocampal spine number, neural dysfunction and depression-like behaviors in mice, which can be significantly rescued by ATP replenishment...
November 28, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
Teresa Femenía, Alfredo Giménez-Cassina, Simone Codeluppi, Teresa Fernández-Zafra, Yurika Katsu-Jiménez, Niccolò Terrando, Lars I Eriksson, Marta Gómez-Galán
Immune-related events in the periphery can remotely affect brain function, contributing to neurodegenerative processes and cognitive decline. In mice, peripheral surgery induces a systemic inflammatory response associated with changes in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and transient cognitive decline, however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here we investigated the effect of peripheral surgery on neuronal-glial function within hippocampal neuronal circuits of relevance to cognitive processing in male mice at 6, 24, and 72 h postsurgery...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Sudeshna Das, K P Mishra, Lilly Ganju, S B Singh
Over activation of glial cell derived innate immune factors induces neuro-inflammation that results in neurodegenerative disease, like working memory impairment. In this study, we have investigated the role of andrographolide, a major constituent of Andrographis paniculata plant, in reduction of reactive glial cell derived working memory impairment. Real time PCR, Western bloting, flow cytometric and immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that andrographolide inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced overexpression of HMGB1, TLR4, NFκB, COX-2, iNOS, and release of inflammatory mediators in primary mix glial culture, adult mice prefrontal cortex and hippocampus region...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Elvira Pirondini, Martina Coscia, Jesus Minguillon, José Del R Millán, Dimitri Van De Ville, Silvestro Micera
Electroencephalography (EEG) of brain activity can be represented in terms of dynamically changing topographies (microstates). Notably, spontaneous brain activity recorded at rest can be characterized by four distinctive topographies. Despite their well-established role during resting state, their implication in the generation of motor behavior is debated. Evidence of such a functional role of spontaneous brain activity would provide support for the design of novel and sensitive biomarkers in neurological disorders...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
N J Van den Hoogen, J Patijn, D Tibboel, E A Joosten
INTRODUCTION: In Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), prematurely born infants undergo a range of skin breaking and painful procedures. At the same time, the spinal nociceptive system is in a sensitive developmental stage. Both neonatal repetitive painful procedures and their treatment can induce plasticity of the neonatal spinal nociceptive system, causing long-lasting alterations to pain processing and pain reactivity. METHODS: This review focuses on developmental processes related to the nociceptive network in the spinal dorsal horn and more specifically at mechanisms related to 1...
September 21, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Manjurul Haque, Lisa M Starr, Kristine G Koski, Marilyn E Scott
Maternal dietary protein deficiency and gastrointestinal nematode infection during early pregnancy have negative impacts on both maternal placental gene expression and fetal growth in the mouse. Here we used next-generation RNA sequencing to test our hypothesis that maternal protein deficiency and/or nematode infection also alter the expression of genes in the developing fetal brain. Outbred pregnant CD1 mice were used in a 2×2 design with two levels of dietary protein (24% versus 6%) and two levels of infection (repeated sham versus Heligmosomoides bakeri beginning at gestation day 5)...
September 10, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
Kald Beshir Tuem, Tesfay Mehari Atey
Neuroactive steroids (NASs) are naturally occurring steroids, which are synthesized centrally as de novo from cholesterol and are classified as pregnane, androstane, and sulfated neurosteroids (NSs). NASs modulate many processes via interacting with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), N-methyl-d-aspartate, serotonin, voltage-gated calcium channels, voltage-dependent anion channels, α-adrenoreceptors, X-receptors of the liver, transient receptor potential channels, microtubule-associated protein 2, neurotrophin nerve growth factor, and σ1 receptors...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
S Burger, S van Straten, S Rayne
This paper looks at research done in South Africa from 2010 to 2016. We reviewed a total of 679 abstracts, posters and oral presentations submitted to the SAJS and the ASSA congresses during this time. During this time 21945 patients were investigated with an average of 577,5 patients per study. Each paper had on average 3,5 authors. The most popular topics are trauma (23%), gastrointestinal surgery (18%) and breast (11%). Upcoming topics include: reducing sepsis, global surgery, procedural discussion, infectious diseases (HIV/ TB), post-operative healing, ENT, neuro, plastic surgery, cardiothoracic and paediatric surgery...
September 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
Eric Pakulak, Courtney Stevens, Helen Neville
The relationship between early adversity and outcomes across the lifespan is apparent in a striking range of measures. Evidence suggests that many of these outcomes can be traced to the impacts of early adversity on multiple and integrated biological systems mediated by the brain. In this review, we integrate empirical and theoretical advances in the understanding of relationships among the brain and the functions of the endocrine, autonomic, and immune systems. We emphasize the effects of environmental experiences related to caregiver relationships because it is these experiences, in particular, that shape regulatory and threat response systems in ways that increase vulnerability and may underlie the wide range of poor outcomes associated with early adversity...
January 4, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
Javier Baladron, Atsushi Nambu, Fred H Hamker
Theories and models of the basal ganglia have mainly focused on the role of three different cortico-thalamic pathways: direct, indirect and hyperdirect. Although the indirect and the hyperdirect pathways are linked through the bidirectional connections between the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the external globus pallidus (GPe), the role of their interactions has been mainly discussed in the context of a dysfunction (abnormal oscillations in Parkinson's disease) and not of its function. We here propose a novel role for the loop formed by the STN and the GPe...
August 22, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
Tom W J Schulpen
Many brilliant and ambitious young women lose their drive for top careers after childbirth. New maternal impulses are at odds with their original ambitions and for many mothers stress and frustration will be the result as they have to combine child care with workweeks of 60-80h to reach or remain at the top. Pregnancy hormones modify the female's brain as has been demonstrated already for decades in animals. This brain plasticity due to adult neurogenesis in the so called maternal circuitry of the limbic system is long-lasting and perhaps lifelong...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
P M Vogt, T R Mett, G F Broelsch, C Radtke, N-C Gellrich, J K Krauss, M Samii, R Ipaktchi
Extensive bone and soft tissue defects of the skull require unique plastic and reconstructive techniques to avoid and optimize aesthetic appearance following oncological resections. Procedures are ideally planned in an interdisciplinary board composed of neurosurgery, otorhinolaryngology, plastic and reconstructive surgery to facilitate reconstructive procedures of soft tissue and bone as early as possible in one approach. Large resections may require plastic surgery involvement from the beginning. Herein, we describe the function of a multidisciplinary approach to complex oncologic resections of the cranial base, scalp, and facial regions for neuro-oncologic patients...
September 2017: Surgical Oncology
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