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Behavioral addictions

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092494/zebrafish-are-able-to-detect-ethanol-in-their-environment
#1
Steven Tran, Hayden Chow, Benjamin Tsang, Amanda Facciol, Prabhlene Gandhi, Priyanka Desai, Robert Gerlai
Zebrafish have become a popular animal model for studying the development of alcohol addiction. Several behavioral paradigms for studying alcohol addiction have been developed for zebrafish, including conditioned place preference, alcohol-induced tolerance, and withdrawal. However, alcohol choice preference tasks have not been established in zebrafish as of yet. The ability of zebrafish to detect alcohol in their environment is required in alcohol choice or preference tasks. To our knowledge, it is currently unknown whether zebrafish are able to detect alcohol in their environment immediately following bath immersion...
January 16, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092186/under-the-influence-of-facebook-excess-use-of-social-networking-sites-and-drinking-motives-consequences-and-attitudes-in-college-students
#2
Julia M Hormes
Background and aims Excessive use of social networking sites (SNS) has recently been conceptualized as a behavioral addiction (i.e., "disordered SNS use") using key criteria for the diagnosis of substance dependence and shown to be associated with a variety of impairments in psychosocial functioning, including an increased risk of problem drinking. This study sought to characterize associations between "disordered SNS use" and attitudes towards alcohol, drinking motives, and adverse consequences resulting from alcohol use in young adults...
March 2016: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087369/multidimensional-assessment-of-impulsivity-in-relation-to-obesity-and-food-addiction
#3
Lauren VanderBroek-Stice, Monika K Stojek, Steven R H Beach, Michelle R vanDellen, James MacKillop
Based on similarities between overconsumption of food and addictive drugs, there is increasing interest in "food addiction," a compulsive eating pattern defined using symptoms parallel to substance use disorders. Impulsivity, a multidimensional construct robustly linked to drug addiction, has been increasingly examined as an obesity determinant, but with mixed findings. This study sought to clarify relations between three major domains of impulsivity (i.e., impulsive personality traits, discounting of delayed rewards, and behavioral inhibition) in both obesity and food addiction...
January 10, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086837/systemic-and-individual-factors-in-the-buprenorphine-treatment-seeking-process-a-qualitative-study
#4
Valerie M Hewell, Angel R Vasquez, Inna D Rivkin
BACKGROUND: Opioid use is a significant problem in Alaska. Medication-assisted treatment for opioid use, including buprenorphine, reduces withdrawal symptoms and the harm associated with opioid abuse. Understanding consumers' treatment-seeking process is important for addressing barriers to treatment, facilitating effective service utilization, and informing policy. METHODS: To understand treatment-seeking behavior, we examined the attitudes, perceptions, and knowledge of those who would benefit from the medication-assisted treatment (MAT) buprenorphine...
January 11, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074855/mir-218-targets-mecp2-and-inhibits-heroin-seeking-behavior
#5
Biao Yan, Zhaoyang Hu, Wenqing Yao, Qiumin Le, Bo Xu, Xing Liu, Lan Ma
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of evolutionarily conserved, 18-25 nucleotide non-coding sequences that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. Recent studies implicated their roles in the regulation of neuronal functions, such as learning, cognition and memory formation. Here we report that miR-218 inhibits heroin-induced behavioral plasticity. First, network propagation-based method was used to predict candidate miRNAs that played potential key roles in regulating drug addiction-related genes. Microarray screening was also carried out to identify miRNAs responding to chronic heroin administration in the nucleus accumbens (NAc)...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070124/an-endophenotype-approach-to-the-genetics-of-alcohol-dependence-a-genome-wide-association-study-of-fast-beta-eeg-in-families-of-african-ancestry
#6
J L Meyers, J Zhang, J C Wang, J Su, S I Kuo, M Kapoor, L Wetherill, S Bertelsen, D Lai, J E Salvatore, C Kamarajan, D Chorlian, A Agrawal, L Almasy, L Bauer, K K Bucholz, G Chan, V Hesselbrock, L Koganti, J Kramer, S Kuperman, N Manz, A Pandey, M Seay, D Scott, R E Taylor, D M Dick, H J Edenberg, A Goate, T Foroud, B Porjesz
Fast beta (20-28 Hz) electroencephalogram (EEG) oscillatory activity may be a useful endophenotype for studying the genetics of disorders characterized by neural hyperexcitability, including substance use disorders (SUDs). However, the genetic underpinnings of fast beta EEG have not previously been studied in a population of African-American ancestry (AA). In a sample of 2382 AA individuals from 482 families drawn from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA), we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on resting-state fast beta EEG power...
January 10, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066708/right-inferior-frontal-cortex-activity-correlates-with-tolcapone-responsivity-in-problem-and-pathological-gamblers
#7
Andrew S Kayser, Taylor Vega, Dawn Weinstein, Jan Peters, Jennifer M Mitchell
Failures of self-regulation in problem and pathological gambling (PPG) are thought to emerge from failures of top-down control, reflected neurophysiologically in a reduced capacity of prefrontal cortex to influence activity within subcortical structures. In patients with addictions, these impairments have been argued to alter evaluation of reward within dopaminergic neuromodulatory systems. Previously we demonstrated that augmenting dopamine tone in frontal cortex via use of tolcapone, an inhibitor of the dopamine-degrading enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), reduced delay discounting, a measure of impulsivity, in healthy subjects...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065934/brain-cannabinoid-receptor-2-expression-function-and-modulation
#8
REVIEW
De-Jie Chen, Ming Gao, Fen-Fei Gao, Quan-Xi Su, Jie Wu
Cannabis sativa (marijuana) is a fibrous flowering plant that produces an abundant variety of molecules, some with psychoactive effects. At least 4% of the world's adult population uses cannabis annually, making it one of the most frequently used illicit drugs in the world. The psychoactive effects of cannabis are mediated primarily through cannabinoid receptor (CBR) subtypes. The prevailing view is that CB1Rs are mainly expressed in the central neurons, whereas CB2Rs are predominantly expressed in peripheral immune cells...
January 9, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065391/-cancer-prevention-in-france-implication-of-health-professionals
#9
REVIEW
Andrea Lasserre, Julie Gaillot, Antoine Deutsch, Claire Chauvet, Dominique Bessette, Raphaëlle Ancellin
Almost 40% of cancers are attributable to preventable cancer risk factors related to behavior. Health professionals must take into account the respective weight of the different causes of cancer to enforce effective cancer prevention. Their involvement is needed on several levels. In primary prevention, not only for vaccinations, detection and support the withdrawal of addiction, but also by a greater consideration in their patients of all cancer risk behavioral factors. This involvement is essential in the care and monitoring of patients with cancer...
January 5, 2017: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062254/the-effects-of-d-govadine-on-conditioned-place-preference-with-d-amphetamine-or-food-reward
#10
Maya O Nesbit, Carine Dias, Anthony G Phillips
Tetrahydroprotoberberines (THPB) have a high affinity for dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptors and may provide a novel treatment for drug addiction. We assessed the effects of the THPB d-govadine on the acquisition, expression, extinction and reinstatement of d-amphetamine-(1.5mg/kg, i.p.) induced conditioned place preference (CPP). Furthermore, the effects of d-govadine on conditioned association between contextual stimuli and a natural reward were examined using food-induced CPP. In separate experiments, rats received d-govadine (0, 0...
January 3, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059903/tobacco-e-cigarettes-and-child-health
#11
Lisa A Peterson, Stephen S Hecht
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: The availability of the Children's Health Exposure Assessment Resource funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences provides new opportunities for exploring the role of tobacco smoke exposure in causing harm to children. RECENT FINDINGS: Children of smokers are exposed to nicotine and other harmful tobacco smoke chemicals in utero as well as in their environment. This passive exposure to tobacco smoke has a variety of negative effects on children...
January 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055143/no-wrong-doors-findings-from-a-critical-review-of-behavioral-randomized-clinical-trials-for-individuals-with-co-occurring-alcohol-drug-problems-and-ptsd
#12
Tracy L Simpson, Keren Lehavot, Ismene L Petrakis
Prior reviews of behavioral treatments for individuals with comorbid alcohol and drug use disorders (SUD) and PTSD have not systematically considered whether comparison conditions are matched to target treatments on time and attention. A systematic literature search using PubMed MESH terms for alcohol and substance use disorders, PTSD, and treatment identified relevant behavioral randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that evaluated PTSD-oriented exposure-based treatments, addiction-focused treatments, and coping-based treatments that do not involve exposure to trauma memories...
January 5, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054395/inhalation-of-alcohol-vapor-measurement-and-implications
#13
REVIEW
Robert Ross MacLean, Gerald W Valentine, Peter I Jatlow, Mehmet Sofuoglu
Decades of alcohol research have established the health risks and pharmacodynamic profile of oral alcohol consumption. Despite isolated periods of public health concern, comparatively less research has evaluated exposure to alcohol vapor. Inhaled alcohol initially bypasses first-pass metabolism and rapidly reaches the arterial circulation and the brain, suggesting that this route of administration may be associated with pharmacological effects that increase the risk of addiction. However, detailed reviews assessing the possible effects of inhaled alcohol in humans are lacking...
January 5, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053028/activation-of-pedunculopontine-glutamate-neurons-is-reinforcing
#14
Ji Hoon Yoo, Vivien Zell, Johnathan Wu, Cindy Punta, Nivedita Ramajayam, Xinyi Shen, Lauren Faget, Varoth Lilascharoen, Byung Kook Lim, Thomas S Hnasko
: Dopamine transmission from midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons underlies behavioral processes related to motivation and drug addiction. The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) is a brainstem nucleus containing glutamate-, acetylcholine-, and GABA-releasing neurons with connections to basal ganglia and limbic brain regions. Here we investigated the role of PPTg glutamate neurons in reinforcement, with an emphasis on their projections to VTA dopamine neurons. We used cell-type-specific anterograde tracing and optogenetic methods to selectively label and manipulate glutamate projections from PPTg neurons in mice...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052701/potential-for-targeting-dopamine-darpp-32-signaling-in-neuropsychiatric-and-neurodegenerative-disorders
#15
Akinori Nishi, Takahide Shuto
Alterations in dopamine neurotransmission has been implicated in pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, and DARPP-32 plays a pivotal role in dopamine neurotransmission. DARPP-32 likely influences dopamine-mediated behaviors in animal models of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders and therapeutic effects of pharmacological treatment. Areas covered: We will review animal studies on the biochemical and behavioral roles of DARPP-32 in drug addiction, schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease...
January 13, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051841/a-review-of-a-national-training-initiative-to-increase-provider-use-of-mat-to-address-the-opioid-epidemic
#16
REVIEW
Frances R Levin, Adam Bisaga, Maria A Sullivan, Arthur Robin Williams, Kathryn Cates-Wessel
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Providers' Clinical Support System for Medication Assisted Treatment (PCSS-MAT) initiative focuses on training and mentoring health professionals in the treatment of opioid use disorders (OUD) using pharmacological strategies. Led by the American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry (AAAP), PCSS-MAT is a consortium representing four of the five national professional organizations authorized by DATA 2,000-AAAP, American Osteopathic Academy of Addiction Medicine, American Psychiatric Association, and American Society of Addiction Medicine...
December 2016: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051839/social-context-and-perspectives-of-non-medical-prescription-opioid-use-among-young-adults-in-rhode-island-a-qualitative-study
#17
Jesse L Yedinak, Elizabeth N Kinnard, Scott E Hadland, Traci C Green, Melissa A Clark, Brandon D L Marshall
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This pilot study examined the context of nonmedical prescription opioid (NMPO) use and related risk behaviors among young adults in Rhode Island, a New England region with markedly high prevalence of NMPO use and overdose mortality. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews (n = 13) with young adults (18-29 year-olds) who reported current or recent NMPO use. We also conducted focus groups (two groups, n = 14 total) with professional service providers recruited from service organizations...
December 2016: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051830/gambling-and-the-need-for-new-responses-in-public-health-with-an-addiction-sine-substantia
#18
M Crusco, F Massoni, E Luzi, P Ricci, M Pelosi, P Corbosiero, M Rapp-Ricciardi, S Ricci
BACKGROUND: The Gambling Disorder (GD) was recently defined as a behavioral addiction by the "The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV"( DSM-V) since the clinical, neurobiological and psychopathological similarities led it to be defined it as an addiction "sine substantia". The aim of this study is to formulate an "identikit" of the gambler, to evaluate a possible association between GD / emotional specific factors and the correlation between GD / substance abuse, GD / suicide...
November 2016: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050629/antireward-compulsivity-and-addiction-seminal-contributions-of-dr-athina-markou-to-motivational-dysregulation-in-addiction
#19
REVIEW
George F Koob
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Addiction is defined as a chronically relapsing disorder characterized by compulsive drug seeking that is hypothesized to derive from multiple sources of motivational dysregulation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Dr. Athina Markou made seminal contributions to our understanding of the neurobiology of addiction with her studies on the dysregulation of reward function using animal models with construct validity. Repeated overstimulation of the reward systems with drugs of abuse decreases reward function, characterized by brain stimulation reward and presumbably reflecting dysphoria-like states...
January 3, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049084/a-single-session-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-reduces-cue-induced-craving-in-patients-with-gambling-disorder
#20
A Gay, C Boutet, T Sigaud, A Kamgoue, J Sevos, J Brunelin, C Massoubre
BACKGROUND: Gambling disorder (GD) is common and disabling addictive disorder. In patients with substance use disorders, the application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) offers promise to alleviate craving. We hypothesized that applying real compared to sham rTMS over the left DLPFC would reduce gambling craving in patients with GD. METHODS: In a randomized sham-controlled crossover design, 22 treatment-seeking patients with GD received real or sham treatment with high frequency rTMS over the left DLPFC followed a week later by the other type of treatment...
December 30, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
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