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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339751/changes-in-secondhand-smoke-exposure-after-smoke-free-legislation-spain-2006-2011
#1
Esteve Fernández, Marcela Fu, Mónica Pérez-Ríos, Anna Schiaffino, Xisca Sureda, María J López
Introduction: In 2011, the Spanish partial smoke-free legislation was extended to affect all enclosed settings, including hospitality venues and selected outdoor areas. This study evaluated the change in self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke among the adult, non-smoking population. Methods: Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted on nationally representative samples of the adult (≥18 years) non-smoking Spanish population. One was conducted in 2006 (6 months after the first ban) and the other in 2011, 6 months after the new ban was implemented...
February 28, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339721/analysis-of-professional-competencies-for-the-clinical-research-data-management-profession-implications-for-training-and-professional-certification
#2
Meredith N Zozus, Angel Lazarov, Leigh R Smith, Tim E Breen, Susan L Krikorian, Patrick S Zbyszewski, Shelly K Knoll, Debra A Jendrasek, Derek C Perrin, Demetris N Zambas, Tremaine B Williams, Carl F Pieper
Objective: : To assess and refine competencies for the clinical research data management profession. Materials and Methods: : Based on prior work developing and maintaining a practice standard and professional certification exam, a survey was administered to a captive group of clinical research data managers to assess professional competencies, types of data managed, types of studies supported, and necessary foundational knowledge. Results: : Respondents confirmed a set of 91 professional competencies...
February 16, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333359/cryolipolysis-for-nonsurgical-reduction-of-fat-in-the-lateral-chest-wall-post-mastectomy
#3
Jennifer L Harrington, Peter J Capizzi
Background: Many patients that have undergone mastectomy surgery are left with residual lateral fat under the arm. While the fat may be associated with pain and cause undesirable bulges in clothing and skin irritation, most post-mastectomy patients are not interested in additional surgery. Objectives: Cryolipolysis is a nonsurgical procedure for fat reduction. The procedure is typically performed for aesthetic improvement in the abdomen, thighs, and flanks, but cryolipolysis was explored in this study for reconstructive purposes...
March 15, 2017: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332136/new-evidence-against-a-causal-marriage-wage-premium
#4
Alexandra Killewald, Ian Lundberg
Recent research has shown that men's wages rise more rapidly than expected prior to marriage, but interpretations diverge on whether this indicates selection or a causal effect of anticipating marriage. We seek to adjudicate this debate by bringing together literatures on (1) the male marriage wage premium; (2) selection into marriage based on men's economic circumstances; and (3) the transition to adulthood, during which both union formation and unusually rapid improvements in work outcomes often occur. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we evaluate these perspectives...
March 22, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331385/annotated-checklist-of-fish-cestodes-from-south-america
#5
Philippe V Alves, Alain de Chambrier, Tomáš Scholz, José L Luque
An exhaustive literature search supplemented by a critical examination of records made it possible to present an annotated checklist of tapeworms (Cestoda) that, as adults or larvae (metacestodes), parasitize freshwater, brackish water and marine fishes, i.e. cartilaginous and bony fishes, in South America. The current knowledge of their species diversity, host associations and geographical distribution is reviewed. Taxonomic problems are discussed based on a critical evaluation of the literature and information on DNA sequences of individual taxa is provided to facilitate future taxonomic and phylogenetic studies...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330465/the-impact-of-non-response-bias-due-to-sampling-in-public-health-studies-a-comparison-of-voluntary-versus-mandatory-recruitment-in-a-dutch-national-survey-on-adolescent-health
#6
Kei Long Cheung, Peter M Ten Klooster, Cees Smit, Hein de Vries, Marcel E Pieterse
BACKGROUND: In public health monitoring of young people it is critical to understand the effects of selective non-response, in particular when a controversial topic is involved like substance abuse or sexual behaviour. Research that is dependent upon voluntary subject participation is particularly vulnerable to sampling bias. As respondents whose participation is hardest to elicit on a voluntary basis are also more likely to report risk behaviour, this potentially leads to underestimation of risk factor prevalence...
March 23, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330335/income-gaps-in-self-rated-poor-health-and-its-association-with-life-expectancy-in-245-districts-of-south-korea
#7
Ikhan Kim, Jinwook Bahk, Sung-Cheol Yun, Young-Ho Khang
Objectives: This study was conducted to examine income gaps in self-rated poor health at the district level of South Korea and to present geographical correlations among self-rated poor health, life expectancy, and their income gaps. Methods: We analyzed 1,578,189 subjects derived from the Community Health Survey data of South Korea collected between 2008 and 2014. The age-standardized prevalences of self-rated poor health and their income gaps were calculated. Prior results on life expectancy and its income gaps were used also...
March 15, 2017: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329786/religious-affiliation-among-older-age-groups-worldwide-estimates-for-2010-and-projections-until-2050
#8
Vegard Skirbekk, Michaela Potancoková, Conrad Hackett, Marcin Stonawski
Objectives: The religious landscape of older adults around the world is changing profoundly. Yet until now, no study has chronicled these changes or compared expected aging patterns of religious groups. Differential aging among religious groups can have important economic and social consequences. This study estimates and projects the future religious composition by age at the global and regional levels. Method: This study presents estimates of age structures by religion for 2010 and projections until 2050...
November 9, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329561/patient-viewing-sessions-the-patient-experience
#9
Jeffrey M Cohen, Jennifer K Tan, Steven T Chen, Susan Burgin
Background Dermatology grand rounds and clinical conferences often include patient viewing sessions, during which groups of dermatologists and trainees see and discuss patient cases.Objective To understand experiences and attitudes of patients participating in patient viewing sessions.Methods Questionnaires were given to patients immediately before and after patient viewing sessions and by mail 3 months after participating in patient viewing sessions.Results Fifty one individuals responded to the survey during patient viewing sessions and 15 (29...
November 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329429/racial-disparity-in-life-expectancies-and-life-years-lost-associated-with-multiple-obesity-related-chronic-conditions
#10
Su-Hsin Chang, Yao-Chi Yu, Nils P Carlsson, Xiaoyan Liu, Graham A Colditz
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated racial disparity in life expectancies (LEs) and life years lost (LYL) associated with multiple obesity-related chronic conditions (OCCs). METHODS: Data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2008-2012, were used. Four OCCs were studied: diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease (CHD), and stroke. LE for each subpopulation was simulated by Markov modelling. LYL associated with a disease for a subpopulation was computed by taking the difference between LEs for members of that subpopulation without disease and LEs for members of that subpopulation who had that disease...
March 22, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328976/high-school-science-fair-and-research-integrity
#11
Frederick Grinnell, Simon Dalley, Karen Shepherd, Joan Reisch
Research misconduct has become an important matter of concern in the scientific community. The extent to which such behavior occurs early in science education has received little attention. In the current study, using the web-based data collection program REDCap, we obtained responses to an anonymous and voluntary survey about science fair from 65 high school students who recently competed in the Dallas Regional Science and Engineering Fair and from 237 STEM-track, post-high school students (undergraduates, 1st year medical students, and 1st year biomedical graduate students) doing research at UT Southwestern Medical Center...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328247/-assessment-of-the-pilot-program-for-cervical-cancer-screening-by-health-visitors
#12
Réka Vajda, Csilla Árváné Egri, Attila Kovács, András Budai, Lajos Döbrőssy, Róbert Koiss, Zsuzsanna Kívés, Imre Boncz
INTRODUCTION: Within the tender (6.1.3.A-13/1-2013-0001) supported by the European Union, we wished to involve health visitors into the organized cervical cancer screening program. AIM: The aim of our survey was to assess the satisfaction of health visitors, instructors, and that of the teaching aids. Furthermore, we wished to assess whether the teaching materials met the expectations. METHOD: Satisfaction of the health visitors was assessed by a survey, in four groups of questions...
March 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324483/the-contribution-of-drug-overdose-to-educational-gradients-in-life-expectancy-in-the-united-states-1992-2011
#13
Jessica Y Ho
Since the mid-1990s, the United States has witnessed a dramatic rise in drug overdose mortality. Educational gradients in life expectancy widened over the same period, and drug overdose likely plays a role in this widening, particularly for non-Hispanic whites. The contemporary drug epidemic is distinctive in terms of its scope, the nature of the substances involved, and its geographic patterning, which influence how it impacts different education groups. I use vital statistics and National Health Interview Survey data to examine the contribution of drug overdose to educational gradients in life expectancy from 1992-2011...
March 21, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321363/high-unexpected-genetic-diversity-of-a-narrow-endemic-terrestrial-mollusc
#14
Pedro M Madeira, Rosa M Chefaoui, Regina L Cunha, Francisco Moreira, Susana Dias, Gonçalo Calado, Rita Castilho
The Iberian Peninsula has an extensive record of species displaying strong genetic structure as a result of their survival in isolated pockets throughout the Pleistocene ice ages. We used mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data to analyze phylogeographic patterns in endemic land snails from a valley of central Portugal (Vale da Couda), putatively assigned to Candidula coudensis, that show an exceptionally narrow distributional range. The genetic survey presented here shows the existence of five main mitochondrial lineages in Vale da Couda that do not cluster together suggesting independent evolutionary histories...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321058/patient-perspectives-on-combination-therapy-of-a-once-weekly-oral-medication-plus-daily-medication-for-lifestyle-related-chronic-diseases
#15
Mitsuyoshi Takahara, Toshihiko Shiraiwa, Naoko Ogawa, Mayumi Yamamoto, Yuko Kusuda, Megumi Shindo, Saki Hashio, Naoto Katakami, Taka-Aki Matsuoka, Iichiro Shimomura
Objective The current study investigated whether or not patients taking multiple daily oral medications for lifestyle-related chronic diseases would have positive perspectives on changing one of their medications to a once-weekly one. Methods A total of 1,071 Japanese outpatients participated in the current study. We performed a questionnaire-based survey and compared the current satisfaction with the ongoing daily oral treatment (current daily-only treatment) and an expected satisfaction with an imaginary oral treatment changing one of their daily oral medications to a once-weekly oral medication (imaginary daily-and-weekly treatment)...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320980/effects-of-intervention-program-for-systematic-use-of-transfer-equipment-on-care-workers-low-back-pain-in-elderly-care-facilities
#16
Kazuyuki Iwakiri, Ko Matsudaira, Kiyosi Ichikawa, Masaya Takahashi
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an intervention program to prevent care workers' low back pain by the systematic use of transfer equipment at elderly care facilities. METHODS: Questionnaire surveys were administered to administrators and care workers before (baseline), 1 year after, and 2.5 year after starting the program at two elderly care facilities. Care workers at the intervention facility were requested to ensure the use of a transfer's hoist, sliding board, and sliding sheet when assisting in the transfer of residents who were judged as appropriate to use the equipment (27...
March 17, 2017: Sangyō Eiseigaku Zasshi, Journal of Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319270/evaluation-of-a-transparent-perfluorodecalin-infused-patch-as-an-adjunct-to-laser-assisted-tattoo-removal-a-pivotal-trial
#17
Brian S Biesman, Cara Costner
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Laser-assisted treatment of tattoos is well recognized to produce opaque epidermal whitening that prevents multiple sequential passes during a single treatment session. The amount of epidermal whitening produced in association with the procedure can be minimized by topical application of perfluorodecalin (PFD), which is an optical clearing agent. This pivotal trial assessed the ability of a transparent PFD-infused patch used in conjunction with a Q-switched nanosecond laser in the treatment of tattoos to permit multiple laser passes during a single 5 minute treatment session in comparison to the number of passes that could be completed using conventional treatment of the tattoo with the laser alone...
March 20, 2017: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319182/the-viability-of-an-ecologically-valid-chronic-sleep-restriction-and-circadian-timing-protocol-an-examination-of-sample-attrition-compliance-and-effectiveness-at-impacting-sleepiness-and-mood
#18
David L Dickinson, Sean P A Drummond, Todd McElroy
Chronic sleep restriction (SR) increases sleepiness, negatively impacts mood, and impairs a variety of cognitive performance measures. The vast majority of work establishing these effects are tightly controlled in-lab experimental studies. Examining commonly-experienced levels of SR in naturalistic settings is more difficult and generally involves observational methods, rather than active manipulations of sleep. The same is true for analyzing behavioral and cognitive outcomes at circadian unfavorable times...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316784/characteristics-of-an-optimized-patient-information-material-for-elderly-patients-with-obstructive-pulmonary-diseases-based-on-patients-and-experts-assessment
#19
Gábor Tomisa, Alpár Horváth, Brigitta Dombai, Lilla Tamási
BACKGROUND: Life-long regular use of drugs is necessary in chronic diseases like asthma and COPD. There are several methods to improve adherence including patient information and education; however, their effectiveness on the basis of practical experience is often lower than originally planned and expected. Our objective is to develop a patient information material based on the recommendations of patients and their treating healthcare professionals to fulfill their needs. METHODS: A survey was conducted among pulmonologists (N = 262), asthma nurses (N = 102), general practitioners (N = 321) and patients with obstructive pulmonary disease (N = 978) using on line questionnaires...
2017: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316112/molecular-ecology-studies-of-species-radiations-current-research-gaps-opportunities-and-challenges
#20
Marylaure de la Harpe, Margot Paris, Dirk N Karger, Jonathan Rolland, Michael Kessler, Nicolas Salamin, Christian Lexer
Understanding the drivers and limits of species radiations is a crucial goal of evolutionary genetics and molecular ecology, yet research on this topic has been hampered by the notorious difficulty of connecting micro- and macro-evolutionary approaches to studying the drivers of diversification. To chart the current research gaps, opportunities, and challenges of molecular ecology approaches to studying radiations, we examine the literature in the journal Molecular Ecology and re-visit recent high-profile examples of evolutionary genomic research on radiations...
March 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
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