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arterial hypertension microcirculation

Jean-Louis Vincent, Marc Leone
Distributive shock is associated with decreased systemic vascular resistance and altered oxygen extraction. Septic shock is the most frequent form of distributive shock. In shock states, duration of hypotension is associated with poor outcomes. The speed at which treatment to restore adequate perfusion pressure is initiated is, therefore, important to improve survival. Areas covered: This review presents an overview of the literature related to the management of vasopressor-dependent distributive shock, and in particular the relationship between arterial pressure and organ perfusion and function...
October 24, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Leslie A Blair, April K Haven, Natalie N Bauer
BACKGROUND: Microparticles (MPs) stimulate inflammatory adhesion molecule expression in systemic vascular diseases, however it is unknown whether circulating MPs stimulate localized ICAM-1 expression in the heterogeneically distinct pulmonary endothelium during pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Pulmonary vascular lesions with infiltrating inflammatory cells in PAH form in the pulmonary arteries and arterioles, but not the microcirculation. Therefore, we sought to determine whether circulating MPs from PAH stimulate pulmonary artery endothelial cell-selective ICAM-1 expression...
October 20, 2016: Respiratory Research
Zahra Emrani, Abdolamir Karbalaie, Alimohammad Fatemi, Mahnaz Etehadtavakol, Björn-Erik Erlandsson
Nailfold capillaroscopy is one of the various noninvasive bioengineering methods used to investigate skin microcirculation. It is an effective examination for assessing microvascular changes in the peripheral circulation; hence it has a significant role for the diagnosis of Systemic sclerosis with the classic changes of giant capillaries as well as the decline in capillary density with capillary dropout. The decline in capillary density is one of microangiopathic features existing in connective tissue disease...
September 7, 2016: Microvascular Research
Naiara A Herrera, Isley Jesus, André L Shinohara, Thiago J Dionísio, Carlos F Santos, Sandra L Amaral
OBJECTIVE: Although aerobic exercise training has been recommended as nonpharmacological treatment of high blood pressure, the mechanisms of training-induced blood pressure lowering effects in dexamethasone (DEX)-induced hypertension remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the preventive role of exercise training in counteracting DEX-induced hypertension. METHODS: Rats were submitted to aerobic exercise training for 8 weeks or kept sedentary and then treated with DEX (50 μg/kg/day, s...
October 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Helen Triantafyllidi, Agis Grafakos, Ignatios Ikonomidis, George Pavlidis, Paraskevi Trivilou, Antonis Schoinas, John Lekakis
An association between androgenic alopecia (AGA), coronary artery disease, and hypertension has been reported in previous epidemiological studies. The authors evaluated the relationship of target organ damage caused by hypertension with AGA in 101 newly diagnosed and untreated hypertension men with mild to moderate AGA (AGAm ), severe AGA (AGAs ), and non-AGA. Pulse wave velocity (PWV), office and 24-hour pulse pressure (PP), carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), coronary flow reserve (CFRd), and AGA severity by Hamilton-Norwood scale were estimated...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
Xin Zhang, James D Krier, Carolina Amador Carrascal, James F Greenleaf, Behzad Ebrahimi, Ahmad F Hedayat, Stephen C Textor, Amir Lerman, Lilach O Lerman
Microvascular rarefaction distal to renal artery stenosis is linked to renal dysfunction and poor outcomes. Low-energy shockwave therapy stimulates angiogenesis, but the effect on the kidney microvasculature is unknown. We hypothesized that low-energy shockwave therapy would restore the microcirculation and alleviate renal dysfunction in renovascular disease. Normal pigs and pigs subjected to 3 weeks of renal artery stenosis were treated with six sessions of low-energy shockwave (biweekly for 3 consecutive weeks) or left untreated...
June 13, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Colin M Suen, Alex Zhai, Manoj M Lalu, Christopher Welsh, Brendan M Levac, Dean Fergusson, Lauralyn McIntyre, Duncan J Stewart
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disease (15 cases per million) that is characterized by widespread loss of the pulmonary microcirculation and elevated pulmonary vascular resistance leading to pathological right ventricular remodeling and ultimately right heart failure. Regenerative cell therapies (i.e., therapies involving cells with stem or progenitor-like properties) could potentially restore the effective lung microcirculation and provide a curative therapy for PAH...
2016: Systematic Reviews
Samar Farha, Bo Hu, Suzy Comhair, Joe Zein, Raed Dweik, Serpil C Erzurum, Micheala A Aldred
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a serious and often fatal disease. It is a panvasculopathy of the pulmonary microcirculation characterized by vasoconstriction and arterial obstruction due to vascular proliferation and remodeling and ultimately right ventricular failure. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a universal finding in pulmonary vascular cells of patients with PAH, and is mechanistically linked to disease origins in animal models of pulmonary hypertension. Mitochondria have their own circular DNA (mtDNA), which can be subgrouped into polymorphic haplogroup variants, some of which have been identified as at-risk or protective from cardiovascular and/or neurodegenerative diseases...
2016: PloS One
Meghan Sauvé, Sonya K Hui, Danny D Dinh, Warren D Foltz, Abdul Momen, Sergei A Nedospasov, Stefan Offermanns, Mansoor Husain, Jeffrey T Kroetsch, Darcy Lidington, Steffen-Sebastian Bolz
Diabetes strongly associates with microvascular complications that ultimately promote multiorgan failure. Altered myogenic responsiveness compromises tissue perfusion, aggravates hypertension, and sets the stage for later permanent structural changes to the microcirculation. We demonstrate that skeletal muscle resistance arteries isolated from patients with diabetes have augmented myogenic tone, despite reasonable blood glucose control. To understand the mechanisms, we titrated a standard diabetes mouse model (high-fat diet plus streptozotocin [HFD/STZ]) to induce a mild increase in blood glucose levels...
July 2016: Diabetes
Mario Meola, Sara Samoni, Ilaria Petrucci
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) diagnosis and staging are based on estimated or calculated glomerular filtration rate (GFR), urinalysis and kidney structure at renal imaging techniques. Ultrasound (US) has a key role in evaluating both morphological changes (by means of B-Mode) and patterns of vascularization (by means of color-Doppler and contrast-enhanced US), thus contributing to CKD diagnosis and to the follow-up of its progression. In CKD, conventional US allows measuring longitudinal diameter and cortical thickness and evaluating renal echogenicity and urinary tract status...
2016: Contributions to Nephrology
Maria Dorobantu, Sebastian Onciul, Oana Florentina Tautu, Edina Cenko
BACKGROUND: Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is the most important cause of mortality worldwide. Although the awareness of cardiovascular risk factors and IHD in women has increased over the last decades, mortality rates are still higher in women than in men. Among traditional cardiovascular risk factors, hypertension is associated with a greater risk for IHD in women as compared to men. METHODS: In this review, discuss gender differences in epidemiology and pathophysiology of hypertension and its impact on the incidence and outcomes of IHD in women...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Timothy W Secomb
A review is presented of the physical principles governing the distribution of blood flow and blood pressure in the vascular system. The main factors involved are the pulsatile driving pressure generated by the heart, the flow characteristics of blood, and the geometric structure and mechanical properties of the vessels. The relationship between driving pressure and flow in a given vessel can be understood by considering the viscous and inertial forces acting on the blood. Depending on the vessel diameter and other physical parameters, a wide variety of flow phenomena can occur...
April 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
David Rosenbaum, Alessandro Mattina, Edouard Koch, Florence Rossant, Antonio Gallo, Nadjia Kachenoura, Michel Paques, Alban Redheuil, Xavier Girerd
BACKGROUND: In humans, adaptive optics camera enables precise large-scale noninvasive retinal microcirculation evaluation to assess ageing, blood pressure and antihypertensive treatments respective roles on retinal arterioles anatomy. METHOD: We used adaptive optics camera rtx1 (Imagine-Eyes, Orsay, France) to measure wall thickness, internal diameter and to calculate wall-to-lumen ratio (WLR) and wall cross-sectional area of retinal arterioles. This assessment was repeated within a short period in two subgroups of hypertensive individuals without or with a drug-induced blood pressure drop...
June 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Jie Xia, Hui Wang, Qi-Mei Zhang, Zheng Zheng, Zhong-Mou Han
The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of curcumin on hypertension and its putative mechanisms in the cerebral microcirculation. The surgical preparation was made to generate a cranial window for observation of the capillary network in the cerebral cortex region. Digital image processing, intravital videomicroscopy, and laser Doppler flow meter were used in this investigation. The number of open capillaries, arterial blood pressure, red cell velocity, microvascular diameter, circulating endothelial cells, relative blood flow and frequency were determined...
March 23, 2016: Brain Research
V N Titov
The regulation of metabolism in vivo can be comprehended by considering stages of becoming inphylogenesis of humoral, hormonal, vegetative regulators separately: at the level of cells; in paracrin-regulated cenosises of cells; organs and systems under open blood circulation and closed system of blood flow. The levels of regulations formed at different stages of phylogenesis. Their completion occurred at achievement of "relative biological perfection". Only this way need of cells in functional, structural interaction and forming of multicellular developed...
November 2015: Klinicheskaia Laboratornaia Diagnostika
Tomonori Akasaka, Seiji Hokimoto, Daisuke Sueta, Noriaki Tabata, Kenji Sakamoto, Eiichiro Yamamoto, Megumi Yamamuro, Kenichi Tsujita, Sunao Kojima, Koichi Kaikita, Ayami Kajiwara, Kazunori Morita, Kentaro Oniki, Junji Saruwatari, Kazuko Nakagawa, Yasuhiro Ogata, Hisao Ogawa
Categorization as a cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 2C19 poor metabolizer (PM) is reported to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is correlated with an increase in the circulating levels of high-sense C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in women only, although its role in coronary microcirculation is unclear. We examined sex differences in the impact of the CYP2C19 genotype and low-grade inflammation on coronary microvascular disorder (CMVD). We examined CYP2C19 genotypes in patients with CMVD (n = 81) and in healthy subjects as control (n = 81)...
June 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Francois Beloncle, Peter Radermacher, Claude Guerin, Pierre Asfar
In patients with septic shock, a mean arterial pressure higher than 65 mmHg is recommended by the Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines. However, a precise mean arterial pressure target has not been delineated. The aim of this paper was to review the physiological rationale and clinical evidence for increasing mean arterial pressure in septic shock. A mean arterial pressure level lower than renal autoregulatory threshold may lead to renal dysfunction. However, adjusting macrocirculation objectives in particular after the early phase of septic shock may not correct established microcirculation impairments...
July 2016: Minerva Anestesiologica
Keita Odashiro, Kazuyuki Saito, Takeshi Arita, Toru Maruyama, Takehiko Fujino, Koichi Akashi
INTRODUCTION: Hypertension is associated with microcirculatory disturbance, and erythrocyte deformability is a major determinant of the microcirculation. However, impairment of erythrocyte deformability in hypertensive patients in relation to antihypertensive treatment is unclear. The present study aimed to investigate this impairment in hypertensive patients under treatment using a highly sensitive and quantitative nickel mesh filtration technique. METHODS: Deformability was evaluated by filterability, defined as the flow rate of a hematocrit-adjusted erythrocyte suspension relative to that of saline under a specific filtration pressure in a pressure-flow curve obtained by continuous filtration...
2015: Clinical Hypertension
Tzu-Hao Li, Chia-Chang Huang, Ying-Ying Yang, Kuei-Chuan Lee, Shie-Liang Hsieh, Yun-Cheng Hsieh, Lin Alan, Han-Chieh Lin, Shou-Dong Lee, Chang-Youh Tsai
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: By blocking TNFα-related effects, thalidomide not only inhibits hepatic fibrogenesis but improves peripheral vasodilatation and portal hypertension in cirrhotic rats. Nonetheless, the investigation of thalidomide's effects on splanchnic and collateral microcirculation has been limited. Our study explored the roles of intestinal and mesenteric TNFα along with inflammasome-related pathway in relation to cirrhosis and the splanchnic/collateral microcirculation. METHODS: Using in vivo and in vitro approaches, mechanisms of the effects of thalidomide on intestinal and mesenteric inflammatory, vasodilatory and angiogenic cascades-related abnormalities were explored in cirrhotic rats that had received 1-month thalidomide (C-T) treatment...
2016: PloS One
Agostino Virdis, Stefano Taddei
A large body of homogeneous reports documented that endothelial dysfunction, which characterizes human essential hypertension is largely dependent on an impaired endothelial nitric oxide availability and an increased production of endothelium-derived contracting factors. These factors include endothelin, prostanoids, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). In particular, it was evidenced that acute intraarterial administration of indomethacin, a nonselective cyclooxygenase (COX)-inhibitor, and ascorbic acid, an antioxidant, normalized the blunted endothelial dysfunction by restoring nitric oxide availability at the level of peripheral microcirculation, thus demonstrating that COX-derived endothelium-derived contracting factors are one of the major sources of ROS...
June 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
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