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Mitochondrial mass mitochondrial metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343085/guava-fruit-extract-and-its-triterpene-constituents-have-osteoanabolic-effect-stimulation-of-osteoblast-differentiation-by-activation-of-mitochondrial-respiration-via-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#1
Konica Porwal, Subhashis Pal, Kapil Dev, Shyamsundar Pal China, Yogesh Kumar, Chandan Singh, Tarun Barbhuyan, Neeraj Sinha, Sabyasachi Sanyal, Arun Kumar Trivedi, Rakesh Maurya, Naibedya Chattopadhyay
The aim of this study was to evaluate the skeletal effect of guava triterpene-enriched extract (GE) in rats and identify osteogenic compounds thereof, and determine their modes of action. In growing female rats, GE at 250 mg/kg dose increased parameters of peak bone mass including femur length, bone mineral density (BMD) and biomechanical strength, suggesting that GE promoted modeling-directed bone growth. GE also stimulated bone regeneration at the site of bone injury. In adult osteopenic rats (osteopenia induced by ovariectomy, OVX) GE completely restored the lost bones at both axial and appendicular sites, suggesting a strong osteoanabolic effect...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336315/cardiolipin-and-mitochondrial-cristae-organization
#2
REVIEW
Nikita Ikon, Robert O Ryan
A fundamental question in cell biology, under investigation for over six decades, is the structural organization of mitochondrial cristae. Long known to harbor electron transport chain proteins, crista membrane integrity is key to establishment of the proton gradient that drives oxidative phosphorylation. Visualization of cristae morphology by electron microscopy / tomography has provided evidence that cristae are tube-like extensions of the mitochondrial inner membrane (IM) that project into the matrix space...
March 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334711/quantitative-proteomics-analysis-of-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-modulated-proteins-in-cardiac-microvascular-endothelial-cells-and-the-protective-role-of-tongxinluo
#3
Qing Li, He-He Cui, Yue-Jin Yang, Xiang-Dong Li, Gui-Hao Chen, Xia-Qiu Tian, Chen Jin, Qiu-Ting Dong, Pei-Sen Huang, Jun Xu
BACKGROUND: The protection of endothelial cells (ECs) against reperfusion injury has received little attention. In this study, we used Tandem Mass Tag (TMT) labeling proteomics to investigate the modulated proteins in an in vitro model of cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) subjected to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and their alteration by traditional Chinese medicine Tongxinluo (TXL). METHODS: Human CMECs were subjected to 2 h of hypoxia followed by 2 h of reoxygenation with different concentrations of TXL Protein expression profiles of CMECs were determined using tandem mass spectrometry...
March 24, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325886/mouse-mitochondrial-lipid-composition-is-defined-by-age-in-brain-and-muscle
#4
Amelia K Pollard, Catharine A Ortori, Reinhard Stöger, David A Barrett, Lisa Chakrabarti
Functionality of the lipid rich mitochondrial organelle declines with increased age. Recent advances in lipidomic technologies allowed us to perform a global characterisation of lipid composition in two different tissue types and age ranges. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry was used to establish and compare mitochondrial lipidomes of brain and skeletal muscle from young (4-11 weeks old) and middle age (78 weeks old) healthy mice. In middle age the brain mitochondria had reduced levels of fatty acids, particularly polyunsaturated fatty acids, while skeletal muscle mitochondria had a decreased abundance of phosphatidylethanolamine, but a pronounced increase of triglyceride levels...
March 21, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325213/mitochondrion-a-common-organelle-for-distinct-cell-deaths
#5
Z Wang, C Figueiredo-Pereira, C Oudot, H L A Vieira, C Brenner
Mitochondria are deeply involved in cell fate decisions via their multiple roles in metabolism, cell growth, and cell death. In healthy cells, these functions are highly regulated to provide sufficient energy for cell function, maintain cell homeostasis, and avoid undesirable cell death. This is achieved by an orchestrated cooperation of cellular and molecular mechanisms such as mitochondrial mass control (mitophagy vs biogenesis), oxidative phosphorylation, redox and calcium homeostasis, and the balance between pro- and antiapoptotic proteins...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321925/effects-of-6-months-aerobic-interval-training-on-skeletal-muscle-metabolism-in-middle-aged-metabolic-syndrome-patients
#6
A Guadalupe-Grau, V E Fernández-Elías, J F Ortega, F Dela, J W Helge, R Mora Rodríguez
AIM: Aerobic interval training (AIT) improves the health of metabolic syndrome patients (MetS) more than moderate intensity continuous training. However, AIT has not been shown to reverse all metabolic syndrome risk factors, possibly due to the limited duration of the training programs. PURPOSE: To assess the effects of 6 months of AIT on cardio-metabolic health and muscle metabolism in middle aged MetS. METHODS: Eleven MetS (54.5 ± 0.7 yrs old) underwent 6 month of 3 days a week supervised AIT program on a cycle-ergometer...
March 21, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303258/alterations-in-cytosolic-and-mitochondrial-u-13-c-glucose-metabolism-in-a-chronic-epilepsy-mouse-model
#7
Tanya S McDonald, Catalina Carrasco-Pozo, Mark P Hodson, Karin Borges
Temporal lobe epilepsy is a common form of adult epilepsy and shows high resistance to treatment. Increasing evidence has suggested that metabolic dysfunction contributes to the development of seizures, with previous studies indicating impairments in brain glucose metabolism. Here we aim to elucidate which pathways involved in glucose metabolism are impaired, by tracing the hippocampal metabolism of injected [U-(13)C]glucose (i.p.) during the chronic stage of the pilocarpine-status epilepticus mouse model of epilepsy...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301844/the-placenta-maternal-diet-and-adipose-tissue-development-in-the-newborn
#8
Michael E Symonds, Ian Bloor, Shalini Ojha, Helen Budge
BACKGROUND: A majority of adipose tissue present in the newborn possess the unique mitochondrial protein, uncoupling protein (UCP1). It is thus highly metabolically active and capable of producing 300 times more heat per unit mass than any other organ in the body. The extent to which maternal obesity and/or an obesogenic diet impacts on placental function thereby resetting the relative distribution of different types of fat in the fetus is unknown. SUMMARY: Developmentally the majority (if not all) fat in the fetus can be considered as classical brown fat, in which UCP1 is highly abundant...
March 17, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290602/ajs1669-a-novel-small-molecule-muscle-glycogen-synthase-activator-improves-glucose-metabolism-and-reduces-body-fat-mass-in-mice
#9
Kazuhiro Nakano, Sen Takeshita, Noriko Kawasaki, Wataru Miyanaga, Yoriko Okamatsu, Mizuki Dohi, Tadakiyo Nakagawa
Impaired glycogen synthesis and turnover are common in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. As glycogen synthase (GS) is a key enzyme involved in the synthetic process, it presents a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In the present study, we identified a novel, potent and orally available GS activator AJS1669 {sodium 2-[[5-[[4-(4,5-difluoro-2-methylsulfanyl-phenyl)phenoxy] methyl]furan-2-carbonyl]-(2-furylmethyl)amino] acetate}. In vitro, we performed a glycogen synthase 1 (GYS1) activation assay for screening GS activators and identified that the activity of AJS1669 was further potentiated in the presence of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P)...
March 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286321/synaptic-proteome-changes-in-the-hypothalamus-of-mother-rats
#10
Edina Brigitta Udvari, Katalin Völgyi, Péter Gulyássy, Diána Dimén, Viktor Kis, János Barna, Éva Rebeka Szabó, Gert Lubec, Gábor Juhász, Katalin Adrienna Kékesi, Árpád Dobolyi
To establish synaptic proteome changes associated with motherhood, we isolated synaptosome fractions from the hypothalamus of mother rats and non-maternal control females at the 11th postpartum day. Proteomic analysis by two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometric protein identification established 26 significant proteins, 7 increasing and 19 decreasing protein levels in the dams. The altered proteins are mainly involved in energy homeostasis, protein folding, and metabolic processes suggesting the involvement of these cellular processes in maternal adaptations...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274294/mitochondria-during-sea-urchin-oogenesis
#11
Maria Agnello, Maria Carmela Roccheri, Giovanni Morici, Anna Maria Rinaldi
Sea urchin represents an ideal model for studies on fertilization and early development, but the achievement of egg competence and mitochondrial behaviour during oogenesis remain to be enlightened. Oocytes of echinoid, such as sea urchin, unlike other echinoderms and other systems, complete meiotic maturation before fertilization. Mitochondria, the powerhouse of eukaryotic cells, contain a multi-copy of the maternally inherited genome, and are involved directly at several levels in the reproductive processes, as their functional status influences the quality of oocytes and contributes to fertilization and embryogenesis...
March 9, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273480/enhanced-protein-translation-underlies-improved-metabolic-and-physical-adaptations-to-different-exercise-training-modes-in-young-and-old-humans
#12
Matthew M Robinson, Surendra Dasari, Adam R Konopka, Matthew L Johnson, S Manjunatha, Raul Ruiz Esponda, Rickey E Carter, Ian R Lanza, K Sreekumaran Nair
The molecular transducers of benefits from different exercise modalities remain incompletely defined. Here we report that 12 weeks of high-intensity aerobic interval (HIIT), resistance (RT), and combined exercise training enhanced insulin sensitivity and lean mass, but only HIIT and combined training improved aerobic capacity and skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration. HIIT revealed a more robust increase in gene transcripts than other exercise modalities, particularly in older adults, although little overlap with corresponding individual protein abundance was noted...
March 7, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273203/liver-metabolic-changes-induced-by-conjugated-linoleic-acid-in-calorie-restricted-rats
#13
Camila de Moraes, Camila Andrea de Oliveira, Maria Esméria Corezola do Amaral, Gabriela Arcurio Landini, Rosana Catisti
Objective: Complexes like conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduce the percentage of body fat by increasing energy expenditure, fat oxidation, or both. The aim of this study was to verify if CLA is able to mimic caloric restriction (CR), and determine the effects of CLA on liver metabolic profile of young adult male Wistar rats. Materials and methods: We divided 36 animals into the following groups: 1) Control; 2) CLA (1% of daily food intake, 21 days, orogastric intubation); 3) Restr (fed 60% of the diet offered to controls); and 4) CLA Restr...
January 2017: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271032/bezafibrate-ameliorates-diabetes-via-reduced-steatosis-and-improved-hepatic-insulin-sensitivity-in-diabetic-tallyho-mice
#14
Andras Franko, Susanne Neschen, Jan Rozman, Birgit Rathkolb, Michaela Aichler, Annette Feuchtinger, Laura Brachthäuser, Frauke Neff, Marketa Kovarova, Eckhard Wolf, Helmut Fuchs, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Andreas Peter, Martin Hrabě de Angelis
OBJECTIVE: Recently, we have shown that Bezafibrate (BEZ), the pan-PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor) activator, ameliorated diabetes in insulin deficient streptozotocin treated diabetic mice. In order to study whether BEZ can also improve glucose metabolism in a mouse model for fatty liver and type 2 diabetes, the drug was applied to TallyHo mice. METHODS: TallyHo mice were divided into an early (ED) and late (LD) diabetes progression group and both groups were treated with 0...
March 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270856/resistance-training-to-improve-type-2-diabetes-working-toward-a-prescription-for-the-future
#15
REVIEW
Dominik H Pesta, Renata L S Goncalves, Anila K Madiraju, Barbara Strasser, Lauren M Sparks
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is rapidly increasing, and effective strategies to manage and prevent this disease are urgently needed. Resistance training (RT) promotes health benefits through increased skeletal muscle mass and qualitative adaptations, such as enhanced glucose transport and mitochondrial oxidative capacity. In particular, mitochondrial adaptations triggered by RT provide evidence for this type of exercise as a feasible lifestyle recommendation to combat T2D, a disease typically characterized by altered muscle mitochondrial function...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267914/activity-based-protein-profiling-leads-to-identification-of-novel-protein-targets-for-nerve-agent-vx
#16
Dan Carmany, Andrew J Walz, Fu-Lian Hsu, Bernard Benton, David Burnett, Jennifer Gibbons, Daan Noort, Trevor Glaros, Jennifer W Sekowski
Organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents continue to be a threat at home and abroad during the war against terrorism. Human exposure to nerve agents such as VX results in a cascade of toxic effects relative to the exposure level including ocular miosis, excessive secretions, convulsions, seizures, and death. The primary mechanism behind these overt symptoms is the disruption of cholinergic pathways. While much is known about the primary toxicity mechanisms of nerve agents, there remains a paucity of information regarding impacts on other pathways and systemic effects...
March 16, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257331/vitamin-d-and-muscle-trophicity
#17
Carla Domingues-Faria, Yves Boirie, Stéphane Walrand
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review recent findings on the involvement of vitamin D in skeletal muscle trophicity. RECENT FINDINGS: Vitamin D deficiencies are associated with reduced muscle mass and strength, and its supplementation seems effective to improve these parameters in vitamin D-deficient study participants. Latest investigations have also evidenced that vitamin D is essential in muscle development and repair. In particular, it modulates skeletal muscle cell proliferation and differentiation...
March 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253982/clinical-aspects-of-glucose-metabolism-and-chronic-disease
#18
J W Culberson
The burden of chronic disease is an emerging world health problem. Advances made in the treatment of individual disease states often fail to consider multimorbidity patterns in clinical research models. Adjusting for age as a confounder ignores its contribution as a powerful risk factor for most chronic diseases. Sarcopenia is an age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass, which is accelerated by chronic inflammation and its resulting cascade of cytokines. Skeletal muscle loss results in insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and altered mitochondrial glucose signaling pathways...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250893/african-ancestry-gradient-is-associated-with-lower-systemic-f2-isoprostane-levels
#19
Francis Annor, Michael Goodman, Bharat Thyagarajan, Ike Okosun, Ayo Doumatey, Barbara A Gower, Dora Il'yasova
Context. Low levels of systemic F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoP) increase the risk of diabetes and weight gain and were found in African Americans. Low F2-IsoPs could reflect an unfavorable metabolic characteristic, namely, slow mitochondrial metabolism in individuals with African ancestry. Objective. To examine differences in plasma F2-IsoPs in three groups with a priori different proportion of African ancestry: non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs), US-born African Americans (AAs), and West African immigrants (WAI). Design...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250276/atractylenolide-iii-enhances-energy-metabolism-by-increasing-the-sirt-1-and-pgc1%C3%AE-expression-with-ampk-phosphorylation-in-c2c12-mouse-skeletal-muscle-cells
#20
Mi Young Song, Hyo Won Jung, Seok Yong Kang, Yong-Ki Park
Targeting energy expenditure provides a potential alternative strategy for achieving energy balance to combat obesity and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In the present study, we investigated whether atractylenolide III (AIII) regulates energy metabolism in skeletal muscle cells. Differentiated C2C12 myotubes were treated with AIII (10, 20, or 50 µM) or metformin (2.5 mM) for indicated times. The levels of glucose uptake, the expressions of key mitochondrial biogenesis-related factors and their target genes were measured in C2C12 myotubes...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
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