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Behavioral addictions

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917091/gender-differences-in-negative-affect-during-acute-tobacco-abstinence-differ-between-african-american-and-white-adult-cigarette-smokers
#1
Raina D Pang, Mariel S Bello, Madalyn M Liautaud, Andrea H Weinberger, Adam M Leventhal
Introduction: Prior studies have found heightened negative affect following tobacco abstinence in women compared to men. However, experimental work addressing whether these findings generalize across racial groups is scarce. The current study investigated whether race (Non-Hispanic White vs. Non-Hispanic African American) moderated gender differences in abstinence-induced negative affect and smoking behavior. Methods: Data were collected from 2010 to 2017 from two separate laboratory studies investigating experimentally manipulated tobacco abstinence...
June 15, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915338/heroin-abuse-results-in-shifted-rna-expression-to-neurodegenerative-diseases-and-attenuation-of-tnf%C3%AE-signaling-pathway
#2
Mei Zhu, Yu Xu, Huawei Wang, Zongwen Shen, Zhenrong Xie, Fengrong Chen, Yunhong Gao, Xin Chen, Ying Zhang, Qiang Wu, Xuejun Li, Juehua Yu, Huayou Luo, Kunhua Wang
Repeated administration of heroin results in the induction of physical dependence, which is characterized as a behavioral state of compulsive drug seeking and a high rate of relapse even after periods of abstinence. However, few studies have been dedicated to characterization of the long-term alterations in heroin-dependent patients (HDPs). Herein, we examined the peripheral blood from 810 HDPs versus 500 healthy controls (HCs) according to the inclusion criteria. Compared with the control group, significant decreases of albumin, triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels were identified in HDPs (P < 0...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915034/altering-gain-of-the-infralimbic-to-accumbens-shell-circuit-alters-economically-dissociable-decision-making-algorithms
#3
Brian M Sweis, Erin B Larson, A David Redish, Mark J Thomas
The nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh) is involved in reward valuation. Excitatory projections from infralimbic cortex (IL) to NAcSh undergo synaptic remodeling in rodent models of addiction and enable the extinction of disadvantageous behaviors. However, how the strength of synaptic transmission of the IL-NAcSh circuit affects decision-making information processing and reward valuation remains unknown, particularly because these processes can conflict within a given trial and particularly given recent data suggesting that decisions arise from separable information-processing algorithms...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913087/revisiting-the-role-of-impulsivity-and-compulsivity-in-problematic-sexual-behaviors
#4
Beáta Bőthe, István Tóth-Király, Marc N Potenza, Mark D Griffiths, Gábor Orosz, Zsolt Demetrovics
Impulsivity and compulsivity are transdiagnostic features associated with clinically relevant aspects of psychiatric disorders, including addictions. However, little research has investigated how impulsivity and compulsivity relate to hypersexuality and problematic pornography use. Thus, the aims of the present study were to investigate (a) self-reported impulsivity and compulsivity with respect to hypersexuality and problematic pornography use and (b) the similarities and possible differences between hypersexuality and problematic pornography use in these domains...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910714/repeated-cocaine-exposure-attenuates-the-desire-to-actively-avoid-a-novel-active-avoidance-runway-task
#5
David Nguyen, Yasika Nesarajah, Suzanne Erb, Rutsuko Ito
Drug addiction is a disorder in which drug seeking persists despite aversive consequences. While it is well documented in animal models of drug sensitization that repeated drug exposure enhances positive incentive motivation for drug and natural reinforcers, its effect on negative incentive motivation, defined here as the motivation to avoid a cued aversive outcome, remains an open question. In the present study, we designed a novel active avoidance (AA) runway paradigm to assess the effects of repeated cocaine exposure on the motivation to avoid an aversive outcome...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909784/modulation-of-orbitofrontal-striatal-reward-activity-by-dopaminergic-functional-polymorphisms-contributes-to-a-predisposition-to-alcohol-misuse-in-early-adolescence
#6
Travis E Baker, Natalie Castellanos-Ryan, Gunter Schumann, Anna Cattrell, Herta Flor, Frauke Nees, Tobias Banaschewski, Arun Bokde, Rob Whelan, Christian Buechel, Uli Bromberg, Dimitri Papadopoulos Orfanos, Juergen Gallinat, Hugh Garavan, Andreas Heinz, Henrik Walter, Rüdiger Brühl, Penny Gowland, Tomáš Paus, Luise Poustka, Jean-Luc Martinot, Herve Lemaitre, Eric Artiges, Marie-Laure Paillère Martinot, Michael N Smolka, Patricia Conrod
BACKGROUND: Abnormalities in reward circuit function are considered a core feature of addiction. Yet, it is still largely unknown whether these abnormalities stem from chronic drug use, a genetic predisposition, or both. METHODS: In the present study, we investigated this issue using a large sample of adolescent children by applying structural equation modeling to examine the effects of several dopaminergic polymorphisms of the D1 and D2 receptor type on the reward function of the ventral striatum (VS) and orbital frontal cortex (OFC), and whether this relationship predicted the propensity to engage in early alcohol misuse behaviors at 14 years of age and again at 16 years of age...
June 18, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909760/-epidemiology-etiology-and-treatment-of-patients-with-psychosis-and-co-morbid-substance-use-disorder
#7
Franz Moggi
Epidemiology, etiology and treatment of patients with psychosis and co-morbid substance use disorder Abstract. More than 25 years ago, when the research on the efficacy of treatments for patients with a comorbidity of psychosis and substance use disorder has been systematically started, some authors described the treatment of these patients as a "mission impossible". Approximately half of all individuals with schizophrenia develop substance use disorders in the course of their life; about one third of them a comorbid alcohol use disorder and about one quarter a comorbid substance use disorder with other addictive substances...
June 2018: Therapeutische Umschau. Revue Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903580/an-emerging-circuit-pharmacology-of-gaba-a-receptors
#8
REVIEW
Elif Engin, Rebecca S Benham, Uwe Rudolph
In the past 20 years we have learned a great deal about GABAA receptor (GABAA R) subtypes, and which behaviors are regulated or which drug effects are mediated by each subtype. However, the question of where GABAA Rs involved in specific drug effects and behaviors are located in the brain remains largely unanswered. We review here recent studies taking a circuit pharmacology approach to investigate the functions of GABAA R subtypes in specific brain circuits controlling fear, anxiety, learning, memory, reward, addiction, and stress-related behaviors...
May 25, 2018: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903305/-gender-differences-in-cluster-pattern-of-health-risk-behaviors-among-rural-middle-school-students-in-tujia-miao-autonomous-prefecture-of-xiangxi
#9
Fulan Zhang, Tiancheng Zhang, Jingmei Xiong, Jing Chen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the gender differences in cluster pattern of health risk behaviors among rural middle school students in Tujia-Miao Autonomous Prefecture of Xiangxi. METHODS: By the method of layered, random and total sampling, questionnaire survey about dietary bias, smoking, alcohol drinking, suicidal ideation, internet addiction and non-secure swimming was taken to 1974 students of eight middle schools from rural areas in four counties of Tujia-Miao Autonomous Prefecture of Xiangxi, Hunan Province in 2014...
September 2017: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902803/the-association-between-the-level-of-plasma-oxytocin-and-craving-among-former-heroin-users
#10
Shih-Hsien Lin, Po See Chen, Lan-Ting Lee, Sheng-Yu Lee, Hsin Chun Tsai, Wei Tseng Chen, Kao Chin Chen, I Hui Lee, Ru-Band Lu, Yen Kuang Yang
BACKGROUND: Animal studies have demonstrated that oxytocin can influence addiction behaviors and might interact with the dopaminergic system, which is a key component of addiction behaviors. However, related evidence from clinical studies is scarce. The aim of our study was to explore the relationship between plasma oxytocin level and heroin craving among patients receiving methadone maintenance treatment, and to ascertain whether this relationship is moderated by novelty-seeking. METHODS: The study was conducted in a methadone maintenance therapy clinic of a medical center in Taiwan...
June 14, 2018: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902038/coping-strategies-and-support-structures-of-addiction-affected-families-a-qualitative-study-from-goa-india
#11
Sydney Church, Urvita Bhatia, Richard Velleman, Gill Velleman, Jim Orford, Anil Rane, Abhijit Nadkarni
INTRODUCTION: Despite the large burden of a relative's drinking on their family members, the latter's perspectives and experiences are largely neglected. The aims of this article are to assess the coping strategies used by affected family members (AFMs) in Goa, India, and to examine the nature of the support they have for dealing with their drinking relative. METHOD: In-depth interviews were conducted with adult AFMs selected through purposive and maximum variation sampling...
June 2018: Families, Systems & Health: the Journal of Collaborative Family Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899666/epigenetic-mechanisms-of-alcohol-neuroadaptation-insights-from-drosophila
#12
REVIEW
Maria E Ramirez-Roman, Carlos E Billini, Alfredo Ghezzi
Alcohol addiction is a serious condition perpetuated by enduring physiological and behavioral adaptations. An important component of these adaptations is the long-term rearrangement of neuronal gene expression in the brain of the addicted individual. Epigenetic histone modifications have recently surfaced as important modulators of the transcriptional adaptation to alcohol as these are thought to represent a form of transcriptional memory that is directly imprinted on the chromosome. Some histone modifications affect transcription by modulating the accessibility of the underlying DNA, whereas others have been proposed to serve as marks read by transcription factors as a "histone code" that helps to specify the expression level of a gene...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899665/new-neurons-in-the-dentate-gyrus-promote-reinstatement-of-methamphetamine-seeking
#13
Chitra D Mandyam, Sucharita S Somkuwar, Robert J Oliver, Yoshio Takashima
Addictive drugs effect the brain reward circuitry by altering functional plasticity of neurons governing the circuits. Relapse is an inherent problem in addicted subjects and is associated with neuroplasticity changes in several brain regions including the hippocampus. Recent studies have begun to determine the functional significance of adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, where new neurons in the granule cell layer are continuously generated to replace dying or diseased cells. One of the many negative consequences of chronic methamphetamine (METH) abuse and METH addiction in rodent and nonhuman primate models is a decrease in neural progenitor cells in the dentate gyrus and reduced neurogenesis in the granule cell layer during METH exposure...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898188/comorbid-addictive-behaviors-in-disordered-gamblers-with-psychosis
#14
Hyoun S Kim, Briana D Cassetta, David C Hodgins, Daniel S McGrath, Lianne M Tomfohr-Madsen, Hermano Tavares
OBJECTIVE: While it has been shown that disordered gamblers with psychosis are at increased risk for comorbid psychopathology, it is unclear whether this dual-diagnosis population is also at greater risk of problematic engagement with comorbid addictive behaviors. METHODS: We tested for association between disordered gambling with psychosis and comorbid addictive behaviors in a sample of 349 treatment-seeking disordered gamblers. RESULTS: Twenty-five (7...
June 11, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896097/a-focus-on-reward-prediction-and-the-lateral-habenula-functional-alterations-and-the-behavioral-outcomes-induced-by-drugs-of-abuse
#15
REVIEW
Nicholas M Graziane, Peter A Neumann, Yan Dong
The lateral habenula (LHb) regulates reward learning and controls the updating of reward-related information. Drugs of abuse have the capacity to hijack the cellular and neurocircuit mechanisms mediating reward learning, forming non-adaptable, compulsive behaviors geared toward obtaining illicit substances. Here, we discuss current findings demonstrating how drugs of abuse alter intrinsic and synaptic LHb neuronal function. Additionally, we discuss evidence for how drug-induced LHb alterations may affect the ability to predict reward, potentially facilitating an addiction-like state...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896074/does-the-addiction-in-online-pornography-affect-the-behavioral-pattern-of-undergrad-private-university-students-in-bangladesh
#16
Md Razwan Hasan Khan Chowdhury, Mohammad Rocky Khan Chowdhury, Russell Kabir, Nirmala K P Perera, Manzur Kader
Objectives: Anecdotal reports from Bangladesh indicated that some young adults were becoming addicted to online pornography similar to how others become addicted to gambling, drugs, and alcohol. Such behaviors can have social, academic, and behavioral implications in this population. This study investigated the association between consumption of online pornography and sociobehavioral patterns among students from a private university in Bangladesh. Methods: In total, 299 undergraduate students (70...
May 2018: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895830/automatic-detection-advantage-of-network-information-among-internet-addicts-behavioral-and-erp-evidence
#17
Jinbo He, Yang Zheng, Yufeng Nie, Zongkui Zhou
Converging evidence has proved the attentional bias of Internet addicts (IAs) on network information. However, previous studies have neither explained how characteristics of network information are detected by IAs with priority nor proved whether this advantage is in line with the unconscious and automatic process. To answer the two questions, this study aims to investigate whether IAs prioritize automatic detection of network information from the behavior and cognitive neuroscience aspects. 15 severe IAs and 15 matching healthy controls were selected using Internet Addiction Test (IAT)...
June 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895183/is-smartphone-addiction-really-an-addiction
#18
Tayana Panova, Xavier Carbonell
Aims In light of the rise in research on technological addictions and smartphone addiction in particular, the aim of this paper was to review the relevant literature on the topic of smartphone addiction and determine whether this disorder exists or if it does not adequately satisfy the criteria for addiction. Methods We reviewed quantitative and qualitative studies on smartphone addiction and analyzed their methods and conclusions to make a determination on the suitability of the diagnosis "addiction" to excessive and problematic smartphone use...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892700/addictive-behaviors-and-psychological-distress-among-adolescents-and-emerging-adults-a-mediating-role-of-peer-group-identification
#19
Iina Savolainen, Markus Kaakinen, Anu Sirola, Atte Oksanen
Objective: Research suggests the sense of belonging to primary groups functions as an important social resource for youth well-being, but it can be compromised among those dealing with addiction. The current study examined how adolescents' and emerging adults' identification with a primary peer group consisting of friends, mediates the relationship between addictive behaviors and psychological distress. Method: The study utilized demographically balanced survey data on 1200 Finnish participants aged 15 to 25 (mean age 21...
June 2018: Addictive Behaviors Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892236/enkephalin-as-a-pivotal-player-in-neuroadaptations-related-to-psychostimulant-addiction
#20
REVIEW
Bethania Mongi-Bragato, María P Avalos, Andrea S Guzmán, Flavia A Bollati, Liliana M Cancela
Enkephalin expression is high in mesocorticolimbic areas associated with psychostimulant-induced behavioral and neurobiological effects, and may also modulate local neurotransmission in this circuit network. Psychostimulant drugs, like amphetamine and cocaine, significantly increase the content of enkephalin in these brain structures, but we do not yet understand the specific significance of this drug-induced adaptation. In this review, we summarize the neurochemical and molecular mechanism of psychostimulant-induced enkephalin activation in mesocorticolimbic brain areas, and the contribution of this opioid peptide in the pivotal neuroadaptations and long-term behavioral changes underlying psychostimulant addiction...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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