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Mitochondrial mass mitochondrial metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070865/sphingosine-1-phosphate-pretreatment-amends-hypoxia-induced-metabolic-dysfunction-and-impairment-of-myogenic-potential-in-differentiating-c2c12-myoblasts-by-stimulating-viability-calcium-homeostasis-and-energy-generation
#1
Babita Rahar, Sonam Chawla, Sanjay Pandey, Anant Narayan Bhatt, Shweta Saxena
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) has a role in transpiration in patho-physiological signaling in skeletal muscles. The present study evaluated the pre-conditioning efficacy of S1P in facilitating differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts under a normoxic/hypoxic cell culture environment. Under normoxia, exogenous S1P significantly promoted C2C12 differentiation as evident from morphometric descriptors and differentiation markers of the mature myotubes, but it could facilitate only partial recovery from hypoxia-induced compromised differentiation...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070205/plasticity-of-adipose-tissue-in-response-to-fasting-and-refeeding-in-male-mice
#2
Hao-Neng Tang, Chen-Yi Tang, Xiao-Fei Man, Shu-Wen Tan, Yue Guo, Jun Tang, Ci-La Zhou, Hou-De Zhou
BACKGROUND: Fasting is the most widely prescribed and self-imposed strategy for treating excessive weight gain and obesity, and has been shown to exert a number of beneficial effects. The aim of the present study was to determine the exact role of fasting and subsequent refeeding on fat distribution in mice. METHODS: C57/BL6 mice fasted for 24 to 72 h and were then subjected to refeeding for 72 h. At 24, 48 and 72 h of fasting, and 12, 24, 48 and 72 h of refeeding, the mice were sacrificed, and serum and various adipose tissues were collected...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068289/cancer-metabolism-the-volatile-signature-of-glycolysis-in-vitro-model-in-lung-cancer-cells
#3
Tali Feinberg, Jens Herbig, Ingrid Kohl, Guy Las, John C Cancilla, Jose S Torrecilla, Maya Ilouze, Hossam Haick, Nir Peled
Discovering the volatile signature of cancer cells is an emerging approach in cancer research, as it may contribute to a fast and simple diagnosis of tumors in vivo and in vitro. One of the main contributors to such a volatile signature is hyperglycolysis, which characterizes the cancerous cell. The metabolic perturbation in cancer cells is known as the Warburg effect; glycolysis is preferred over oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), even in the presence of oxygen. The precise mitochondrial alterations that underlie the increased dependence of cancer cells on aerobic glycolysis for energy generation have remained a mystery...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067471/traditional-and-novel-tools-to-probe-the-mitochondrial-metabolism-in-health-and-disease
#4
REVIEW
Yanfei Zhang, José L Avalos
Mitochondrial metabolism links energy production to other essential cellular processes such as signaling, cellular differentiation, and apoptosis. In addition to producing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as an energy source, mitochondria are responsible for the synthesis of a myriad of important metabolites and cofactors such as tetrahydrofolate, α-ketoacids, steroids, aminolevulinic acid, biotin, lipoic acid, acetyl-CoA, iron-sulfur clusters, heme, and ubiquinone. Furthermore, mitochondria and their metabolism have been implicated in aging and several human diseases, including inherited mitochondrial disorders, cardiac dysfunction, heart failure, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, and cancer...
January 9, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065319/xenopus-extract-approaches-to-studying-microtubule-organization-and-signaling-in-cytokinesis
#5
C M Field, J F Pelletier, T J Mitchison
We report optimized methods for preparing actin-intact Xenopus egg extract. This extract is minimally perturbed, undiluted egg cytoplasm where the cell cycle can be experimentally controlled. It contains abundant organelles and glycogen and supports active metabolism and cytoskeletal dynamics that closely mimic egg physiology. The concentration of the most abundant ∼11,000 proteins is known from mass spectrometry. Actin-intact egg extract can be used for analysis of actin dynamics and interaction of actin with other cytoplasmic systems, as well as microtubule organization...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045997/loss-of-boss-causes-shortened-lifespan-with-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-drosophila
#6
Ayako Kohyama-Koganeya, Mizuki Kurosawa, Yoshio Hirabayashi
Aging is a universal process that causes deterioration in biological functions of an organism over its lifetime. There are many risk factors that are thought to contribute to aging rate, with disruption of metabolic homeostasis being one of the main factors that accelerates aging. Previously, we identified a new function for the putative G-protein-coupled receptor, Bride of sevenless (BOSS), in energy metabolism. Since maintaining metabolic homeostasis is a critical factor in aging, we investigated whether BOSS plays a role in the aging process...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039467/targeting-cancer-stem-cell-propagation-with-palbociclib-a-cdk4-6-inhibitor-telomerase-drives-tumor-cell-heterogeneity
#7
Gloria Bonuccelli, Maria Peiris-Pages, Bela Ozsvari, Ubaldo E Martinez-Outschoorn, Federica Sotgia, Michael P Lisanti
In this report, we systematically examined the role of telomerase activity in lung and ovarian cancer stem cell (CSC) propagation. For this purpose, we indirectly gauged telomerase activity, by linking the hTERT-promoter to eGFP. Using lung (A549) and ovarian (SKOV3) cancer cells, transduced with the hTERT-GFP reporter, we then employed GFP-expression levels to fractionate these cell lines into GFP-high and GFP-low populations. We functionally compared the phenotype of these GFP-high and GFP-low populations...
December 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034896/role-of-cps1-in-cell-growth-metabolism-and-prognosis-in-lkb1-inactivated-lung-adenocarcinoma
#8
Müge Çeliktaş, Ichidai Tanaka, Satyendra Chandra Tripathi, Johannes F Fahrmann, Clemente Aguilar-Bonavides, Pamela Villalobos, Oliver Delgado, Dilsher Dhillon, Jennifer B Dennison, Edwin J Ostrin, Hong Wang, Carmen Behrens, Kim-Anh Do, Adi F Gazdar, Samir M Hanash, Ayumu Taguchi
BACKGROUND: Liver kinase B1 (LKB1) is a tumor suppressor in lung adenocarcinoma (LADC). We investigated the proteomic profiles of 45 LADC cell lines with and without LKB1 inactivation. Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1), the first rate-limiting mitochondrial enzyme in the urea cycle, was distinctively overexpressed in LKB1-inactivated LADC cell lines. We therefore assessed the role of CPS1 and its clinical relevance in LKB1-inactivated LADC. METHODS: Mass spectrometric profiling of proteome and metabolome and function of CPS1 were analyzed in LADC cell lines...
March 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018212/mitochondrial-functional-changes-characterization-in-young-and-senescent-human-adipose-derived-mscs
#9
Bernd R Stab, Laura Martinez, Adriana Grismaldo, Alejandra Lerma, María L Gutiérrez, Luis A Barrera, Jhon J Sutachan, Sonia L Albarracín
Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that in response to the cell's bio-energetic state continuously undergo structural remodeling fission and fusion processes. This mitochondrial dynamic activity has been implicated in cell cycle, autophagy, and age-related diseases. Adult tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells present a therapeutic potential. However, to obtain an adequate mesenchymal stromal/stem cell number for clinical use, extensive in vitro expansion is required. Unfortunately, these cells undergo replicative senescence rapidly by mechanisms that are not well understood...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017650/dysregulation-of-mitophagy-in-carcinogenesis-and-tumor-progression
#10
REVIEW
Joon Young Chang, Hyon-Seung Yi, Hyeon-Woo Kim, Minho Shong
The mitochondrial role in carcinogenesis and cancer progression is an area of active research, with many unresolved questions. Various aspects of altered mitochondrial function have been implicated in tumorigenesis and tumor progression, including mitochondrial dysfunction, a metabolic switch to aerobic glycolysis, and dysregulation of mitophagy. Mitophagy is a highly specific quality control process which eliminates dysfunctional mitochondria and promotes mitochondrial turnover, and is involved in the adaptation to nutrient stress by controlling mitochondrial mass...
December 23, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012248/sesamol-ameliorates-diet-induced-obesity-in-c57bl-6j-mice-and-suppresses-adipogenesis-in-3t3-l1-cells-via-regulating-mitochondria-lipid-metabolism
#11
Zhigang Liu, Qinglian Qiao, Yali Sun, Yuwei Chen, Bo Ren, Xuebo Liu
SCOPE: The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of sesamol, a natural powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory phenol derivative of sesame oil, on adiposity and adiposity-related metabolic disturbances in mice fed with western diet, and the potential underlying mechanisms focusing on the mitochondria-lipid metabolism. METHODS & RESULTS: In the experimental model that consisted of 3 month-old C57BL/6J mice divided into 3 groups with/without sesamol in the drinking water including standard diet, high fat and high fructose diet (HFFD), and HFFD with sesamol...
December 24, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008622/short-term-ammonium-supply-induces-cellular-defence-to-prevent-oxidative-stress-in-arabidopsis-leaves
#12
Anna Podgórska, Maria Burian, Anna M Rychter, Allan G Rasmusson, Bożena Szal
Plants can assimilate nitrogen from soil pools of both ammonium and nitrate, and the relative levels of these two nitrogen sources are highly variable in soil. Long-term ammonium nutrition is known to cause damage to Arabidopsis that has been linked to mitochondrial oxidative stress. Using hydroponic cultures, we analysed the consequences of rapid shifts between nitrate and ammonium nutrition. This did not induce growth retardation, showing that Arabidopsis can compensate for the changes in redox metabolism associated with the variations in nitrogen redox status...
December 23, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008307/specific-metabolomics-adaptations-define-a-differential-regional-vulnerability-in-the-adult-human-cerebral-cortex
#13
Rosanna Cabré, Mariona Jové, Alba Naudí, Victoria Ayala, Gerard Piñol-Ripoll, Maria P Gil-Villar, Mayelin Dominguez-Gonzalez, Èlia Obis, Rebeca Berdun, Natalia Mota-Martorell, Manuel Portero-Otin, Isidre Ferrer, Reinald Pamplona
Brain neurons offer diverse responses to stresses and detrimental factors during development and aging, and as a result of both neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. This multiplicity of responses can be ascribed to the great diversity among neuronal populations. Here we have determined the metabolomic profile of three healthy adult human brain regions-entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, and frontal cortex-using mass spectrometry-based technologies. Our results show the existence of a lessened energy demand, mitochondrial stress, and lower one-carbon metabolism (particularly restricted to the methionine cycle) specifically in frontal cortex...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005939/muscle-arnt-hif1%C3%AE-is-dispensable-in-myofiber-type-determination-vascularization-and-insulin-sensitivity
#14
Pierre-Marie Badin, Danesh H Sopariwala, Sabina Lorca, Vihang A Narkar
Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator/ hypoxia-inducible factor 1 beta (ARNT/ HIF1β), a member of bHLH-PAS family of transcriptional factors, plays a critical role in metabolic homeostasis, insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. The contributions of ARNT in pancreas, liver and adipose tissue to energy balance through gene regulation have been described. Surprisingly, the impact of ARNT signaling in the skeletal muscles, one of the major organs involved in glucose disposal, has not been investigated, especially in type II diabetes...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992860/proteomic-profiling-of-mitochondria-what-does-it-tell-us-about-the-ageing-brain
#15
Thomas Ingram, Lisa Chakrabarti
Mitochondrial dysfunction is evident in numerous neurodegenerative and age-related disorders. It has also been linked to cellular ageing, however our current understanding of the mitochondrial changes that occur are unclear. Functional studies have made some progress reporting reduced respiration, dynamic structural modifications and loss of membrane potential, though there are conflicts within these findings. Proteomic analyses, together with functional studies, are required in order to profile the mitochondrial changes that occur with age and can contribute to unravelling the complexity of the ageing phenotype...
December 13, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989747/chronic-postnatal-monoamine-oxidase-inhibition-affects-affiliative-behavior-in-rat-pupso
#16
Sofia Blazevic, Mirna Merkler, Dora Persic, Dubravka Hranilovic
Monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), and noradrenaline (NA) act as important modulators of mammalian brain development and represent neurobiological substrates of affiliative behavior reflected in rat pups as a tendency to huddle or produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) when separated from the nest. Monoamines are metabolized through oxidative deamination catalyzed by the mitochondrial enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO). In this study, we examined the consequences of postnatal MAO inhibition on affiliative behavior in rat pups...
December 15, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943070/development-of-a-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-for-rapid-measurement-of-medium-and-very-long-chain-acyl-coa-dehydrogenase-activity-in-fibroblasts
#17
Damien Bouvier, Christine Vianey-Saban, Séverine Ruet, Cécile Acquaviva
Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation is a vital biochemical process for energy metabolism. Among the known fatty-acid metabolism disorders, very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency count among the most frequent. Both are potentially very serious diseases as they carry a risk of severe neurological post-crisis sequelae, and even sudden death. Diagnosis relies on plasma acylcarnitine profile analysis and urine organic acid analysis, followed by genetic testing to confirm diagnosis...
December 10, 2016: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941971/plasma-metabolomics-biosignature-according-to-hiv-stage-of-infection-pace-of-disease-progression-viremia-level-and-immunological-response-to-treatment
#18
Bruno Scarpelini, Michelle Zanoni, Maria Cecilia Araripe Sucupira, Hong-Ha M Truong, Luiz Mario Ramos Janini, Ismael Dale Cotrin Segurado, Ricardo Sobhie Diaz
BACKGROUND: We evaluated plasma samples HIV-infected individuals with different phenotypic profile among five HIV-infected elite controllers and five rapid progressors after recent HIV infection and one year later and from 10 individuals subjected to antiretroviral therapy, five of whom were immunological non-responders (INR), before and after one year of antiretroviral treatment compared to 175 samples from HIV-negative patients. A targeted quantitative tandem mass spectrometry metabolomics approach was used in order to determine plasma metabolomics biosignature that may relate to HIV infection, pace of HIV disease progression, and immunological response to treatment...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940620/how-to-build-a-deep-diver-the-extreme-morphology-of-mesoplodonts
#19
D Ann Pabst, William A McLellan, Sentiel A Rommel
Mesoplodont beaked whales are extreme divers, diving for over 45 mins and to depths of over 800 m. These dives are of similar depth and duration to those of the giant sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) whose body mass can be 50 times larger. Velten et al. (2013) provided anatomical data that demonstrated that on-board oxygen stores were sufficient to aerobically support the extreme dives of mesoplodonts if their diving metabolic rates are low. Because no physiological data yet exist, we utilized an anatomical approach-the body composition technique-to examine the relative metabolic rates of mesoplodonts...
December 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940153/fyn-kinase-regulates-translation-in-mammalian-mitochondria
#20
Emine C Koc, Jennifer L Miller-Lee, Hasan Koc
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial translation machinery solely exists for the synthesis of 13 mitochondrially-encoded subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes in mammals. Therefore, it plays a critical role in mitochondrial energy production. However, regulation of the mitochondrial translation machinery is still poorly understood. In comprehensive proteomics studies with normal and diseased tissues and cell lines, we and others have found the majority of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins (MRPs) to be phosphorylated...
December 7, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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