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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140142/coffee-ingestion-enhances-one-mile-running-race-performance
#1
Neil D Clarke, Darren L Richardson, James Thie, Richard Taylor
PURPOSE: Caffeine, often in the form of coffee, is frequently supplemented by athletes in an attempt to facilitate improved performance during exercise. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of coffee ingestion as an ergogenic aid prior to a one-mile (1609 m) race. METHODS: In a double-blind, randomised, crossover, placebo-controlled design 13 trained male runners completed a one-mile race 60 minutes following the ingestion of 0.09 g·kg(-1) coffee (COF), 0...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117104/current-status-of-legislation-on-dietary-products-for-sportspeople-in-a-european-framework
#2
REVIEW
José Miguel Martínez-Sanz, Isabel Sospedra, Eduard Baladía, Laura Arranz, Rocío Ortiz-Moncada, Angel Gil-Izquierdo
The consumption of nutritional ergogenic aids is conditioned by laws/regulations, but standards/regulations vary between countries. The aim of this review is to explore legislative documents that regulate the use of nutritional ergogenic aids intended for sportspeople in a Spanish/European framework. A narrative review has been developed from official websites of Spanish (Spanish Agency of the Consumer, Food Safety, and Nutrition) and European (European Commission and European Food Safety Authority) bodies...
November 8, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101174/dietary-nitrate-supplementation-in-cardiovascular-health-an-ergogenic-aid-or-exercise-therapeutic
#3
Mary N Woessner, Luke Colin McIlvenna, Joaquin Ortiz de Zevallos, Christopher Neil, Jason David Allen
Oral consumption of inorganic nitrate, which is abundant in green leafy vegetables and roots, has been shown to increase circulating plasma nitrite concentration, which can be converted to NO in low oxygen conditions. The associated beneficial physiological effects include a reduction in blood pressure, modification of platelet aggregation and increases in limb blood flow. There have been numerous studies of nitrate supplementation in healthy recreational and competitive athletes, however, the ergogenic benefits are currently unclear due to a variety of factors including small sample sizes, different dosing regimens, variable nitrate conversion rates, the heterogeneity of participants' initial fitness levels and the types of exercise tests employed...
November 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097038/impact-of-the-calcium-form-of-%C3%AE-hydroxy-%C3%AE-methylbutyrate-upon-human-skeletal-muscle-protein-metabolism
#4
D J Wilkinson, T Hossain, M C Limb, B E Phillips, J Lund, J P Williams, M S Brook, J Cegielski, A Philp, S Ashcroft, J A Rathmacher, N J Szewczyk, K Smith, P J Atherton
BACKGROUND & AIMS: β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is purported as a key nutritional supplement for the preservation of muscle mass in health, disease and as an ergogenic aid in exercise. Of the two available forms of HMB (calcium (Ca-HMB) salt or free acid (FA-HMB)) - differences in plasma bioavailability have been reported. We previously reported that ∼3 g oral FA-HMB increased muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and reduced muscle protein breakdown (MPB). The objective of the present study was to quantify muscle protein metabolism responses to oral Ca-HMB...
October 6, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042830/evaluation-of-the-effects-of-two-doses-of-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine-on-physical-and-psychomotor-performance
#5
Lena Marcus, Jason Soileau, Lawrence W Judge, David Bellar
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested that alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine (A-GPC) may be an effective ergogenic aid. The present study was designed to assess the efficacy of two doses of A-GPC in comparison to placebo and caffeine for increasing countermovement jump performance, isometric strength, and psychomotor function. METHODS: Forty-eight healthy, college aged males volunteered for the present study and underwent baseline assessment of countermovement jump (CMJ), isometric mid thigh pull (IMTP), upper body isometric strength test (UBIST), and psychomotor vigilance (PVT)...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037326/%C3%AE-hydroxy-%C3%AE-methylbutyrate-free-acid-supplementation-may-improve-recovery-and-muscle-adaptations-after-resistance-training-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Vagner R Silva, Felipe L Belozo, Thayana O Micheletti, Marcelo Conrado, Jeffrey R Stout, Gustavo D Pimentel, Adam M Gonzalez
β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate free acid (HMB-FA) has been suggested to accelerate the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle after high-intensity exercise and attenuate markers of skeletal muscle damage. Herein a systematic review on the use of HMB-FA supplementation as an ergogenic aid to improve measures of muscle recovery, performance, and hypertrophy after resistance training was conducted. This review was performed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. We included randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trials investigating the effects of HMB-FA supplementation in conjunction with resistance exercise in humans...
September 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979213/taurine-a-potential-ergogenic-aid-for-preventing-muscle-damage-and-protein-catabolism-and-decreasing-oxidative-stress-produced-by-endurance-exercise
#7
Flávia G De Carvalho, Bryan S M Galan, Priscila C Santos, Kelly Pritchett, Karina Pfrimer, Eduardo Ferriolli, Marcelo Papoti, Júlio S Marchini, Ellen C de Freitas
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of taurine and chocolate milk supplementation on oxidative stress and protein metabolism markers, and aerobic parameters in triathletes. Methods: A double-blind, crossover study was conducted with 10 male triathletes, aged 30.9 ± 1.3 year, height 1.79 ± 0.01 m and body weight 77.45 ± 2.4 kg. Three grams of taurine and 400 ml of chocolate milk (TAUchoc), or a placebo (chocolate milk) (CHOC) was ingested post exercise for 8 weeks. Oxidative stress marker levels, and 24 h urinary nitrogen, creatinine, and urea excretion were measured before and after 8 weeks of training and supplementation with TAUchoc or CHOC...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975517/the-effects-of-hyperoxia-on-sea-level-exercise-performance-training-and-recovery-a-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Matthew M Mallette, Desmond G Stewart, Stephen S Cheung
BACKGROUND: Acute exercise performance can be limited by arterial hypoxemia, such that hyperoxia may be an ergogenic aid by increasing tissue oxygen availability. Hyperoxia during a single bout of exercise performance has been examined using many test modalities, including time trials (TTs), time to exhaustion (TTE), graded exercise tests (GXTs), and dynamic muscle function tests. Hyperoxia has also been used as a long-term training stimulus or a recovery intervention between bouts of exercise...
October 3, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829368/an-acute-dose-of-specific-grape-and-apple-polyphenols-improves-endurance-performance-a-randomized-crossover-double-blind-versus-placebo-controlled-study
#9
Gaëlle Deley, Damien Guillemet, François-André Allaert, Nicolas Babault
Polyphenols are thought to be an interesting ergogenic aid for exercise and recovery. However, most studies regarding the effects of polyphenols investigated several days of supplementations. The present work aimed to study the effects of an acute intake of grape and apple polyphenols on the capacity to maintain intense exercise, here named endurance performance. Forty-eight physically active men (31 ± 6 years) were included in this study. During the two testing sessions, volunteers completed an endurance test at a high percentage of their maximal aerobic power and time to exhaustion was measured...
August 22, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771064/vitamin-d3-supplementation-does-not-improve-sprint-performance-in-professional-rugby-players-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-double-blind-intervention-study
#10
Kirsty A Fairbairn, Ingrid Jm Ceelen, C Murray Skeaff, Claire M Cameron, Tracy L Perry
Vitamin D insufficiency is common in athletes and may lower physical performance. Many cross-sectional studies associate vitamin D status with physical performance in athletes, however there have been few prospective randomised controlled trials with adequate statistical power to test this relationship, and none in the southern hemisphere. Thus, a prospective double blind, randomised placebo-controlled intervention trial was conducted, involving 57 professional rugby union players in New Zealand. Participants were randomised to receive 50,000 IU of cholecalciferol (equivalent to 3,570 IU/day) or placebo once every two weeks over 11-12 weeks...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745470/effects-of-taurine-on-markers-of-muscle-damage-inflammatory-response-and-physical-performance-in-triathletes
#11
Bryan S Martinez Galan, Flavia Giolo de Carvalho, Priscila Carvalho Santos, Ronaldo Bucken Gobbi, Carlos Kalva-Filho, Marcelo Papoti, Adelino Sanchez Silva, Ellen C Freitas
BACKGROUND: The practice of prolonged exercise with high intensity, as seen in triathlon training, can cause physiological imbalances that might result in muscle fatigue, muscle damage and changes in systemic inflammatory response, thus reduce the athletes physical performance, therefore, both adequate total caloric and macronutrient intake also the use of a specific ergogenic aid, as taurine supplementation would be an alternative to prevent inflammation and muscle damage. In order to verify the effects of 8 weeks of taurine and chocolate milk supplementation, markers of muscle damage, inflammation, and aerobic capacity were quantified in triathletes...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741186/effects-of-caffeine-supplementation-on-performance-in-ball-games
#12
REVIEW
Jingyi Shannon Chia, Laura Ann Barrett, Jia Yi Chow, Stephen Francis Burns
Although a large body of evidence exists documenting the ergogenic properties of caffeine, most studies have focused on endurance performance. However, findings from endurance sports cannot be generalized to performance in ball games where, apart from having a high level of endurance, successful athletic performances require a combination of physiological, technical and cognitive capabilities. The purpose of this review was to critically evaluate studies that have examined the effect of a single dose of caffeine in isolation on one or more of the following performance measures: total distance, sprint performance, agility, vertical jump performance and accuracy in ball games...
July 24, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713466/intra-subject-variability-of-5-km-time-trial-performance-completed-by-competitive-trained-runners
#13
James Fisher, Thomas Clark, Katherine Newman-Judd, Josh Arnold, James Steele
Time-trials represent an ecologically valid approach to assessment of endurance performance. Such information is useful in the application of testing protocols and estimation of sample sizes required for research/magnitude based inference methods. The present study aimed to investigate the intra-subject variability of 5 km time-trial running performance in trained runners. Six competitive trained male runners (age = 33.8 ± 10.1 years; stature = 1.78 ± 0.01 m; body mass = 69.0 ± 10.4 kg, [Formula: see text]O2max = 62...
June 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696986/fueling-the-triathlete-evidence-based-practical-advice-for-athletes-of-all-levels
#14
Andrew R Getzin, Cynthia Milner, Marie Harkins
Triathletes need to effectively fuel during training and racing to maximize their potential for success. While most research on fueling has focused on elite male triathletes, triathlon participation encompasses a broader demographic of racers ranging from those with aspirations of winning to those whose goals are completion. Carbohydrate is the primary macronutrient for fueling endurance activities. Athletes can usually tolerate 60 to 90 mg·h in the form of multiple different carbohydrate sources. Athletes should drink as thirst dictates and consider sodium replacement of sweat loss especially in individuals with a history of exercise-associated muscle cramps...
July 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684588/dietary-nitrate-supplementation-increases-acute-mountain-sickness-severity-and-sense-of-effort-during-hypoxic-exercise
#15
Gabriella M K Rossetti, Jamie H Macdonald, Lee J Wylie, Samuel J Little, Victoria Newton, Benjamin Wood, Kieran A Hawkins, Rhys Beddoe, Hannah E Davies, Samuel J Oliver
Dietary nitrate supplementation enhances sea level performance and may ameliorate hypoxemia at high altitude. However, nitrate may exacerbate acute mountain sickness (AMS), specifically headache. This study investigated the effect of nitrate supplementation on AMS symptoms and exercise responses with 6-h hypoxia. Twenty recreationally active men [age, 22 ± 4 yr, maximal oxygen consumption (V̇o2max), 51 ± 6 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1), means ± SD] completed this randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled crossover study...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615996/international-society-of-sports-nutrition-position-stand-safety-and-efficacy-of-creatine-supplementation-in-exercise-sport-and-medicine
#16
REVIEW
Richard B Kreider, Douglas S Kalman, Jose Antonio, Tim N Ziegenfuss, Robert Wildman, Rick Collins, Darren G Candow, Susan M Kleiner, Anthony L Almada, Hector L Lopez
Creatine is one of the most popular nutritional ergogenic aids for athletes. Studies have consistently shown that creatine supplementation increases intramuscular creatine concentrations which may help explain the observed improvements in high intensity exercise performance leading to greater training adaptations. In addition to athletic and exercise improvement, research has shown that creatine supplementation may enhance post-exercise recovery, injury prevention, thermoregulation, rehabilitation, and concussion and/or spinal cord neuroprotection...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610958/sulfate-nitrate-and-blood-pressure-an-epic-interaction-between-sulfur-and-nitrogen
#17
REVIEW
Gunter G Kuhnle, Robert Luben, Kay-Tee Khaw, Martin Feelisch
Nitrate (NO3(-))-rich foods such as green leafy vegetables are not only part of a healthy diet, but increasingly marketed for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and used as ergogenic aids by competitive athletes. While there is abundant evidence for mild hypotensive effects of nitrate on acute application there is limited data on chronic intake in humans, and results from animal studies suggest no long-term benefit. This is important as nitrate can also promote the formation of nitrosamines...
August 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574230/nicotine-effects-on-exercise-performance-and-physiological-responses-in-nicotine-na%C3%A3-ve-individuals-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Robert Johnston, Kenji Doma, Melissa Crowe
The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of smokeless forms of nicotine on physiological responses and exercise performance. Methodology and reporting were based on the PRISMA statement. The intervention was defined as any product containing nicotine that did not require smoking. Searches were conducted across two electronic databases with supplementary approaches utilized. Studies were selected following set inclusion and exclusion criteria and checked by two independent authors. A modified PEDro scale was utilized to rate study quality with studies averaging 9·3/13...
June 2, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538327/quantifying-the-effect-of-carbohydrate-mouth-rinsing-on-exercise-performance
#19
REVIEW
Daniel J Peart
The purpose of this study was to review the existing literature investigating carbohydrate mouth rinsing as an ergogenic aid using the effect sizes (ES) and percentage change in performance of the respective studies as outcome measures. A trivial-small average overall ES was present for the 25 studies included in the review (0.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.10-0.27). Effect sizes for the subgroups were ≥25 minutes (0.25, 95% CI = 0.14-0.36), ≤180 seconds (0.06, 95% CI = -0.03 to 0.15), resistance exercise (-0...
June 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523996/micro-rnas-exercise-and-cellular-plasticity-in-humans-the-impact-of-dietary-factors-and-hypoxia
#20
Timothée Watier, Anthony Mj Sanchez
Physical exercise is a stress that modulates a plethora of cellular mechanisms to promote morphological and metabolic adaptations. Substantial efforts have been made to better understand the modulation of pathways involved in cell plasticity during exercise, but human explorations may be limited because invasive procedures are often required. In recent years, minimally invasive methods for the analysis of microRNAs (miRNAs) modulation in response to exercise have been developed. miRNAs are small molecules that belong to a family of non-coding RNAs...
May 19, 2017: MicroRNA
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