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Mitochondrial mass mitochondrial metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730486/phosphoproteomic-analysis-of-isolated-mitochondria-in-yeast
#1
Margaux Renvoisé, Ludovic Bonhomme, Marlène Davanture, Michel Zivy, Claire Lemaire
Mitochondria play a central role in cellular energy metabolism and cell death. Deregulation of mitochondrial functions is associated with several human pathologies (neurodegenerative diseases, neuromuscular diseases, type II diabetes, obesity, cancer). The steadily increasing number of identified mitochondrial phosphoproteins, kinases, and phosphatases in recent years suggests that reversible protein phosphorylation plays an important part in the control of mitochondrial processes. In addition, many mitochondrial phosphoproteins probably still remain to be identified, considering that 30% of proteins are expected to be phosphorylated in eukaryotes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727417/oxygen-dependent-lipid-profiles-of-3d-cultured-human-chondrocytes-revealed-by-maldi-msi
#2
Brenda Bakker, Gert B Eijkel, Ron M A Heeren, Marcel Karperien, Janine N Post, Berta Cillero Pastor
Articular cartilage is exposed to a gradient of oxygen levels ranging from 5% at the surface to 1% in the deepest layers. While most cartilage research is performed in supraphysiological oxygen levels (19-21%), culturing chondrocytes under hypoxic oxygen levels (≤ 8%) promotes the chondrogenic phenotype. Exposure of cells to various oxygen levels alters their lipid metabolism, but detailed studies examining how hypoxia affects lipid metabolism in chondrocytes are lacking. To better understand the chondrocyte's behavior in response to oxygen we cultured 3D pellets of human primary chondrocytes in normoxia (20% oxygen) and hypoxia (2...
July 20, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720429/stable-isotope-based-flux-studies-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#3
REVIEW
Arthur McCullough, Stephen Previs, Takhar Kasumov
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease and is associated with the worldwide epidemics of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. NAFLD ranges from benign fat accumulation in the liver (steatosis) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and cirrhosis which can progress to hepatocellular carcinoma and liver failure. Mass spectrometry and magnetic resonance spectroscopy-coupled stable isotope-based flux studies provide new insights into the understanding of NAFLD pathogenesis and the disease progression...
July 15, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711683/anti-obesogenic-effects-of-wy14643-ppar-alpha-agonist-hepatic-mitochondrial-enhancement-and-suppressed-lipogenic-pathway-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#4
Flavia Maria Silva Veiga, Francielle Graus-Nunes, Tamiris Lima Rachid, Aline Barcellos Barreto, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Vanessa Souza-Mello
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) presents with growing prevalence worldwide, though its pharmacological treatment remains to be established. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a PPAR-alpha agonist on liver tissue structure, ultrastructure, and metabolism, focusing on gene and protein expression of de novo lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis pathways, in diet-induced obese mice. Male C57BL/6 mice (three months old) received a control diet (C, 10% of lipids, n = 10) or a high-fat diet (HFD, 50% of lipids, n = 10) for ten weeks...
July 12, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710072/circulating-acylcarnitine-profile-in-human-heart-failure-a-surrogate-of-fatty-acid-metabolic-dysregulation-in-mitochondria-and-beyond
#5
Matthieu Ruiz, Francois Labarthe, Annik Fortier, Bertrand Bouchard, Julie Thompson Legault, Virginie Bolduc, Odile Rigal, Jane Chen, Anique Ducharme, Peter A Crawford, Jean-Claude Tardif, Christine Des Rosiers
Heart failure (HF) is associated with metabolic perturbations, particularly of fatty acids (FA), which remain to be better understood in humans. This study aimed at testing the hypothesis that HF patients with reduced ejection fraction, display systemic perturbations in levels of energy-related metabolites, especially those reflecting dysregulation of FA metabolism, namely acylcarnitines (ACs). Circulating metabolites were assessed using mass spectrometry (MS)-based methods in two cohorts. The main cohort consisted of 72 controls and 68 HF patients, exhibiting depressed left ventricular ejection fraction (25...
July 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706989/inactivation-of-thermogenic-ucp1-as-a-historical-contingency-in-multiple-placental-mammal-clades
#6
Michael J Gaudry, Martin Jastroch, Jason R Treberg, Michael Hofreiter, Johanna L A Paijmans, James Starrett, Nathan Wales, Anthony V Signore, Mark S Springer, Kevin L Campbell
Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is essential for nonshivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue and is widely accepted to have played a key thermoregulatory role in small-bodied and neonatal placental mammals that enabled the exploitation of cold environments. We map ucp1 sequences from 133 mammals onto a species tree constructed from a ~51-kb sequence alignment and show that inactivating mutations have occurred in at least 8 of the 18 traditional placental orders, thereby challenging the physiological importance of UCP1 across Placentalia...
July 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705993/effects-of-%C3%AE-hydroxy-%C3%AE-methylbutyrate-hmb-on-skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-content-and-dynamics-and-lipids-after-10-days-of-bed-rest-in-older-adults
#7
Robert A Standley, Giovanna Distefano, Suzette L Pereira, Min Tian, Owen J Kelly, Paul M Coen, Nicolaas E P Deutz, Robert R Wolfe, Bret H Goodpaster
Loss of muscle mass during periods of disuse likely has negative health consequences for older adults. We have previously shown that β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation during 10 days of strict bed rest (BR) attenuates the loss of lean mass in older adults. To elucidate potential molecular mechanisms of HMB effects on muscle during bed rest and resistance training rehabilitation (RT), we examined mediators of skeletal muscle mitochondrial dynamics, autophagy and atrophy, and intramyocellular lipids...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702322/mitochondrial-transcription-factor-b2-is-essential-for-mitochondrial-and-cellular-function-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#8
Lisa M Nicholas, Bérengère Valtat, Anya Medina, Lotta Andersson, Mia Abels, Inês G Mollet, Deepak Jain, Lena Eliasson, Nils Wierup, Malin Fex, Hindrik Mulder
OBJECTIVE: Insulin release from pancreatic β-cells is controlled by plasma glucose levels via mitochondrial fuel metabolism. Therefore, insulin secretion is critically dependent on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the genes it encodes. Mitochondrial transcription factor B2 (TFB2M) controls transcription of mitochondrial-encoded genes. However, its precise role in mitochondrial metabolism in pancreatic β-cells and, consequently, in insulin secretion remains unknown. METHODS: To elucidate the role of TFB2M in mitochondrial function and insulin secretion in vitro and in vivo, mice with a β-cell specific homozygous or heterozygous knockout of Tfb2m and rat clonal insulin-producing cells in which the gene was silenced were examined with an array of metabolic and functional assays...
July 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689725/phylogenetic-analysis-of-the-allometry-of-metabolic-rate-and-mitochondrial-basal-proton-leak
#9
Elias T Polymeropoulos, R Oelkrug, C R White, M Jastroch
The mitochondrial basal proton leak (MBPL) significantly contributes to high body temperatures (Tb) and basal metabolic rates (BMR) in endotherms. In endotherms at a given body mass (M), liver MBPL is higher than in ectotherms, supporting the notion that MBPL may partly explain the evolutionary increase in metabolic rate (MR), fostering endothermy. Here, we re-addressed this assumption by performing a phylogenetic analysis comparing all available liver MBPL data for ecto- and endotherms. While MBPL within endotherms negatively scales with M and BMR as shown previously, MBPL of ectotherms does not scale allometrically with M...
August 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689720/thermal-acclimation-in-american-alligators-effects-of-temperature-regime-on-growth-rate-mitochondrial-function-and-membrane-composition
#10
Edwin R Price, Tushar S Sirsat, Sarah K G Sirsat, Gurdeep Kang, Jantana Keereetaweep, Mina Aziz, Kent D Chapman, Edward M Dzialowski
We investigated the ability of juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) to acclimate to temperature with respect to growth rate. We hypothesized that alligators would acclimate to cold temperature by increasing the metabolic capacity of skeletal muscles and the heart. Additionally, we hypothesized that lipid membranes in the thigh muscle and liver would respond to low temperature, either to maintain fluidity (via increased unsaturation) or to maintain enzyme reaction rates (via increased docosahexaenoic acid)...
August 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682939/burn-trauma-acutely-increases-the-respiratory-capacity-and-function-of-liver-mitochondria
#11
Fredrick J Bohanon, Omar Nunez Lopez, David N Herndon, Xiaofu Wang, Nisha Bhattarai, Amina El Ayadi, Anesh Prasai, Jayson W Jay, Yesenia Rojas-Khalil, Tracy E Toliver-Kinsky, Celeste C Finnerty, Ravi S Radhakrishnan, Craig Porter
BACKGROUND: A complete understanding of the role of the liver in burn-induced hypermetabolism is lacking. We investigated the acute effect of severe burn trauma on liver mitochondrial respiratory capacity and coupling control as well as the signaling events underlying these alterations. METHODS: Male BALB/c mice (8-12 weeks) received full-thickness scald burns on ∼30% of the body surface. Liver tissue was harvested 24 hours post injury. Mitochondrial respiration was determined by high-resolution respirometry...
July 4, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677739/protein-profiling-and-functional-analysis-of-liver-mitochondria-from-rats-with-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#12
Yanting You, Yuxing Zhang, Yuanyuan Lu, Keke Hu, Xiaohu Qu, Yongzhag Liu, Bin Lu, Liqin Jin
Mitochondrial dysfunction is closely associated with the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The aim of the present study was to comprehensively determine mitochondrial abnormalities in NASH by detecting the proteomics in liver mitochondria in a NASH rat model, which was induced for 16 weeks by the provision of a high fat and high cholesterol diet (HFD). Serum parameters, including triglycerides, total cholesterol, low‑density lipoprotein cholesterol and high‑density lipoprotein cholesterol were determined, and hematoxylin and eosin staining of liver tissues was examined to evaluate the NASH rat model...
June 30, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673962/potential-mechanisms-linking-sirt-activity-and-hypoxic-2-hydroxyglutarate-generation-no-role-for-direct-enzyme-de-acetylation
#13
Sergiy M Nadtochiy, Yves T Wang, Jimmy Zhang, Keith Nehrke, Xenia Schafer, Kevin Welle, Sina Ghaemmaghami, Joshua Munger, Paul S Brookes
2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) is a hypoxic metabolite with potentially important epigenetic signaling roles. The mechanisms underlying 2-HG generation are poorly understood, but evidence suggests a potential regulatory role for the sirtuin family of lysine deacetylases. Thus, we hypothesized that the acetylation status of the major 2-HG-generating enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH)) may govern their 2-HG generating activity. In-vitro acetylation of these enzymes, with confirmation by western blotting, mass spectrometry, reversibility by recombinant sirtuins, and an assay for global lysine occupancy, yielded no effect on 2-HG generating activity...
July 3, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665402/germline-bap1-mutations-induce-a-warburg-effect
#14
Angela Bononi, Haining Yang, Carlotta Giorgi, Simone Patergnani, Laura Pellegrini, Mingming Su, Guoxiang Xie, Valentina Signorato, Sandra Pastorino, Paul Morris, Greg Sakamoto, Shafi Kuchay, Giovanni Gaudino, Harvey I Pass, Andrea Napolitano, Paolo Pinton, Wei Jia, Michele Carbone
Carriers of heterozygous germline BAP1 mutations (BAP1(+/-)) develop cancer. We studied plasma from 16 BAP1(+/-) individuals from 2 families carrying different germline BAP1 mutations and 30 BAP1 wild-type (BAP1(WT)) controls from these same families. Plasma samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS), ultra-performance liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-TQ-MS), and gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS). We found a clear separation in the metabolic profile between BAP1(WT) and BAP1(+/-) individuals...
June 30, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663239/secretory-phospholipase-a2-group-iia-pla2g2a-modulates-insulin-sensitivity-and-metabolism
#15
Michael S Kuefner, Kevin Pham, Jeanna R Redd, Erin J Stephenson, Innocence Harvey, Xiong Deng, Dave Bridges, Eric Boilard, Marshall B Elam, Edwards A Park
Secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA (PLA2G2A) is a member of a family of secretory phospholipases which have been implicated in inflammation, atherogenesis and antibacterial actions. Here, we evaluated the role of PLA2G2A in the metabolic response to a high fat diet. C57BL/6 mice do not express PLA2g2a due to a frameshift mutation. We fed C57BL/6 mice expressing the human PLA2G2A gene (IIA+ mice) a fat diet and assessed the physiologic response. After 10 weeks on the high fat diet, the C57BL/6 mice were obese, but the IIA+ mice did not gain weight or accumulate lipid...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647477/derivatives-of-alkyl-gallate-triphenylphosphonium-exhibit-antitumor-activity-in-a-syngeneic-murine-model-of-mammary-adenocarcinoma
#16
Liliana Peredo-Silva, Sebastián Fuentes-Retamal, Cristian Sandoval-Acuña, Mario Pavani, Juan D Maya, Vicente Castro-Castillo, Matías Madrid-Rojas, Solange Rebolledo, Ulrike Kemmerling, Eduardo Parra, Jorge Ferreira
We previously demonstrated that alkyl gallates coupled to triphenylphosphine have a selective and efficient antiproliferative effect by inducing mitochondrial uncoupling in vitro due to the increased mitochondrial transmembrane potential of tumor cells. Therefore, in this work, the in vivo antitumor activities of alkyl gallate triphenylphosphonium derivatives (TPP(+)C8, TPP(+)C10 and TPP(+)C12) were evaluated in a syngeneic murine model of breast cancer. We found that TPP(+)C10 increased the cytosolic ADP/ATP ratio and significantly increased the AMP levels in a concentration-dependent manner in TA3/Ha murine mammary adenocarcinoma cells...
June 21, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647176/mitochondrial-oxidative-phosphorylation-efficiency-is-upregulated-during-fasting-in-two-major-oxidative-tissues-of-ducklings
#17
Pierre-Axel Monternier, Loïc Teulier, Jocelyne Drai, Aurore Bourguignon, Delphine Collin-Chavagnac, Frédéric Hervant, Jean-Louis Rouanet, Damien Roussel
Fasted endothermic vertebrates must develop physiological responses to maximize energy conservation and survival. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 1-wk. fasting in 5-wk. old ducklings (Cairina moschata) from whole-body resting metabolic rate and body temperature to metabolic phenotype of tissues and mitochondrial coupling efficiency. At the level of whole organism, the mass-specific metabolic rate of ducklings was decreased by 40% after 1-wk. of fasting, which was associated with nocturnal Tb declines and shallow diurnal hypothermia during fasting...
June 21, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641777/role-of-parl-pink1-parkin-pathway-in-adipocyte-differentiation
#18
Ming-Yuh Shiau, Pin-Shen Lee, Ying-Jyun Huang, Ching-Ping Yang, Chiao-Wan Hsiao, Kai-Yun Chang, Huan-Wen Chen, Yih-Hsin Chang
OBJECTIVE: Adipogenesis determines the number of adipocytes which is increased when individuals become obese. Mitochondria undergo remarkable morphological and functional changes during adipogenesis. PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is pivotal to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis in neural cells. The present study aimed at investigating effects of PINK1 on adipogenesis and energy metabolism. METHODS: Expression of presenilin associated rhomboid-like protein (PARL), PINK1 and Parkin, as well as the interaction among these proteins was temporally examined during adipogenesis...
July 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638045/treatment-of-sarcopenia-and-glucose-intolerance-through-mitochondrial-activation-by-5-aminolevulinic-acid
#19
Chikako Fujii, Kazutoshi Miyashita, Masanori Mitsuishi, Masaaki Sato, Kentaro Fujii, Hiroyuki Inoue, Aika Hagiwara, Sho Endo, Asuka Uto, Masaki Ryuzaki, Motowo Nakajima, Tohru Tanaka, Masanori Tamaki, Ayako Muraki, Toshihide Kawai, Hiroshi Itoh
Recently, sarcopenia has attracted attention as therapeutic target because it constitutes a risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. We focused 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) which act as electron carriers in the mitochondrial electron transport system. The mice that received ALA for 8 weeks gained muscle strength and endurance, and exhibited increased muscle mass and mitochondrial amount. Administration of ALA to sarcopenia mice aged 100 weeks and chronic kidney disease (CKD) model mice also increased muscle mass and improved physical performance...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630030/alzheimer-s-brains-show-inter-related-changes-in-rna-and-lipid-metabolism
#20
Shahar Barbash, Benjamin P Garfinkel, Rotem Maoz, Alon Simchovitz, Bettina Nadorp, Alessandro Guffanti, Estelle R Bennett, Courtney Nadeau, Andreas Türk, Lukas Paul, Torsten Reda, Yan Li, Aron S Buchman, David S Greenberg, Alexander Seitz, David A Bennett, Patrick Giavalisco, Hermona Soreq
Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves changes in both lipid and RNA metabolism, but it remained unknown if these differences associate with AD's cognition and/or post-mortem neuropathology indices. Here, we report RNA-sequencing evidence of inter-related associations between lipid processing, cognition level, and AD neuropathology. In two unrelated cohorts, we identified pathway-enriched facilitation of lipid processing and alternative splicing genes, including the neuronal-enriched NOVA1 and hnRNPA1. Specifically, this association emerged in temporal lobe tissue samples from donors where postmortem evidence demonstrated AD neuropathology, but who presented normal cognition proximate to death...
June 17, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
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