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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188789/biomarker-identification-and-pathway-analysis-of-preeclampsia-based-on-serum-metabolomics
#1
Tingting Chen, Ping He, Yong Tan, Dongying Xu
Preeclampsia presents serious risk of both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Biomarkers for the detection of preeclampsia are critical for risk assessment and targeted intervention. The goal of this study is to screen potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of preeclampsia and to illuminate the pathogenesis of preeclampsia development based on the differential expression network. Two groups of subjects, including healthy pregnant women, subjects with preeclampsia, were recruited for this study. The metabolic profiles of all of the subjects' serum were obtained by liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry...
February 7, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186866/toward-postgenomics-ophthalmology-a-proteomic-map-of-the-human-choroid-retinal-pigment-epithelium-tissue
#2
Manjunath Dammalli, Krishna R Murthy, Sneha M Pinto, Kalpana Babu Murthy, Raja Sekhar Nirujogi, Anil K Madugundu, Gourav Dey, Bipin Nair, Harsha Gowda, Thottethodi Subrahmanya Keshava Prasad
Ophthalmology and visual health research have received relatively limited attention from the personalized medicine community, but this trend is rapidly changing. Postgenomics technologies such as proteomics are being utilized to establish a baseline biological variation map of the human eye and related tissues. In this context, the choroid is the vascular layer situated between the outer sclera and the inner retina. The choroidal circulation serves the photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The RPE is a layer of cuboidal epithelial cells adjacent to the neurosensory retina and maintains the outer limit of the blood-retina barrier...
February 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185288/metformin-effects-on-head-and-neck-squamous-carcinoma-microenvironment-window-of-opportunity-trial
#3
Joseph Curry, Jennifer Johnson, Patrick Tassone, Marina Domingo Vidal, Diana Whitaker Menezes, John Sprandio, Mehri Mollaee, Paolo Cotzia, Ruth Birbe, Zhao Lin, Kurren Gill, Elizabeth Duddy, Tingting Zhan, Benjamin Leiby, Michelle Reyzer, David Cognetti, Adam Luginbuhl, Madalina Tuluc, Ubaldo Martinez-Outschoorn
OBJECTIVE: The tumor microenvironment frequently displays abnormal cellular metabolism, which contributes to aggressive behavior. Metformin inhibits mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, altering metabolism. Though the mechanism is unclear, epidemiologic studies show an association between metformin use and improved outcomes in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). We sought to determine if metformin alters metabolism and apoptosis in HNSCC tumors. STUDY DESIGN: Window of opportunity trial of metformin between diagnostic biopsy and resection...
February 10, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181922/burn-serum-stimulates-myoblast-cell-death-associated-with-il-6-induced-mitochondrial-fragmentation
#4
Alvand Sehat, Ryan M Huebinger, Deborah L Carlson, Qun S Zang, Steven E Wolf, Juquan Song
BACKGROUND: Burn patients suffer muscle mass loss associated with hyperinflammation and hypercatabolism. The mitochondria are affected by this metabolic alteration. Mitochondrial fission activates a caspase cascade which ultimately leads to cell death. We postulate that burn-induced muscle loss is associated with increased mitochondrial fission and subsequent functional impairment. Further, we investigated whether the cytokine IL-6 plays a major role in mitochondrial fission-associated cell death after burn...
February 8, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177906/myocardial-protection-from-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-by-exogenous-galanin-fragment
#5
Andrei Timotin, Oleg Pisarenko, Maria Sidorova, Irina Studneva, Valentin Shulzhenko, Marina Palkeeva, Larisa Serebryakova, Aleksander Molokoedov, Oksana Veselova, Mathieu Cinato, Helene Tronchere, Frederic Boal, Oksana Kunduzova
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Galanin is a multifunctional neuropeptide with pleiotropic roles. The present study was designed to evaluate the potential effects of galanin (2-11) (G1) on functional and metabolic abnormalities in response to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Peptide G1 was synthesized by the 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc)-based solid-phase method. The chemical structure was identified by 1H-NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry...
February 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177744/impact-of-hot-and-cold-exposure-on-human-skeletal-muscle-gene-expression
#6
Roksana B Zak, Robert J Shute, Matthew W S Heesch, D Taylor La Salle, Matthew P Bubak, Nicholas E Dinan, Terence L Laursen, Dustin Russel Slivka
: Many human diseases lead to a loss of skeletal muscle metabolic function and mass. Local and environmental temperature can modulate the exercise-stimulated response of several genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and skeletal muscle function in a human model. However, the impact of environmental temperature, independent of exercise, has not been addressed in a human model. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of exposure to hot, cold, and room temperature conditions on skeletal muscle gene expression related to mitochondrial biogenesis and muscle mass...
December 1, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167126/mitochondrial-t3-receptor-and-targets
#7
Chantal Wrutniak-Cabello, François Casas, Gérard Cabello
The demonstration that TRα1 mRNA encodes a nuclear thyroid hormone receptor and two proteins imported into mitochondria with molecular masses of 43 and 28 KDa has brought new clues to better understand the pleiotropic influence of iodinated hormones. If p28 activity remains unknown, p43 binds to T3 responsive elements occurring in the organelle genome, and, in the T3 presence, stimulates mitochondrial transcription and the subsequent synthesis of mitochondrial encoded proteins. This influence increases mitochondrial activity and through changes in the mitochondrial/nuclear crosstalk affects important nuclear target genes regulating cell proliferation and differentiation, oncogenesis, or apoptosis...
February 3, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161329/mitochondria-and-cancer-chemoresistance
#8
REVIEW
Flora Guerra, Arnaldo A Arbini, Loredana Moro
Mitochondria, known for more than a century as the energy powerhouse of a cell, represent key intracellular signaling hub that are emerging as important determinants of several aspects of cancer development and progression, including metabolic reprogramming, acquisition of metastatic capability, and response to chemotherapeutic drugs. The majority of cancer cells harbors somatic mutations in the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) and/or alterations in the mtDNA content, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. Decreased mtDNA content is also detected in tumor-initiating cells, a subpopulation of cancer cells that are believed to play an integral role in cancer recurrence following chemotherapy...
February 1, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157297/identifying-functional-cysteine-residues-in-the-mitochondria
#9
Daniel W Bak, Mattia D Pizzagalli, Eranthie Weerapana
The mitochondria are dynamic organelles that regulate oxidative metabolism and mediate cellular redox homeostasis. Proteins within the mitochondria are exposed to large fluxes in the surrounding redox environment. In particular, cysteine residues within mitochondrial proteins sense and respond to these redox changes through oxidative modifications of the cysteine thiol group. These oxidative modifications result in a loss in cysteine reactivity, which can be monitored using cysteine-reactive chemical probes and quantitative mass spectrometry (MS)...
February 15, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156110/architecture-mapping-of-the-inner-mitochondrial-membrane-proteome-by-chemical-tools-in-live-cells
#10
Song-Yi Lee, Myeong-Gyun Kang, Sanghee Shin, Chulhwan Kwak, Taejoon Kwon, Jeong Kon Seo, Jong-Seo Kim, Hyun-Woo Rhee
The inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) proteome plays a central role in maintaining mitochondrial physiology and cellular metabolism. Various important biochemical reactions such as oxidative phosphorylation, metabolite production, and mitochondrial biogenesis are conducted by the IMM proteome and mitochondria-targeted therapeutics have been developed for IMM proteins which is deeply related for various human metabolic disease including cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the membrane topology of the IMM proteome remains largely unclear because of the lack of methods to evaluate it in live cells in a high-throughput manner...
February 3, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154187/decreased-mitochondrial-pyruvate-transport-activity-in-the-diabetic-heart-role-of-mpc2-acetylation
#11
Shraddha S Vadvalkar, Satoshi Matsuzaki, Craig A Eyster, Jennifer R Giorgione, Lee B Bockus, Caroline S Kinter, Michael Kinter, Kenneth M Humphries
Alterations in mitochondrial function contribute to diabetic cardiomyopathy. We have previously shown that heart mitochondrial proteins are hyper-acetylated in OVE26 mice, a transgenic model of type 1 diabetes. However, the universality of this modification and its functional consequences are not well established. In this study, we demonstrate that Akita type 1 diabetic mice exhibit hyper-acetylation. Functionally, isolated Akita heart mitochondria have significantly impaired maximal (state 3) respiration with physiological pyruvate (0...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153981/does-the-membrane-pacemaker-theory-of-metabolism-explain-the-size-dependence-of-metabolic-rate-in-marine-mussels
#12
Alexey Sukhotin, Natalia Fokina, Tatiana Ruokolainen, Christian Bock, Hans-Otto Pörtner, Gisela Lannig
According to the Membrane Pacemaker Theory of metabolism (MPT) allometric scaling of metabolic rate in animals is determined by the composition of cellular and mitochondrial membranes that changes with body size in a predictable manner. MPT has been elaborated from interspecific comparisons in mammals. It projects that the degree of unsaturation of membrane phospholipids decreases in larger organisms, thereby lowering ion permeability of the membranes and making cellular and thus whole animal metabolism more efficient...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123175/a-novel-mutation-in-taz-causes-mitochondrial-respiratory-chain-disorder-without-cardiomyopathy
#13
Nurun N Borna, Yoshihito Kishita, Kaori Ishikawa, Kazuto Nakada, Jun-Ichi Hayashi, Yoshimi Tokuzawa, Masakazu Kohda, Hiromi Nyuzuki, Yzumi Yamashita-Sugahara, Takashi Nasu, Atsuhito Takeda, Kei Murayama, Akira Ohtake, Yasushi Okazaki
Tafazzin, encoded by the TAZ gene, is a mitochondrial membrane-associated protein that remodels cardiolipin (CL), an important mitochondrial phospholipid. TAZ mutations are associated with Barth syndrome (BTHS). BTHS is an X-linked multisystemic disorder affecting usually male patients. Through sequence analysis of TAZ, we found one novel mutation c.39_60del p.(Pro14Alafs*19) by whole-exome sequencing and a reported missense mutation c.280C>T p.(Arg94Cys) by Sanger sequencing in two male patients (Pt1 and Pt2)...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118678/effect-of-sex-on-the-acute-skeletal-muscle-response-to-sprint-interval-exercise
#14
Lauren E Skelly, Jenna B Gillen, Martin J MacInnis, Brian J Martin, Adeel Safdar, Mahmood Akhtar, Maureen J MacDonald, Mark A Tarnopolsky, Martin J Gibala
What is the central question of this study? Are there sex-based differences in the acute skeletal muscle response to sprint interval training (SIT)? What is the main finding and its importance? In response to a SIT protocol that involved three 20 s bouts of 'all-out' cycling, the expression of multiple genes associated with mitochondrial biogenesis, metabolic control and structural remodelling was largely similar between men and women matched for fitness. Our findings cannot explain previous reports of sex-based differences in the adaptive response to SIT and suggest that the mechanistic basis for these differences remains to be elucidated...
January 24, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116391/a-rich-medium-chain-triacylglycerol-diet-benefits-adiposity-but-has-adverse-effects-on-the-markers-of-hepatic-lipogenesis-and-beta-oxidation
#15
Carolina Maria de Oliveira Chamma, Thereza Cristina Lonzetti Bargut, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Marcia Barbosa Aguila
We investigated the increasing amounts of medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT) in the diet on hepatic lipid metabolism. Mature C57BL/6 male mice were randomly divided into five groups (n = 10/group). The animals received their diet for 12 weeks, as a control (C group, 10% of energy from lipids); high-fat lard (HF group, isoenergetic diet, 50% of energy from lipids with lard); a mixture of lard and MCT oil (with a gradual replacement of lard by MCT: HF-MCT25%, HF-MCT75%, and HF-MCT100% groups). At euthanasia, we collected blood and dissected the liver for analyses (glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, QUICK index, and triacylglycerol, light microscopy, western blotting, and RT-qPCR)...
January 24, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114961/mif-cd74-axis-is-a-target-for-novel-therapies-in-colon-carcinomatosis
#16
Fabio Bozzi, Angela Mogavero, Luca Varinelli, Antonino Belfiore, Giacomo Manenti, Claudio Caccia, Chiara C Volpi, Galina V Beznoussenko, Massimo Milione, Valerio Leoni, Annunziata Gloghini, Alexandre A Mironov, Ermanno Leo, Silvana Pilotti, Marco A Pierotti, Italia Bongarzone, Manuela Gariboldi
BACKGROUND: Strategies aimed at obtaining a complete cytoreduction are needed to improve long-term survival for patients with colorectal cancer peritoneal carcinomatosis (CRC-pc). METHODS: We established organoid models from peritoneal metastases of two naïve CRC patients. A standard paraffin inclusion was conducted to compare their 3D structure and immunohistochemical profile with that of the corresponding surgical samples. RNA expression levels of the CRC stem cell marker LGR5 was measured by in situ hybridization...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114292/gsk3-is-a-metabolic-checkpoint-regulator-in-b-cells
#17
Julia Jellusova, Matthew H Cato, John R Apgar, Parham Ramezani-Rad, Charlotte R Leung, Cindi Chen, Adam D Richardson, Elaine M Conner, Robert J Benschop, James R Woodgett, Robert C Rickert
B cells predominate in a quiescent state until an antigen is encountered, which results in rapid growth, proliferation and differentiation of the B cells. These distinct cell states are probably accompanied by differing metabolic needs, yet little is known about the metabolic control of B cell fate. Here we show that glycogen synthase kinase 3 (Gsk3) is a metabolic sensor that promotes the survival of naive recirculating B cells by restricting cell mass accumulation. In antigen-driven responses, Gsk3 was selectively required for regulation of B cell size, mitochondrial biogenesis, glycolysis and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), in a manner mediated by the co-stimulatory receptor CD40...
March 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108330/pleiotropic-responses-to-methionine-restriction
#18
Gene P Ables, Jay E Johnson
Methionine restriction (MR) extends lifespan across different species. The main responses of rodent models to MR are well-documented in adipose tissue (AT) and liver, which have reduced mass and improved insulin sensitivity, respectively. Recently, molecular mechanisms that improve healthspan have been identified in both organs during MR. In fat, MR induced a futile lipid cycle concomitant with beige AT accumulation, producing elevated energy expenditure. In liver, MR upregulated fibroblast growth factor 21 and improved glucose metabolism in aged mice and in response to a high-fat diet...
January 17, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103301/differences-in-beef-quality-between-angus-bos-taurus-taurus-and-nellore-bos-taurus-indicus-cattle-through-a-proteomic-and-phosphoproteomic-approach
#19
Rafael Torres de Souza Rodrigues, Mario Luiz Chizzotti, Camilo Elber Vital, Maria Cristina Baracat-Pereira, Edvaldo Barros, Karina Costa Busato, Rafael Aparecido Gomes, Márcio Machado Ladeira, Taiane da Silva Martins
Proteins are the major constituents of muscle and are key molecules regulating the metabolic changes during conversion of muscle to meat. Brazil is one of the largest exporters of beef and most Brazilian cattle are composed by zebu (Nellore) genotype. Bos indicus beef is generally leaner and tougher than Bos taurus such as Angus. The aim of this study was to compare the muscle proteomic and phosphoproteomic profile of Angus and Nellore. Seven animals of each breed previously subjected the same growth management were confined for 84 days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100843/pathophysiology-and-molecular-basis-of-selected-metabolic-abnormalities-in-huntington-s-disease
#20
Jolanta Krzysztoń-Russjan
Huntington's disease (HD) is an incurable, devastating neurodegenerative disease with a known genetic background and autosomally dominant inheritance pattern. HTT gene mutation (mHTT) is associated with polymorphic fragment elongation above 35 repeats of the CAG triplet. The mHTT product is an altered protein with a poly-Q elongated fragment, with the highest expression determined in the central nervous system (CNS) and with differentiated expression outside the CNS. A drastic loss of striatal and deeper layers of the cerebral cortex neurons was determined in the CNS, but muscle and body weight mass loss with dysfunction of many organs was also observed...
December 30, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
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