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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713466/intra-subject-variability-of-5-km-time-trial-performance-completed-by-competitive-trained-runners
#1
James Fisher, Thomas Clark, Katherine Newman-Judd, Josh Arnold, James Steele
Time-trials represent an ecologically valid approach to assessment of endurance performance. Such information is useful in the application of testing protocols and estimation of sample sizes required for research/magnitude based inference methods. The present study aimed to investigate the intra-subject variability of 5 km time-trial running performance in trained runners. Six competitive trained male runners (age = 33.8 ± 10.1 years; stature = 1.78 ± 0.01 m; body mass = 69.0 ± 10.4 kg, [Formula: see text]O2max = 62...
June 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696986/fueling-the-triathlete-evidence-based-practical-advice-for-athletes-of-all-levels
#2
Andrew R Getzin, Cynthia Milner, Marie Harkins
Triathletes need to effectively fuel during training and racing to maximize their potential for success. While most research on fueling has focused on elite male triathletes, triathlon participation encompasses a broader demographic of racers ranging from those with aspirations of winning to those whose goals are completion. Carbohydrate is the primary macronutrient for fueling endurance activities. Athletes can usually tolerate 60 to 90 mg·h in the form of multiple different carbohydrate sources. Athletes should drink as thirst dictates and consider sodium replacement of sweat loss especially in individuals with a history of exercise-associated muscle cramps...
July 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684588/dietary-nitrate-supplementation-increases-acute-mountain-sickness-severity-and-sense-of-effort-during-hypoxic-exercise
#3
Gabriella M K Rossetti, Jamie Hugo Macdonald, Lee J Wylie, Samuel J Little, Victoria Newton, Benjamin Wood, Kieran A Hawkins, Rhys Beddoe, Hannah E Davies, Samuel James Oliver
Dietary nitrate supplementation enhances sea level performance and may ameliorate hypoxemia at high altitude. However, nitrate may exacerbate acute mountain sickness (AMS), specifically headache. This study investigated the effect of nitrate supplementation on AMS symptoms and exercise responses with 6h hypoxia. Twenty recreationally-active men (mean(SD): age 22(4) years, V̇O2max 51(6) mL·min-1·kg-1) completed this randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled crossover study. Twelve participants were classified as AMS- based on Environmental Symptom Questionnaire (AMS-C) score <0...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615996/international-society-of-sports-nutrition-position-stand-safety-and-efficacy-of-creatine-supplementation-in-exercise-sport-and-medicine
#4
REVIEW
Richard B Kreider, Douglas S Kalman, Jose Antonio, Tim N Ziegenfuss, Robert Wildman, Rick Collins, Darren G Candow, Susan M Kleiner, Anthony L Almada, Hector L Lopez
Creatine is one of the most popular nutritional ergogenic aids for athletes. Studies have consistently shown that creatine supplementation increases intramuscular creatine concentrations which may help explain the observed improvements in high intensity exercise performance leading to greater training adaptations. In addition to athletic and exercise improvement, research has shown that creatine supplementation may enhance post-exercise recovery, injury prevention, thermoregulation, rehabilitation, and concussion and/or spinal cord neuroprotection...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610958/sulfate-nitrate-and-blood-pressure-an-epic-interaction-between-sulfur-and-nitrogen
#5
REVIEW
Gunter G Kuhnle, Robert Luben, Kay-Tee Khaw, Martin Feelisch
Nitrate (NO3(-))-rich foods such as green leafy vegetables are not only part of a healthy diet, but increasingly marketed for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and used as ergogenic aids by competitive athletes. While there is abundant evidence for mild hypotensive effects of nitrate on acute application there is limited data on chronic intake in humans, and results from animal studies suggest no long-term benefit. This is important as nitrate can also promote the formation of nitrosamines...
August 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574230/nicotine-effects-on-exercise-performance-and-physiological-responses-in-nicotine-na%C3%A3-ve-individuals-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Robert Johnston, Kenji Doma, Melissa Crowe
The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of smokeless forms of nicotine on physiological responses and exercise performance. Methodology and reporting were based on the PRISMA statement. The intervention was defined as any product containing nicotine that did not require smoking. Searches were conducted across two electronic databases with supplementary approaches utilized. Studies were selected following set inclusion and exclusion criteria and checked by two independent authors. A modified PEDro scale was utilized to rate study quality with studies averaging 9·3/13...
June 2, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538327/quantifying-the-effect-of-carbohydrate-mouth-rinsing-on-exercise-performance
#7
Daniel J Peart
The purpose of this study was to review the existing literature investigating carbohydrate mouth rinsing as an ergogenic aid using the effect sizes (ES) and percentage change in performance of the respective studies as outcome measures. A trivial-small average overall ES was present for the 25 studies included in the review (0.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.10-0.27). Effect sizes for the subgroups were ≥25 minutes (0.25, 95% CI = 0.14-0.36), ≤180 seconds (0.06, 95% CI = -0.03 to 0.15), resistance exercise (-0...
June 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523996/micro-rnas-exercise-and-cellular-plasticity-in-humans-the-impact-of-dietary-factors-and-hypoxia
#8
Timothée Watier, Anthony Mj Sanchez
Physical exercise is a stress that modulates a plethora of cellular mechanisms to promote morphological and metabolic adaptations. Substantial efforts have been made to better understand the modulation of pathways involved in cell plasticity during exercise, but human explorations may be limited because invasive procedures are often required. In recent years, minimally invasive methods for the analysis of microRNAs (miRNAs) modulation in response to exercise have been developed. miRNAs are small molecules that belong to a family of non-coding RNAs...
May 19, 2017: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479951/acute-effects-of-24-h-sleep-deprivation-on-salivary-cortisol-and-testosterone-concentrations-and-testosterone-to-cortisol-ratio-following-supplementation-with-caffeine-or-placebo
#9
Ciaran Mc Donald, Joss Moore, Alan McIntyre, Kevin Carmody, Bernard Donne
Caffeine has become a popular ergogenic aid amongst athletes and usage to improve athletic performance has been well documented. The effect of caffeine on anabolic and catabolic hormones in a sleep-deprived s tate has had little investigation to date. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the potential of caffeine to offset the effects, if any, of short-term sleep deprivation and exercise on an athlete's testosterone and cortisol concentrations via salivary technique. Eleven competitive male athletes volunteered to be part of this prospective double-blinded study...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445231/the-effects-of-multi-day-vs-single-pre-exercise-nitrate-supplement-dosing-on-simulated-cycling-time-trial-performance-and-skeletal-muscle-oxygenation
#10
Edward Jo, Michelle Fischer, Alexandra T Auslander, Alan Beigarten, Bruce Daggy, Ken Hansen, Lisa Kessler, Adam Osmond, Hong Wang, Rachel Wes
A transient augmentation in the metabolic efficiency of skeletal muscle is the purported basis for dietary nitrate supplementation amongst competitive and recreational athletes alike. Previous studies support the ergogenic effects of nitrate supplementation as findings indicated improved microvascular blood flow, exercise economy, and performance with relatively short-term supplementation. As with most ergogenic aids, the optimum duration of supplementation prior to performance or competition, i.e. loading phase, is a critical determinant for efficacy...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426517/effects-of-betaine-supplementation-on-muscle-strength-and-power-a-systematic-review
#11
Ahmed Ismaeel
Ismaeel, A. Effects of betaine supplementation on muscle strength and power: a systematic review. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2338-2346, 2017-Betaine (BET) has recently gotten much attention for its potential role as an ergogenic aid and has become a common ingredient in peri-workout dietary supplements. The purpose of this systematic review of the literature was to investigate the effects of BET supplementation on muscular strength and power. A computerized literature search of 3 databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, and Scopus) was performed...
August 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360825/ingestion-of-oxygenated-water-enhances-lactate-clearance-kinetics-in-trained-runners
#12
Neil Fleming, Jeremiah Vaughan, Matthew Feeback
BACKGROUND: Drinks with higher dissolved oxygen concentrations have in recent times gained popularity as a potential ergogenic aid, despite a lack of evidence regarding their efficacy. The aim of this study was to assess effects of ingestion of an oxygen supplement (OS) on exercise performance and post-exercise recovery in a group of trained runners. METHODS: Trained male runners (n = 25, mean ± SD; age 23 ± 6 years, mass 70 ± 9 kg, BMI 21.9 ± 2...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349727/six-weeks-of-%C3%AE-alanine-supplementation-did-not-enhance-repeated-sprint-ability-or-technical-performances-in-young-elite-basketball-players
#13
Fabio Milioni, Paulo E Redkva, Fabio A Barbieri, Alessandro M Zagatto
Supplementation with β-alanine plays an important role as a precursor of carnosine, the most effective intramuscular buffer, and has been seen as a potential ergogenic aid, especially for high-intensity modalities such as basketball. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks of β-alanine supplementation on repeated sprint ability (RSA) and technical performances in young elite Brazilian basketball players. In total, 27 young basketball players (17±1 years) were randomized into a β-alanine group (Gβ - 6...
January 1, 2017: Nutrition and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346571/is-the-ergogenicity-of-caffeine-affected-by-increasing-age-the-direct-effect-of-a-physiological-concentration-of-caffeine-on-the-power-output-of-maximally-stimulated-edl-and-diaphragm-muscle-isolated-from-the-mouse
#14
J Tallis, R S James, V M Cox, M J Duncan
INTRODUCTION: Caffeine is a well-established performance enhancing nutritional supplement in a young healthy population, however far less is known about how its ergogenicity is affected by increasing age. A recent review has highlighted the value of studies examining the direct effect of caffeine on isolated skeletal muscle contractility, but the present work is the first to assess the direct effect of 70µM caffeine (physiological maximum) on the maximal power output of isolated mammalian muscle from an age range representing developmental to early ageing...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329785/beet-root-juice-an-ergogenic-aid-for-exercise-and-the-aging-brain
#15
Meredith Petrie, W Jack Rejeski, Swati Basu, Paul J Laurienti, Anthony P Marsh, James L Norris, Daniel B Kim-Shapiro, Jonathan H Burdette
Background: Exercise has positive neuroplastic effects on the aging brain. It has also been shown that ingestion of beet root juice (BRJ) increases blood flow to the brain and enhances exercise performance. Here, we examined whether there are synergistic effects of BRJ and exercise on neuroplasticity in the aging brain. Methods: Peak metabolic equivalent (MET) capacity and resting-state magnetic resonance imaging functional brain network organization are reported on 26 older (mean age = 65...
November 9, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165424/changbai-mountain-ginseng-panax-ginseng-c-a-mey-extract-supplementation-improves-exercise-performance-and-energy-utilization-and-decreases-fatigue-associated-parameters-in-mice
#16
Guo-Dong Ma, Chun-Hui Chiu, Yi-Ju Hsu, Chien-Wen Hou, Yi-Ming Chen, Chi-Chang Huang
Changbai Mountain Ginseng (CMG, Panax ginseng C.A. Mey) is a traditional medicine commonly found in Northeast China and grows at elevations of 2000 m or higher in the Changbai Mountain Range. CMG, considered to be a "buried treasure medicine", is priced higher than other types of ginseng. However, few studies have demonstrated the effects of CMG supplementation on exercise performance, physical fatigue, and the biochemical profile. The major compound of CMG extract was characterized by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS)...
February 5, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150477/red-ginseng-as-an-ergogenic-aid-a-systematic-review-of-clinical-trials
#17
REVIEW
Nan Hee Lee, Hyun Chul Jung, SukHo Lee
Purpose: This systematic review was performed to summarize clinical trials assessing the effect of Red Ginseng (RG) supplementation on exercise performance and fatigue recovery. Methods: Two English databases (PUBMED, MEDLINE) and two Korean databases (KISS, RISS) were used as systematic searching engines. We included only articles written in the English and Korean languages. Clinical trials, which evaluated exercise performance and recovery variables with RG supplementation, were included in this review...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134840/a2-milk-enhances-dynamic-muscle-function-following-repeated-sprint-exercise-a-possible-ergogenic-aid-for-a1-protein-intolerant-athletes
#18
Ben Kirk, Jade Mitchell, Matthew Jackson, Farzad Amirabdollahian, Omid Alizadehkhaiyat, Tom Clifford
Hyperaminoacidemia following ingestion of cows-milk may stimulate muscle anabolism and attenuate exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). However, as dairy-intolerant athletes do not obtain the reported benefits from milk-based products, A2 milk may offer a suitable alternative as it lacks the A1-protein. This study aimed to determine the effect of A2 milk on recovery from a sports-specific muscle damage model. Twenty-one male team sport players were allocated to three independent groups: A2 milk (n = 7), regular milk (n = 7), and placebo (PLA) (n = 7)...
January 28, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095077/running-performance-with-nutritive-and-non-nutritive-sweetened-mouth-rinses
#19
Keely H Hawkins, Sridevi Krishnan, Lara Ringos, Vanessa Garcia, Jamie A Cooper
Mouth rinsing (MR) with carbohydrate during exercise has been shown to act as an ergogenic aid. PURPOSE: To investigate if nutritive or nonnutritive sweetened MR affect exercise performance, and to assess the influence of sweetness intensity on endurance performance during a time-trial (TT). METHODS: This randomized, single blinded study had 4 treatment conditions. 16 subjects (9 men, 7 women) completed a 12.8km TT four different times. During each TT, subjects MR and expectorated a different solution at time 0 and every 12...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050921/influence-of-dietary-acid-load-on-exercise-performance
#20
Catherine Applegate, Mackenzie Mueller, Krystle E Zuniga
Diet composition can affect systemic pH and acid-base regulation, which may in turn influence exercise performance. An acidic environment in the muscle impairs performance and contributes to fatigue; therefore, current trends in sports nutrition place importance on maximizing the alkalinity of the body with ergogenic aids and dietary strategies. This review examines the evidence on the effects of dietary manipulations on acid load and exercise performance. Ten studies that investigated the effect of high versus low dietary acid loads on athletic performance generally identified that low dietary acid loads increased plasma pH, but did not consistently improve exercise performance at maximal or submaximal exercise intensities...
June 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
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