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Branched chain amino acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632135/evaluation-of-the-branched-chain-amino-acid-to-tyrosine-ratio-prior-to-treatment-as-a-prognostic-predictor-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis
#1
Toru Ishikawa, Michitaka Imai, Masayoshi Ko, Hiroki Sato, Yujiro Nozawa, Tomoe Sano, Akito Iwanaga, Keiichi Seki, Terasu Honma, Toshiaki Yoshida
This study evaluated whether the branched-chain amino acid-to-tyrosine ratio (BTR) is a prognostic predictive factor in patients with liver cirrhosis by determining the relationship of the BTR with event-free survival in a retrospective, observational cohort study. The medical records of patients with liver cirrhosis who visited our institution from February 2000 to May 2012 were examined. Events due to liver cirrhosis were defined as death, worsening of esophageal and/or gastric varices, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver failure...
June 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627027/elevated-serum-myostatin-level-is-associated-with-worse-survival-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis
#2
Hiroki Nishikawa, Hirayuki Enomoto, Akio Ishii, Yoshinori Iwata, Yuho Miyamoto, Noriko Ishii, Yukihisa Yuri, Kunihiro Hasegawa, Chikage Nakano, Takashi Nishimura, Kazunori Yoh, Nobuhiro Aizawa, Yoshiyuki Sakai, Naoto Ikeda, Tomoyuki Takashima, Ryo Takata, Hiroko Iijima, Shuhei Nishiguchi
BACKGROUND: We aimed to elucidate the relationship between serum myostatin levels and other markers including skeletal muscle mass and to investigate the influence of serum myostatin levels on survival for patients with liver cirrhosis (LC). METHODS: A total of 198 LC subjects were analysed in this study. Myostatin levels were measured using stored sera. We retrospectively investigated the relationship between myostatin level and other markers, and the influence of myostatin level on overall survival (OS)...
June 18, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621016/acute-effects-of-phenylbutyrate-on-glutamine-branched-chain-amino-acid-and-protein-metabolism-in-skeletal-muscles-of-rats
#3
Milan Holecek, Melita Vodenicarovova, Pavel Siman
Phenylbutyrate (PB) acts as chemical chaperone and histone deacetylase inhibitor, which is used to decrease ammonia in urea cycle disorders and has been investigated for use in the treatment of a number of lethal illnesses. We performed in vivo and in vitro experiments to examine the effects of PB on glutamine (GLN), branched-chain amino acid (BCAA; valine, leucine and isoleucine) and protein metabolism in rats. In the first study, animals were sacrificed one hour after three injections of PB (300mg/kg b...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619474/high-metabolic-versatility-of-different-toxigenic-and-non-toxigenic-clostridioides-difficile-isolates
#4
Thomas Riedel, Daniela Wetzel, Julia Danielle Hofmann, Simon Paul Erich Otto Plorin, Henning Dannheim, Mareike Berges, Ortrud Zimmermann, Boyke Bunk, Isabel Schober, Cathrin Spröer, Heiko Liesegang, Dieter Jahn, Jörg Overmann, Uwe Groß, Meina Neumann-Schaal
Clostridioides difficile (formerly Clostridium difficile) is a major nosocomial pathogen with an increasing number of community-acquired infections causing symptoms from mild diarrhea to life-threatening colitis. The pathogenicity of C. difficile is considered to be mainly associated with the production of genome-encoded toxins A and B. In addition, some strains also encode and express the binary toxin CDT. However; a large number of non-toxigenic C. difficile strains have been isolated from the human gut and the environment...
June 1, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618210/the-non-canonical-substrates-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-tyrosine-and-aspartate-aminotransferases-branched-chain-amino-acids
#5
N C Manchola, A M Silber, C Nowicki
Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, lacks genes that encode canonical branched-chain aminotransferases. However, early studies showed that when epimastigotes were grown in the presence of (14) C1 -DL-leucine, the label was incorporated into various intermediates. More recently, our studies provided evidence that T. cruzi epimastigotes display a single ATP-dependent and saturable transport system that enables epimastigotes to uptake branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) from the culture media...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614382/genome-wide-transposon-mutagenesis-of-proteus-mirabilis-essential-genes-fitness-factors-for-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infection-and-the-impact-of-polymicrobial-infection-on-fitness-requirements
#6
Chelsie E Armbruster, Valerie Forsyth-DeOrnellas, Alexandra O Johnson, Sara N Smith, Lili Zhao, Weisheng Wu, Harry L T Mobley
The Gram-negative bacterium Proteus mirabilis is a leading cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs), which are often polymicrobial. Numerous prior studies have uncovered virulence factors for P. mirabilis pathogenicity in a murine model of ascending UTI, but little is known concerning pathogenesis during CAUTI or polymicrobial infection. In this study, we utilized five pools of 10,000 transposon mutants each and transposon insertion-site sequencing (Tn-Seq) to identify the full arsenal of P...
June 14, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614215/effects-of-branched-chain-amino-acids-bcaas-on-the-progression-of-advanced-liver-disease-a-korean-nationwide-multicenter-retrospective-observational-cohort-study
#7
Jung Gil Park, Won Young Tak, Soo Young Park, Young Oh Kweon, Se Young Jang, Yu Rim Lee, Si Hyun Bae, Jae Young Jang, Do Young Kim, June Sung Lee, Ki Tae Suk, In Hee Kim, Heon Ju Lee, Woo Jin Chung, Byoung Kuk Jang, Jeong Ill Suh, Jeong Heo, Won Kee Lee
Evidence of the potential benefits of long-term oral branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation in reducing the severity of liver disease is limited.Patients who were diagnosed with liver cirrhosis with a Child-Pugh (CP) score of 8-10 were included. The BCAA group consumed BCAAs daily for at least 6 months, and the control group consumed a diet without BCAA. We analyzed the improvements based on the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, CP score, incidence of cirrhosis-related complications, and event-free survival over 2 years...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612295/neuroprotective-effect-of-creatine-and-pyruvate-on-enzyme-activities-of-phosphoryl-transfer-network-and-oxidative-stress-alterations-caused-by-leucine-administration-in-wistar-rats
#8
Elenara Rieger, Itiane Diehl de Franceschi, Thales Preissler, Clovis Milton Duval Wannmacher
Maple syrup urine disease is an autosomal metabolic disease caused by a deficiency of branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex activity. In this disease occur the accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine and their corresponding branched-chain α-keto acids in the tissues and body fluids. The affected patients may present psychomotor development delay and mental retardation. The pathophysiology of maple syrup urine disease is not entirely understood, but leucine seems to be the primary neurotoxic metabolite...
June 13, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601462/addition-of-glycerol-to-lactating-cow-diets-stimulates-dry-matter-intake-and-milk-protein-yield-to-a-greater-extent-than-addition-of-corn-grain
#9
D L Bajramaj, R V Curtis, J J M Kim, M Corredig, J Doelman, T C Wright, V R Osborne, J P Cant
The objective of this study was to determine if the addition of glycerol to the diet of dairy cows would stimulate milk protein yield in the same manner as the addition of corn grain. Twelve multiparous lactating dairy cows at 81 ± 5 d in milk were subjected to 3 dietary treatments in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design for 28-d periods. The diets were a 70% forage diet considered the basal diet, the basal diet with 19% ground and high-moisture corn replacing forages, and the basal diet with 15% refined glycerol and 4% added protein supplements to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous with the corn diet...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596955/flux-enabled-exploration-of-the-role-of-sip1-in-galactose-yeast-metabolism
#10
Christopher M Shymansky, George Wang, Edward E K Baidoo, Jennifer Gin, Amanda Reider Apel, Aindrila Mukhopadhyay, Héctor García Martín, Jay D Keasling
(13)C metabolic flux analysis ((13)C MFA) is an important systems biology technique that has been used to investigate microbial metabolism for decades. The heterotrimer Snf1 kinase complex plays a key role in the preference Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibits for glucose over galactose, a phenomenon known as glucose repression or carbon catabolite repression. The SIP1 gene, encoding a part of this complex, has received little attention, presumably, because its knockout lacks a growth phenotype. We present a fluxomic investigation of the relative effects of the presence of galactose in classically glucose-repressing media and/or knockout of SIP1 using a multi-scale variant of (13)C MFA known as 2-Scale (13)C metabolic flux analysis (2S-(13)C MFA)...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595189/increased-incretin-but-not-insulin-response-after-oral-versus-intravenous-branched-chain-amino-acids
#11
Jan Gojda, Radka Straková, Andrea Plíhalová, Petr Tůma, Jana Potočková, Jan Polák, Michal Anděl
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) are known to exert an insulinotropic effect. Whether this effect is mediated by incretins (glucagon like peptide 1 [GLP-1] or glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide [GIP]) is not known. The aim of this study was to show whether an equivalent dose of BCAA elicits a greater insulin and incretin response when administered orally than intravenously (IV). METHODS: Eighteen healthy, male subjects participated in 3 tests: IV application of BCAA solution, oral ingestion of BCAA and placebo in an equivalent dose (30...
June 9, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593724/a-new-strategy-for-creating-noncanonical-amino-acid-dependent-organisms
#12
Weimin Xuan, Peter G Schultz
The use of noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs) to control an organism's viability provides a strategy for the development of conditional 'kill switches' for live vaccines or engineered human cells. Here we report an approach inspired by the posttranslational acetylation/deacetylation of lysine residues, in which a protein encoded by a gene with an in-frame nonsense codon at an essential lysine can be expressed in its native state only upon genetic incorporation of AcK, and subsequent enzymatic deacetylation in the host cell...
June 7, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589054/a-patient-with-msud-acute-management-with-sodium-phenylacetate-sodium-benzoate-and-sodium-phenylbutyrate
#13
Melis Köse, Ebru Canda, Mehtap Kagnici, Sema Kalkan Uçar, Mahmut Çoker
In treatment of metabolic imbalances caused by maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), peritoneal dialysis, and hemofiltration, pharmacological treatments for elimination of toxic metabolites can be used in addition to basic dietary modifications. Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB) in urea-cycle disorder cases has been associated with a reduction in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations when the patients are on adequate dietary protein intake. Moreover, NaPB in treatment of MSUD patients is also associated with reduction of BCAA levels in a limited number of cases...
2017: Case Reports in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588751/protein-tolerance-to-standard-and-high-protein-meals-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis
#14
Octavio Campollo, Dirk Sprengers, Gitte Dam, Hendrik Vilstrup, Neil McIntyre
AIM: To investigate the plasma amino acid response and tolerance to normal or high protein meals in patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: The plasma amino acid response to a 20 g mixed protein meal was compared in 8 biopsy-proven compensated cirrhotic patients and 6 healthy subjects. In addition the response to a high protein meal (1 g/kg body weight) was studied in 6 decompensated biopsy-proven cirrhotics in order to evaluate their protein tolerance and the likelihood of developing hepatic encephalopathy (HE) following a porto-caval shunt procedure...
May 18, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588306/metabolomics-allow-the-discrimination-of-the-pathophysiological-relevance-of-hyperinsulinism-in-obese-prepubertal-children
#15
G Á Martos-Moreno, A Mastrangelo, V Barrios, A García, J A Chowen, F J Rupérez, C Barbas, J Argente
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Insulin resistance (IR) is the cornerstone of the obesity-associated metabolic derangements observed in obese children. Targeted metabolomics was employed to explore the pathophysiological relevance of hyperinsulinemia in childhood obesity in order to identify biomarkers of IR with potential clinical application. SUBJECTS/METHODS: One hundred prepubertal obese children (50 girls/50 boys, 50% IR and 50% non-IR in each group), underwent an oral glucose tolerance test for usual carbohydrate and lipid metabolism determinations...
June 7, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584183/nature-and-nurture-what-determines-tumor-metabolic-phenotypes
#16
REVIEW
Jared R Mayers, Matthew G Vander Heiden
Understanding the genetic basis of cancer has led to therapies that target driver mutations and has helped match patients with more personalized drugs. Oncogenic mutations influence tumor metabolism, but other tumor characteristics can also contribute to their metabolic phenotypes. Comparison of isogenic lung and pancreas tumor models suggests that use of some metabolic pathways is defined by lineage rather than by driver mutation. Lung tumors catabolize circulating branched chain amino acids (BCAA) to extract nitrogen for nonessential amino acid and nucleotide synthesis, whereas pancreatic cancer obtains amino acids from catabolism of extracellular protein...
June 5, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579160/complex-energy-metabolic-changes-in-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-and-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction
#17
REVIEW
Kirstie A De Jong, Gary D Lopaschuk
Alterations in cardiac energy metabolism contribute to the severity of heart failure. However, the energy metabolic changes that occur in heart failure are complex, and are dependent not only on the severity and type of heart failure present, but also on the coexistence of common comorbidities such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. In this article we review the cardiac energy metabolic changes that occur in heart failure. An emphasis is made on distinguishing the differences in cardiac energy metabolism between heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and in clarifying the common misconceptions surrounding the fate of fatty acids and glucose in the failing heart...
March 19, 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574481/leucine-supplementation-differently-modulates-branched-chain-amino-acid-catabolism-mitochondrial-function-and-metabolic-profiles-at-the-different-stage-of-insulin-resistance-in-rats-on-high-fat-diet
#18
Rui Liu, Hui Li, Wenjuan Fan, Qiu Jin, Tingting Chao, Yuanjue Wu, Junmei Huang, Liping Hao, Xuefeng Yang
The available findings concerning the association between branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs)-particularly leucine-and insulin resistance are conflicting. BCAAs have been proposed to elicit different or even opposite effects, depending on the prevalence of catabolic and anabolic states. We tested the hypothesis that leucine supplementation may exert different effects at different stages of insulin resistance, to provide mechanistic insights into the role of leucine in the progression of insulin resistance. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal chow diet, high-fat diet (HFD), HFD supplemented with 1...
June 2, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570075/comparative-proteome-reveals-metabolic-changes-during-the-fruiting-process-in-flammulina-velutipes
#19
Jing-Yu Liu, Ming-Chang Chang, Jun-Long Meng, Cui-Ping Feng, Hui Zhao, Ming-Liang Zhang
Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating the fruiting process in macro-fungi, especially industrially cultivated mushrooms, has long been a goal in mycological research. To gain insights into the events accompanying the transformation of mycelia into fruit-bodies in Flammulina velutipes, proteins expressed characteristically and abundantly at primordium and fruit-body stages were investigated by using the iTRAQ labeling technique. Among the 171 differentially expressed proteins, a total of 68 displayed up-regulated expression levels that were associated with 84 specific KEGG pathways...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569269/mendelian-randomization-in-cardiometabolic-disease-challenges-in-evaluating-causality
#20
REVIEW
Michael V Holmes, Mika Ala-Korpela, George Davey Smith
Mendelian randomization (MR) is a burgeoning field that involves the use of genetic variants to assess causal relationships between exposures and outcomes. MR studies can be straightforward; for example, genetic variants within or near the encoding locus that is associated with protein concentrations can help to assess their causal role in disease. However, a more complex relationship between the genetic variants and an exposure can make findings from MR more difficult to interpret. In this Review, we describe some of these challenges in interpreting MR analyses, including those from studies using genetic variants to assess causality of multiple traits (such as branched-chain amino acids and risk of diabetes mellitus); studies describing pleiotropic variants (for example, C-reactive protein and its contribution to coronary heart disease); and those investigating variants that disrupt normal function of an exposure (for example, HDL cholesterol or IL-6 and coronary heart disease)...
June 1, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
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