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arterial hypertension microcirculation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509668/norepinephrine-in-septic-shock-when-and-how-much
#1
Olfa Hamzaoui, Thomas W L Scheeren, Jean-Louis Teboul
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Norepinephrine is the first-line agent recommended during resuscitation of septic shock to correct hypotension because of depressed vascular tone. Important clinical issues are the best timing to start norepinephrine, the optimal blood pressure target, and the best therapeutic options to face refractory hypotension of when high doses of norepinephrine are required to reach the target. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent literature has reported benefits of early administration of norepinephrine because of the following reasons: profound and durable hypotension is an independent factor of increased mortality, early administration of norepinephrine increases cardiac output, improves microcirculation and avoid fluid overload...
May 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482625/transepidermal-oxygen-flux-during-arterial-occlusion-using-ratiometric-luminescence-imaging
#2
M Ranieri, S Klein, A Kotrade, C Taeger, J D Dolderer, L Prantl, S Geis
BACKGROUND: A physiological oxygen transport through a circulatory and microcirculatory system is essential for execution of cellular functions. Several pathological conditions e.g. infections, ischemia, cancer, diabetes, hypertension or chronic wounds show a change of oxygen distribution and oxygen tension in cellular microenvironment. Additionally complex operative procedures in order to reconstruct tissue defects require a reliable monitoring of microcirculation. OBJECTIVE: Target of this study was to evaluate skin oxygenation during an ischemia-reperfusion experiment using transepidermal oxygen flux imaging...
May 2, 2017: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431922/microvascular-injury-and-the-kidney-in-hypertension
#3
G Ruiz-Hurtado, L M Ruilope
Renal macrocirculation participates in the development of arterial hypertension. The elevation in systemic blood pressure (BP) can damage the kidney starting in the microcirculation. Established arterial hypertension impinge upon the large arteries and stiffness develops. As a consequence central BP raises and BP pulsatility appear and contribute to further damage renal microcirculation by direct transmission of the elevated BP.
April 18, 2017: Hipertensión y Riesgo Vascular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412915/early-functional-and-structural-microvascular-changes-in-hypertension-related-to-aging
#4
Roger de Moraes, Eduardo Tibirica
It is becoming increasingly clear that both microvascular network alterations and subsequent tissue perfusion defects may precede and predict the development of arterial hypertension and other cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, including diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Moreover, the subsequent functional and structural alterations in microvascular reactivity and density, as well as alterations in the macrocirculation characteristic of physiologic vascular aging, contribute to the development of target organ damage...
April 12, 2017: Current Hypertension Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338956/hemodynamic-consequences-of-changes-in-microvascular-structure
#5
Damiano Rizzoni, Claudia Agabiti-Rosei, Enrico Agabiti-Rosei
In hypertension, an increased media-to-lumen ratio of small resistance arteries might play an important role in the increase of vascular resistance, and may also be an adaptive response to the increased hemodynamic load. The presence of morphological alteration in the microvasculature may be associated to an impaired tissue perfusion and/or to the development of target organ damage. Structural alterations in the microcirculation might represent a predictor of the onset of cardio-cerebrovascular events and hypertension complications...
March 10, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268999/high-speed-in-vivo-imaging-of-retinal-hemodynamics-in-a-rodent-model-of-hypertension
#6
Mahdieh Rezaeian, Dana Georgevsky, S Mojtaba Golzan, Stuart L Graham
The eye is the only organ through which microcirculation can be visualized non-invasively. This unique feature makes the eye and specifically retinal vasculature an excellent target area to monitor and study micro-vascular damage in systemic diseases. Dynamic (real-time) changes of retinal vessels have been shown to be more specific to the disease in comparison with static measurements. In this study we utilize high speed imaging (i.e. 125 fps) to study and derive dynamic changes of retinal vessels in a rat model of hypertension...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227209/high-speed-in-vivo-imaging-of-retinal-hemodynamics-in-a-rodent-model-of-hypertension
#7
Mahdieh Rezaeian, Dana Georgevsky, S Mojtaba Golzan, Stuart L Graham, Mahdieh Rezaeian, Dana Georgevsky, S Mojtaba Golzan, Stuart L Graham, Dana Georgevsky, Mahdieh Rezaeian, S Mojtaba Golzan, Stuart L Graham
The eye is the only organ through which microcirculation can be visualized non-invasively. This unique feature makes the eye and specifically retinal vasculature an excellent target area to monitor and study micro-vascular damage in systemic diseases. Dynamic (real-time) changes of retinal vessels have been shown to be more specific to the disease in comparison with static measurements. In this study we utilize high speed imaging (i.e. 125 fps) to study and derive dynamic changes of retinal vessels in a rat model of hypertension...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071761/plasma-heme-induced-renal-toxicity-is-related-to-a-capillary-rarefaction
#8
Nahid Tabibzadeh, Céline Estournet, Sandrine Placier, Joëlle Perez, Héloïse Bilbault, Alexis Girshovich, Sophie Vandermeersch, Chantal Jouanneau, Emmanuel Letavernier, Nadjib Hammoudi, François Lionnet, Jean-Philippe Haymann
Severe hypertension can lead to malignant hypertension (MH) with renal thrombotic microangiopathy and hemolysis. The role of plasma heme release in this setting is unknown. We aimed at evaluating the effect of a mild plasma heme increase by hemin administration in angiotensin II (AngII)-mediated hypertensive rats. Prevalence of MH and blood pressure values were similar in AngII and AngII + hemin groups. MH rats displayed a decreased renal blood flow (RBF), increased renal vascular resistances (RVR), and increased aorta and interlobar arteries remodeling with a severe renal microcirculation assessed by peritubular capillaries (PTC) rarefaction...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045083/pulsation-limited-oxygen-diffusion-in-the-tumour-microenvironment
#9
Edoardo Milotti, Sabrina Stella, Roberto Chignola
Hypoxia is central to tumour evolution, growth, invasion and metastasis. Mathematical models of hypoxia based on reaction-diffusion equations provide seemingly incomplete descriptions as they fail to predict the measured oxygen concentrations in the tumour microenvironment. In an attempt to explain the discrepancies, we consider both the inhomogeneous distribution of oxygen-consuming cells in solid tumours and the dynamics of blood flow in the tumour microcirculation. We find that the low-frequency oscillations play an important role in the establishment of tumour hypoxia...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881847/epigenetic-regulation-of-l-type-voltage-gated-ca-2-channels-in-mesenteric-arteries-of-aging-hypertensive-rats
#10
Jingwen Liao, Yanyan Zhang, Fang Ye, Lin Zhang, Yu Chen, Fanxing Zeng, Lijun Shi
Accumulating evidence has shown that epigenetic regulation is involved in hypertension and aging. L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (LTCCs), the dominant channels in vascular myocytes, greatly contribute to arteriole contraction and blood pressure (BP) control. We investigated the dynamic changes and epigenetic regulation of LTCC in the mesenteric arteries of aging hypertensive rats. LTCC function was evaluated by using microvascular rings and whole-cell patch-clamp in the mesenteric arteries of male Wistar-Kyoto rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats at established hypertension (3 month old) and an aging stage (16 month old), respectively...
May 2017: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774825/optimum-treatment-of-vasopressor-dependent-distributive-shock
#11
Jean-Louis Vincent, Marc Leone
Distributive shock is associated with decreased systemic vascular resistance and altered oxygen extraction. Septic shock is the most frequent form of distributive shock. In shock states, duration of hypotension is associated with poor outcomes. The speed at which treatment to restore adequate perfusion pressure is initiated is, therefore, important to improve survival. Areas covered: This review presents an overview of the literature related to the management of vasopressor-dependent distributive shock, and in particular the relationship between arterial pressure and organ perfusion and function...
January 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765042/circulating-microparticles-in-severe-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-increase-intercellular-adhesion-molecule-1-expression-selectively-in-pulmonary-artery-endothelium
#12
Leslie A Blair, April K Haven, Natalie N Bauer
BACKGROUND: Microparticles (MPs) stimulate inflammatory adhesion molecule expression in systemic vascular diseases, however it is unknown whether circulating MPs stimulate localized ICAM-1 expression in the heterogeneically distinct pulmonary endothelium during pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Pulmonary vascular lesions with infiltrating inflammatory cells in PAH form in the pulmonary arteries and arterioles, but not the microcirculation. Therefore, we sought to determine whether circulating MPs from PAH stimulate pulmonary artery endothelial cell-selective ICAM-1 expression...
October 20, 2016: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614146/capillary-density-an-important-parameter-in-nailfold-capillaroscopy
#13
REVIEW
Zahra Emrani, Abdolamir Karbalaie, Alimohammad Fatemi, Mahnaz Etehadtavakol, Björn-Erik Erlandsson
Nailfold capillaroscopy is one of the various noninvasive bioengineering methods used to investigate skin microcirculation. It is an effective examination for assessing microvascular changes in the peripheral circulation; hence it has a significant role for the diagnosis of Systemic sclerosis with the classic changes of giant capillaries as well as the decline in capillary density with capillary dropout. The decline in capillary density is one of microangiopathic features existing in connective tissue disease...
January 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27434101/exercise-training-attenuates-dexamethasone-induced-hypertension-by-improving-autonomic-balance-to-the-heart-sympathetic-vascular-modulation-and-skeletal-muscle-microcirculation
#14
Naiara A Herrera, Isley Jesus, André L Shinohara, Thiago J Dionísio, Carlos F Santos, Sandra L Amaral
OBJECTIVE: Although aerobic exercise training has been recommended as nonpharmacological treatment of high blood pressure, the mechanisms of training-induced blood pressure lowering effects in dexamethasone (DEX)-induced hypertension remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the preventive role of exercise training in counteracting DEX-induced hypertension. METHODS: Rats were submitted to aerobic exercise training for 8 weeks or kept sedentary and then treated with DEX (50 μg/kg/day, s...
October 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27365213/severity-of-alopecia-predicts-coronary-changes-and-arterial-stiffness-in-untreated-hypertensive-men
#15
Helen Triantafyllidi, Agis Grafakos, Ignatios Ikonomidis, George Pavlidis, Paraskevi Trivilou, Antonis Schoinas, John Lekakis
An association between androgenic alopecia (AGA), coronary artery disease, and hypertension has been reported in previous epidemiological studies. The authors evaluated the relationship of target organ damage caused by hypertension with AGA in 101 newly diagnosed and untreated hypertension men with mild to moderate AGA (AGAm ), severe AGA (AGAs ), and non-AGA. Pulse wave velocity (PWV), office and 24-hour pulse pressure (PP), carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), coronary flow reserve (CFRd), and AGA severity by Hamilton-Norwood scale were estimated...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27297945/low-energy-shockwave-therapy-improves-ischemic-kidney-microcirculation
#16
Xin Zhang, James D Krier, Carolina Amador Carrascal, James F Greenleaf, Behzad Ebrahimi, Ahmad F Hedayat, Stephen C Textor, Amir Lerman, Lilach O Lerman
Microvascular rarefaction distal to renal artery stenosis is linked to renal dysfunction and poor outcomes. Low-energy shockwave therapy stimulates angiogenesis, but the effect on the kidney microvasculature is unknown. We hypothesized that low-energy shockwave therapy would restore the microcirculation and alleviate renal dysfunction in renovascular disease. Normal pigs and pigs subjected to 3 weeks of renal artery stenosis were treated with six sessions of low-energy shockwave (biweekly for 3 consecutive weeks) or left untreated...
December 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27225668/efficacy-and-safety-of-regenerative-cell-therapy-for-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-in-animal-models-a-preclinical-systematic-review-protocol
#17
REVIEW
Colin M Suen, Alex Zhai, Manoj M Lalu, Christopher Welsh, Brendan M Levac, Dean Fergusson, Lauralyn McIntyre, Duncan J Stewart
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disease (15 cases per million) that is characterized by widespread loss of the pulmonary microcirculation and elevated pulmonary vascular resistance leading to pathological right ventricular remodeling and ultimately right heart failure. Regenerative cell therapies (i.e., therapies involving cells with stem or progenitor-like properties) could potentially restore the effective lung microcirculation and provide a curative therapy for PAH...
May 25, 2016: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27224443/mitochondrial-haplogroups-and-risk-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#18
Samar Farha, Bo Hu, Suzy Comhair, Joe Zein, Raed Dweik, Serpil C Erzurum, Micheala A Aldred
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a serious and often fatal disease. It is a panvasculopathy of the pulmonary microcirculation characterized by vasoconstriction and arterial obstruction due to vascular proliferation and remodeling and ultimately right ventricular failure. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a universal finding in pulmonary vascular cells of patients with PAH, and is mechanistically linked to disease origins in animal models of pulmonary hypertension. Mitochondria have their own circular DNA (mtDNA), which can be subgrouped into polymorphic haplogroup variants, some of which have been identified as at-risk or protective from cardiovascular and/or neurodegenerative diseases...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27207546/tumor-necrosis-factor-sphingosine-1-phosphate-signaling-augments-resistance-artery-myogenic-tone-in-diabetes
#19
Meghan Sauvé, Sonya K Hui, Danny D Dinh, Warren D Foltz, Abdul Momen, Sergei A Nedospasov, Stefan Offermanns, Mansoor Husain, Jeffrey T Kroetsch, Darcy Lidington, Steffen-Sebastian Bolz
Diabetes strongly associates with microvascular complications that ultimately promote multiorgan failure. Altered myogenic responsiveness compromises tissue perfusion, aggravates hypertension, and sets the stage for later permanent structural changes to the microcirculation. We demonstrate that skeletal muscle resistance arteries isolated from patients with diabetes have augmented myogenic tone, despite reasonable blood glucose control. To understand the mechanisms, we titrated a standard diabetes mouse model (high-fat diet plus streptozotocin [HFD/STZ]) to induce a mild increase in blood glucose levels...
July 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27170301/imaging-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#20
Mario Meola, Sara Samoni, Ilaria Petrucci
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) diagnosis and staging are based on estimated or calculated glomerular filtration rate (GFR), urinalysis and kidney structure at renal imaging techniques. Ultrasound (US) has a key role in evaluating both morphological changes (by means of B-Mode) and patterns of vascularization (by means of color-Doppler and contrast-enhanced US), thus contributing to CKD diagnosis and to the follow-up of its progression. In CKD, conventional US allows measuring longitudinal diameter and cortical thickness and evaluating renal echogenicity and urinary tract status...
2016: Contributions to Nephrology
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