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Neuro plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903026/differential-expression-of-genes-in-fetal-brain-as-a-consequence-of-maternal-protein-deficiency-and-nematode-infection
#1
Manjurul Haque, Lisa M Starr, Kristine G Koski, Marilyn E Scott
Maternal dietary protein deficiency and gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infection during early pregnancy have negative impacts on both maternal placental gene expression and fetal growth in the mouse. Here we used next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to test our hypothesis that maternal protein deficiency and/or nematode infection also alter the expression of genes in the developing fetal brain. Outbred pregnant CD1 mice were used in a 2x2 design with two levels of dietary protein (24% versus 6%) and two levels of infection (repeated sham versus Heligmosomoides bakeri beginning at gestation day 5)...
September 10, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894435/neuroactive-steroids-receptor-interactions-and-responses
#2
REVIEW
Kald Beshir Tuem, Tesfay Mehari Atey
Neuroactive steroids (NASs) are naturally occurring steroids, which are synthesized centrally as de novo from cholesterol and are classified as pregnane, androstane, and sulfated neurosteroids (NSs). NASs modulate many processes via interacting with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), N-methyl-d-aspartate, serotonin, voltage-gated calcium channels, voltage-dependent anion channels, α-adrenoreceptors, X-receptors of the liver, transient receptor potential channels, microtubule-associated protein 2, neurotrophin nerve growth factor, and σ1 receptors...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876567/a-review-of-presentations-to-the-surgical-research-society-of-southern-africa-and-the-association-of-surgeons-of-south-africa-from-2010-to-2016
#3
S Burger, S van Straten, S Rayne
This paper looks at research done in South Africa from 2010 to 2016. We reviewed a total of 679 abstracts, posters and oral presentations submitted to the SAJS and the ASSA congresses during this time. During this time 21945 patients were investigated with an average of 577,5 patients per study. Each paper had on average 3,5 authors. The most popular topics are trauma (23%), gastrointestinal surgery (18%) and breast (11%). Upcoming topics include: reducing sepsis, global surgery, procedural discussion, infectious diseases (HIV/ TB), post-operative healing, ENT, neuro, plastic surgery, cardiothoracic and paediatric surgery...
September 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846500/neuro-cardio-and-immunoplasticity-effects-of-early-adversity
#4
Eric Pakulak, Courtney Stevens, Helen Neville
The relationship between early adversity and outcomes across the lifespan is apparent in a striking range of measures. Evidence suggests that many of these outcomes can be traced to the impacts of early adversity on multiple and integrated biological systems mediated by the brain. In this review, we integrate empirical and theoretical advances in the understanding of relationships among the brain and the functions of the endocrine, autonomic, and immune systems. We emphasize the effects of environmental experiences related to caregiver relationships because it is these experiences, in particular, that shape regulatory and threat response systems in ways that increase vulnerability and may underlie the wide range of poor outcomes associated with early adversity...
August 28, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833676/the-subthalamic-nucleus-external-globus-pallidus-loop-biases-exploratory-decisions-towards-known-alternatives-a-neuro-computational-study
#5
Javier Baladron, Atsushi Nambu, Fred H Hamker
Theories and models of the basal ganglia have mainly focused on the role of three different cortico-thalamic pathways: direct, indirect and hyperdirect. Although the indirect and the hyperdirect pathways are linked through the bidirectional connections between the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the external globus pallidus (GPe), the role of their interactions has been mainly discussed in the context of a dysfunction (abnormal oscillations in Parkinson's disease) and not of its function. We here propose a novel role for the loop formed by the STN and the GPe...
August 22, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818270/the-glass-ceiling-a-biological-phenomenon
#6
Tom W J Schulpen
Many brilliant and ambitious young women lose their drive for top careers after childbirth. New maternal impulses are at odds with their original ambitions and for many mothers stress and frustration will be the result as they have to combine child care with workweeks of 60-80h to reach or remain at the top. Pregnancy hormones modify the female's brain as has been demonstrated already for decades in animals. This brain plasticity due to adult neurogenesis in the so called maternal circuitry of the limbic system is long-lasting and perhaps lifelong...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807253/interdisciplinary-reconstruction-of-oncological-resections-at-the-skull-base-scalp-and-facial-region
#7
REVIEW
P M Vogt, T R Mett, G F Broelsch, C Radtke, N-C Gellrich, J K Krauss, M Samii, R Ipaktchi
Extensive bone and soft tissue defects of the skull require unique plastic and reconstructive techniques to avoid and optimize aesthetic appearance following oncological resections. Procedures are ideally planned in an interdisciplinary board composed of neurosurgery, otorhinolaryngology, plastic and reconstructive surgery to facilitate reconstructive procedures of soft tissue and bone as early as possible in one approach. Large resections may require plastic surgery involvement from the beginning. Herein, we describe the function of a multidisciplinary approach to complex oncologic resections of the cranial base, scalp, and facial regions for neuro-oncologic patients...
September 2017: Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761554/towards-neuro-inspired-symbolic-models-of-cognition-linking-neural-dynamics-to-behaviors-through-asynchronous-communications
#8
Pierre Bonzon
A computational architecture modeling the relation between perception and action is proposed. Basic brain processes representing synaptic plasticity are first abstracted through asynchronous communication protocols and implemented as virtual microcircuits. These are used in turn to build mesoscale circuits embodying parallel cognitive processes. Encoding these circuits into symbolic expressions gives finally rise to neuro-inspired programs that are compiled into pseudo-code to be interpreted by a virtual machine...
August 2017: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719644/isolation-of-putative-stem-cells-present-in-human-adult-olfactory-mucosa
#9
Tamara Tanos, Alberto Maria Saibene, Carlotta Pipolo, Paolo Battaglia, Giovanni Felisati, Alicia Rubio
The olfactory mucosa (OM) has the unique characteristic of performing an almost continuous and lifelong neurogenesis in response to external injuries, due to the presence of olfactory stem cells that guarantee the maintenance of the olfactory function. The easy accessibility of the OM in humans makes these stem cells feasible candidates for the development of regenerative therapies. In this report we present a detailed characterization of a patient-derived OM, together with a description of cell cultures obtained from the OM...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718304/the-role-of-surgery-in-low-grade-gliomas-do-timing-and-extent-of-resection-matter
#10
Hugues Duffau
Hugues Duffau is a Professor and Chairman of the Neurosurgery Department in the Montpellier University Medical Center and Head of the INSERM 1051 Team "plasticity of the central nervous system, human stem cells and glial tumors" at the Institute for Neurosciences of Montpellier (France). He is an expert in the awake cognitive neurosurgery of slow-growing brain tumors, such as low-grade gliomas, a routine which he has developed since 20 years. His fundamental approach is centered on the concepts of the brain connectomics and neuroplasticity, breaking with the traditional localizationist view of cerebral processing...
July 18, 2017: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714607/new-insights-into-how-serotonin-selective-reuptake-inhibitors-shape-the-developing-brain
#11
REVIEW
Jay A Gingrich, Heli Malm, Mark S Ansorge, Alan Brown, Andre Sourander, Deepika Suri, Cátia M Teixeira, Martha K Caffrey Cagliostro, Darshini Mahadevia, Myrna M Weissman
Development passes through sensitive periods, during which plasticity allows for genetic and environmental factors to exert indelible influence on the maturation of the organism. In the context of central nervous system (CNS) development, such sensitive periods shape the formation of neuro-circuits that mediate, regulate, and control behavior. This general mechanism allows for development to be guided by both the genetic blueprint, as well as the environmental context. While allowing for adaptation, such sensitive periods are also windows of vulnerability during which external and internal factors can confer risk to brain disorders by derailing adaptive developmental programs...
July 17, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711720/onset-age-of-l2-acquisition-influences-language-network-in-early-and-late-cantonese-mandarin-bilinguals
#12
Xiaojin Liu, Liu Tu, Junjing Wang, Bo Jiang, Wei Gao, Ximin Pan, Meng Li, Miao Zhong, Zhenzhen Zhu, Meiqi Niu, Yanyan Li, Ling Zhao, Xiaoxi Chen, Chang Liu, Zhi Lu, Ruiwang Huang
Early second language (L2) experience influences the neural organization of L2 in neuro-plastic terms. Previous studies tried to reveal these plastic effects of age of second language acquisition (AoA-L2) and proficiency-level in L2 (PL-L2) on the neural basis of language processing in bilinguals. Although different activation patterns have been observed during language processing in early and late bilinguals by task-fMRI, few studies reported the effect of AoA-L2 and high PL-L2 on language network at resting state...
July 13, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649199/glyx-13-a-nmda-receptor-glycine-site-functional-partial-agonist-attenuates-cerebral-ischemia-injury-in-vivo-and-vitro-by-differential-modulations-of-nmda-receptors-subunit-components-at-different-post-ischemia-stage-in-mice
#13
Chen Zheng, Zhi H Qiao, Meng Z Hou, Nan N Liu, Bin Fu, Ran Ding, Yuan Y Li, Liang P Wei, Ai L Liu, Hui Shen
Excessive activation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) is implicated in pathological synaptic plasticity also known as post-ischemic long-term potentiation (i-LTP) which was produced by glutamate mediated excitotoxicity after stroke. In the past decades, many NMDARs inhibitors failed in clinical investigations due to severe psychotomimetic side effects. GLYX-13 is a NMDAR modulator with glycine site partial agonist properties and has potential protective effects on ischemic neuronal death. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of GLYX-13 attenuating the ischemic neuronal damage remains elusive...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646336/nogo-a-antibodies-enhance-axonal-repair-and-remyelination-in-neuro-inflammatory-and-demyelinating-pathology
#14
Benjamin V Ineichen, Sandra Kapitza, Christiane Bleul, Nicolas Good, Patricia S Plattner, Maryam S Seyedsadr, Julia Kaiser, Marc P Schneider, Björn Zörner, Roland Martin, Michael Linnebank, Martin E Schwab
Two hallmarks of chronic multiple sclerosis lesions are the absence of significant spontaneous remyelination and primary as well as secondary neurodegeneration. Both characteristics may be influenced by the presence of inhibitory factors preventing myelin and neuronal repair. We investigated the potential of antibodies against Nogo-A, a well-known inhibitory protein for neuronal growth and plasticity, to enhance neuronal regeneration and remyelination in two animal models of multiple sclerosis. We induced a targeted experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) lesion in the dorsal funiculus of the cervical spinal cord of adult rats resulting in a large drop of skilled forelimb motor functions...
June 23, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637489/synaptoimmunology-roles-in-health-and-disease
#15
REVIEW
Robert Nisticò, Eric Salter, Celine Nicolas, Marco Feligioni, Dalila Mango, Zuner A Bortolotto, Pierre Gressens, Graham L Collingridge, Stephane Peineau
Mounting evidence suggests that the nervous and immune systems are intricately linked. Many proteins first identified in the immune system have since been detected at synapses, playing different roles in normal and pathological situations. In addition, novel immunological functions are emerging for proteins typically expressed at synapses. Under normal conditions, release of inflammatory mediators generally represents an adaptive and regulated response of the brain to immune signals. On the other hand, when immune challenge becomes prolonged and/or uncontrolled, the consequent inflammatory response leads to maladaptive synaptic plasticity and brain disorders...
June 20, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623429/bdnf-a-key-factor-with-multipotent-impact-on-brain-signaling-and-synaptic-plasticity
#16
REVIEW
Przemysław Kowiański, Grażyna Lietzau, Ewelina Czuba, Monika Waśkow, Aleksandra Steliga, Janusz Moryś
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the most widely distributed and extensively studied neurotrophins in the mammalian brain. Among its prominent functions, one can mention control of neuronal and glial development, neuroprotection, and modulation of both short- and long-lasting synaptic interactions, which are critical for cognition and memory. A wide spectrum of processes are controlled by BDNF, and the sometimes contradictory effects of its action can be explained based on its specific pattern of synthesis, comprising several intermediate biologically active isoforms that bind to different types of receptor, triggering several signaling pathways...
June 16, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612953/eye-movements-sensori-motor-adaptation-and-cerebellar-dependent-learning-in-autism-towards-potential-biomarkers-and-sub-phenotypes
#17
Edward G Freedman, John J Foxe
Because of the wide range of symptoms expressed in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and their idiosyncratic severity it is unlikely that a single remedial approach will be universally effective. Resolution of this dilemma requires identifying subgroups within the autism spectrum, based on symptom set and severity, on an underlying neuro-structural difference, and on specific behavioral dysfunction. This will provide critical insight into the disorder and may lead to better diagnoses, and more targeted remediation in these subphenotypes of people with ASD...
June 14, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608763/identifying-clinical-risk-in-low-grade-gliomas-and-appropriate-treatment-strategies-with-special-emphasis-on-the-role-of-surgery
#18
REVIEW
Sébastien Boissonneau, Hugues Duffau
Diffuse low-grade glioma (DLGG) is a chronic tumoral disease that ineluctably grows, migrates along white matter pathways, and progresses to a higher grade of malignancy. Areas covered: To determine the best individualized treatment attitude for each DLGG patient, and to redefine it over the years, i.e. to optimize the 'onco-functional balance' of serial and multimodal therapies, the understanding of the natural history of this chronic disease is crucial but not sufficient. A paradigmatic shift is to tailor the individual management according to the dynamic relationships between DLGG course and neural remodeling...
August 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596106/mechanisms-of-axon-regeneration-the-significance-of-proteoglycans
#19
Kazuma Sakamoto, Kenji Kadomatsu
BACKGROUND: Therapeutics specific to neural injury have long been anticipated but remain unavailable. Axons in the central nervous system do not readily regenerate after injury, leading to dysfunction of the nervous system. This failure of regeneration is due to both the low intrinsic capacity of axons for regeneration and the various inhibitors emerging upon injury. After many years of concerted efforts, however, these hurdles to axon regeneration have been partially overcome. SCOPE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the mechanisms regulating axon regeneration...
October 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580666/connexins-and-pannexins-at-the-junction-of-neuro-glial-homeostasis-disease
#20
REVIEW
Andrew S Lapato, Seema K Tiwari-Woodruff
In the central nervous system (CNS), connexin (Cx)s and pannexin (Panx)s are an integral component of homeostatic neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity. Neuronal Cx gap junctions form electrical synapses across biochemically similar GABAergic networks, allowing rapid and extensive inhibition in response to principle neuron excitation. Glial Cx gap junctions link astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in the pan-glial network that is responsible for removing excitotoxic ions and metabolites. In addition, glial gap junctions help constrain excessive excitatory activity in neurons and facilitate astrocyte Ca(2+) slow wave propagation...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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