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Mitochondrial mass mitochondrial metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813526/mtor-has-a-developmental-stage-specific-role-in-mitochondrial-fitness-independent-of-conventional-mtorc1-and-mtorc2-and-the-kinase-activity
#1
Khalid W Kalim, Shuangmin Zhang, Xiaoyi Chen, Yuan Li, Jun-Qi Yang, Yi Zheng, Fukun Guo
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), present in mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTORC2, is a serine/threonine kinase that integrates nutrients, growth factors, and cellular energy status to control protein synthesis, cell growth, survival and metabolism. However, it remains elusive whether mTOR plays a developmental stage-specific role in tissue development and whether mTOR can function independent of its complexes and kinase activity. In this study, by inducible genetic manipulation approach, we investigated the role of mTOR and its dependence on mTOR complexes and kinase activity in mitochondrial fitness of early, progenitor stage (lineage-negative; Lin-) versus later, lineage-committed stage (lineage-positive; Lin+) of hematopoietic cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808255/critical-role-for-arginase-2-in-obesity-associated-pancreatic-cancer
#2
Tamara Zaytouni, Pei-Yun Tsai, Daniel S Hitchcock, Cory D DuBois, Elizaveta Freinkman, Lin Lin, Vicente Morales-Oyarvide, Patrick J Lenehan, Brian M Wolpin, Mari Mino-Kenudson, Eduardo M Torres, Nicholas Stylopoulos, Clary B Clish, Nada Y Kalaany
Obesity is an established risk factor for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). Despite recent identification of metabolic alterations in this lethal malignancy, the metabolic dependencies of obesity-associated PDA remain unknown. Here we show that obesity-driven PDA exhibits accelerated growth and a striking transcriptional enrichment for pathways regulating nitrogen metabolism. We find that the mitochondrial form of arginase (ARG2), which hydrolyzes arginine into ornithine and urea, is induced upon obesity, and silencing or loss of ARG2 markedly suppresses PDA...
August 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807877/cryptotanshinone-promotes-commitment-to-the-brown-adipocyte-lineage-and-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-c3h10t1-2-mesenchymal-stem-cells-via-ampk-and-p38-mapk-signaling
#3
Khan Mohammad Imran, Naimur Rahman, Dahyeon Yoon, Miso Jeon, Byong-Taek Lee, Yong-Sik Kim
Although white adipose tissue (WAT) stores triglycerides and contributes to obesity, brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy as heat. Therefore, browning of WAT is regarded as an attractive way to counteract obesity. Our previous studies have revealed that treatment with cryptotanshinone (CT) during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells inhibits their differentiation. Here, we found that pretreatment of C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cells with CT before exposure to adipogenic hormonal stimuli promotes the commitment of these mesenchymal stem cells to the adipocyte lineage as confirmed by increased triglyceride accumulation...
August 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804911/chronic-ethanol-metabolism-inhibits-hepatic-mitochondrial-superoxide-dismutase-via-lysine-acetylation
#4
Mohammed A Assiri, Samantha R Roy, Peter S Harris, Hadi Ali, Yongliang Liang, Colin T Shearn, David J Orlicky, James R Roede, Matthew D Hirschey, Donald S Backos, Kristofer S Fritz
BACKGROUND: Chronic ethanol consumption is a major cause of liver disease worldwide. Oxidative stress is a known consequence of ethanol metabolism and is thought to contribute significantly to alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Therefore, elucidating pathways leading to sustained oxidative stress and downstream redox imbalances may reveal how ethanol consumption leads to ALD. Recent studies suggest that ethanol metabolism impacts mitochondrial antioxidant processes through a number of proteomic alterations, including hyperacetylation of key antioxidant proteins...
August 14, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800132/sphingolipid-accumulation-causes-mitochondrial-dysregulation-and-cell-death
#5
Jeffrey Knupp, Fernando Martinez-Montañés, Francoise Van Den Bergh, Stephanie Cottier, Roger Schneiter, Daniel Beard, Amy Chang
Sphingolipids are structural components of cell membranes that have signaling roles to regulate many activities, including mitochondrial function and cell death. Sphingolipid metabolism is integrated with numerous metabolic networks, and dysregulated sphingolipid metabolism is associated with disease. Here, we describe a monogenic yeast model for sphingolipid accumulation. A csg2Δ mutant cannot readily metabolize and accumulates the complex sphingolipid inositol phosphorylceramide (IPC). In these cells, aberrant activation of Ras GTPase is IPC-dependent, and accompanied by increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reduced mitochondrial mass...
August 11, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798698/%C3%AE-catenin-knockdown-affects-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-lipid-metabolism-in-breast-cancer-cells
#6
Daniele Vergara, Eleonora Stanca, Flora Guerra, Paola Priore, Antonio Gaballo, Julien Franck, Pasquale Simeone, Marco Trerotola, Stefania De Domenico, Isabelle Fournier, Cecilia Bucci, Michel Salzet, Anna M Giudetti, Michele Maffia
β-catenin plays an important role as regulatory hub in several cellular processes including cell adhesion, metabolism, and epithelial mesenchymal transition. This is mainly achieved by its dual role as structural component of cadherin-based adherens junctions, and as a key nuclear effector of the Wnt pathway. For this dual role, different classes of proteins are differentially regulated via β-catenin dependent mechanisms. Here, we applied a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) approach to identify proteins modulated after β-catenin knockdown in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794205/the-human-serum-metabolome-of-vitamin-b-12-deficiency-and-repletion-and-associations-with-neurological-function-in-elderly-adults
#7
Alex Brito, Dmitry Grapov, Johannes Fahrmann, Danielle Harvey, Ralph Green, Joshua W Miller, Sergey N Fedosov, Setareh Shahab-Ferdows, Daniela Hampel, Theresa L Pedersen, Oliver Fiehn, John W Newman, Ricardo Uauy, Lindsay H Allen
Background: The specific metabolomic perturbations that occur in vitamin B-12 deficiency, and their associations with neurological function, are not well characterized.Objective: We sought to characterize the human serum metabolome in subclinical vitamin B-12 deficiency and repletion.Methods: A before-and-after treatment study provided 1 injection of 10 mg vitamin B-12 (with 100 mg pyridoxine and 100 mg thiamin) to 27 community-dwelling elderly Chileans (∼74 y old) with vitamin B-12 deficiency, as evaluated with serum vitamin B-12, total plasma homocysteine (tHcy), methylmalonic acid (MMA), and holotranscobalamin...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792616/proteomic-profiling-of-liver-and-plasma-in-chronic-ethanol-feeding-model-of-hepatic-alcohol-dehydrogenase-deficient-deer-mice
#8
Kamlesh K Bhopale, Samir M Amer, Lata Kaphalia, Kizhake V Soman, John E Wiktorowicz, G A Shakeel Ansari, Bhupendra S Kaphalia
BACKGROUND: Chronic alcohol abuse, a major risk factor for such diseases as hepatitis and cirrhosis, impairs hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, key ethanol metabolizing enzyme). Therefore, differentially altered hepatic and plasma proteomes were identified in chronic ethanol feeding model of hepatic ADH-deficient (ADH(-) ) deer mice to understand the metabolic basis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). METHODS: ADH(-) deer mice were fed 3.5g% ethanol via Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet daily for three months, and histology of the liver assessed...
August 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789945/ambra1-is-involved-in-t-cell-receptor-mediated-metabolic-reprogramming-through-an-atg7-independent-pathway
#9
Hisako Akatsuka, Shuhei Kuga, Kaori Masuhara, Odontuya Davaadorj, Chisa Okada, Yumi Iida, Yoshinori Okada, Nahoko Fukunishi, Takahiro Suzuki, Kazuyoshi Hosomichi, Masato Ohtsuka, Masafumi Tanaka, Ituro Inoue, Minoru Kimura, Takehito Sato
Metabolic reprogramming contributes to dynamic alteration of cell functions and characteristics. In T cells, TCR-mediated signaling evokes metabolic reprogramming and autophagy. AMBRA1 is known to serve in the facilitation of autophagy and quality control of mitochondria, but the role of AMBRA1 in T cell metabolic alteration is unknown. Here, we show that AMBRA1, but not ATG7, plays a role in TCR-mediated control of glycolytic factors and mitochondrial mass, while both AMBRA1 and ATG7 are required for autolysosome formation...
August 5, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777310/anti-atherosclerotic-action-of-agmatine-in-apoe-knockout-mice
#10
Anna Wiśniewska, Rafał Olszanecki, Justyna Totoń-Żurańska, Katarzyna Kuś, Aneta Stachowicz, Maciej Suski, Anna Gębska, Mariusz Gajda, Jacek Jawień, Ryszard Korbut
Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease in which dysfunction of mitochondria play an important role, and disorders of lipid management intensify this process. Agmatine, an endogenous polyamine formed by decarboxylation of arginine, exerts a protective effect on mitochondria and modulates fatty acid metabolism. We investigated the effect of exogenous agmatine on the development of atherosclerosis and changes in lipid profile in apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE-/-) mice. Agmatine caused an approximate 40% decrease of atherosclerotic lesions, as estimated by en face and cross-section methods with an influence on macrophage but not on smooth muscle content in the plaques...
August 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765271/sirt6-regulates-metabolic-homeostasis-in-skeletal-muscle-through-activation-of-ampk
#11
Xiaona Cui, Lu Yao, Xiaoying Yang, Yong Gao, Fude Fang, Jun Zhang, Qinghua Wang, Yongsheng Chang
Due to the mass and functions in metabolism, skeletal muscle is one of major organs regulating whole-body metabolic homeostasis. SIRT6, a histone deacetylase, has been shown to regulate metabolism in liver and brain, however, its specific role in skeletal muscle is undetermined. In the present study we explored physiological function of SIRT6 in muscle. We generated a muscle-specific SIRT6 knockout mouse model. The mice with SIRT6 deficiency in muscle displayed impaired glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity, attenuated whole-body energy expenditure and weakened exercise performance...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765264/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-exercise-training-in-adipose-tissue-do-not-require-fgf21
#12
Jay Wayne Porter, Joe Lee Rowles, Justin A Fletcher, Terese M Zidon, Nathan C Winn, Leighton T McCabe, Young-Min Park, James W Perfield, John P Thyfault, R Scott Rector, Jaume Padilla, Victoria Vieira-Potter
Exercise enhances insulin sensitivity; it also improves adipocyte metabolism and reduces adipose tissue inflammation through poorly-defined mechanisms. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a pleiotropic hormone-like protein whose insulin-sensitizing properties are predominantly mediated via receptor signaling in adipose tissue (AT). Recently, FGF21 has also been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory properties. Meanwhile, an association between exercise and increased circulating FGF21 levels has been reported in some, but not all studies...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762254/the-effects-of-prenatal-iron-deficiency-and-risperidone-treatment-on-the-rat-frontal-cortex-%C3%A2-a-proteomic-analysis
#13
Lorna Farrelly, Maria Victoria Rosato-Siri, Melanie Föcking, Martin Codagnone, Analia Reines, Patrick Dicker, Kieran Wynne, Michael Farrell, Mary Cannon, Gerard Cagney, Juana Maria Pasquini, David R Cotter
Prenatal iron deficiency (pID) has been described to increase the risk for neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia; however, the precise molecular mechanisms are still unknown. Here, we utilized high throughput mass spectrometry to examine the proteomic effects of pID in adulthood on the rat frontal cortex area (FCA). In addition, the FCA proteome was examined in adulthood following risperidone treatment in adolescence to see if these effects could be prevented. We identified 1501 proteins of which 100 were significantly differentially expressed in the FCA at post-natal day 90...
July 31, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758352/fast-digestive-leucine-rich-soluble-milk-proteins-improve-muscle-protein-anabolism-and-mitochondrial-function-in-undernourished-old-rats
#14
Jérôme Salles, Audrey Chanet, Alexandre Berry, Christophe Giraudet, Véronique Patrac, Carla Domingues-Faria, Christophe Rocher, Christelle Guillet, Philippe Denis, Corinne Pouyet, Cécile Bonhomme, Pascale Le Ruyet, Yves Rolland, Yves Boirie, Stéphane Walrand
SCOPE: One strategy to manage malnutrition in older patients is to increase protein and energy intake. Here we evaluate the influence of protein quality during refeeding on improvement in muscle protein and energy metabolism. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-month-old male rats (n = 40) were fed 50% of their spontaneous intake for 12 weeks to induce malnutrition, then refed ad libitum with a standard diet enriched with casein or soluble milk proteins (22%) for 4 weeks...
July 31, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754352/3-iodothyronamine-reduces-insulin-secretion-in-vitro-via-a-mitochondrial-mechanism
#15
Ina Lehmphul, Carolin S Hoefig, Josef Köhrle
PURPOSE: 3-iodothyronamine (3-T1AM), a decarboxylated and deiodinated thyroid hormone metabolite, leads at pharmacological doses to hypoinsulinemia, hyperglucagonemia and hyperglycemia in vivo. As the pancreatic Langerhans islets express thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters (THTT), we tested the hypothesis that not only plasma membrane-mediated 3-T1AM binding to and activation of G-protein coupled receptors, but also 3-T1AM metabolite(s) generated by 3-T1AM uptake and metabolism might decrease glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS)...
July 25, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752527/interleukin-15-in-obesity-and-metabolic-dysfunction-current-understanding-and-future-perspectives
#16
REVIEW
Y Duan, F Li, W Wang, Q Guo, C Wen, Y Li, Y Yin
Obesity rises rapidly and is a major health concern for modern people. Importantly, it is a major risk factor in the development of numerous chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Recently, interleukin (IL)-15 has attracted considerable attention as a potential regulator for the prevention and/or treatment of obesity and T2DM. The beneficial effects include increased loss of fat mass and body weight, improved lipid and glucose metabolism, reduced white adipose tissue inflammation, enhanced mitochondrial function, alterations in the composition of muscle fibres and gut bacterial and attenuated endoplasmic reticulum stress...
July 28, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751269/impaired-mitochondrial-fusion-autophagy-biogenesis-and-dysregulated-lipid-metabolism-is-associated-with-preeclampsia
#17
Xiaobo Zhou, Ting-Li Han, Hong Chen, Philip N Baker, Hongbo Qi, Hua Zhang
Preeclampsia(PE) is a pregnancy complication that is diagnosed by the new onset of hypertension and proteinuria. The etiology of PE remains unclear; however, growing evidence indicates that mitochondrial impairment contributes to the pathogenesis. Therefore, we aim to investigate the function of mitochondria in the development of PE. The mitochondrial metabolome in preeclamptic (n = 11) and normal (n = 11) placentas were analyzed using Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Student's t-tests and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were conducted to determine which mitochondrial metabolites differed significantly between the two groups...
July 24, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747646/metabolic-biomarkers-for-prognostic-prediction-of-pre-diabetes-results-from-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#18
Hailuan Zeng, Renchao Tong, Wenxin Tong, Qiaoling Yang, Miaoyan Qiu, Aizhen Xiong, Siming Sun, Lili Ding, Hongli Zhang, Li Yang, Jingyan Tian
To investigate the metabolic biomarkers of predicting the transition from pre-diabetes (pre-DM) to normal glucose regulation (NGR) and diabetes (DM) in a longitudinal cohort study. 108 participants with pre-DM were followed up for ten years and divided into 3 groups according to different glycemic outcomes. 20 participants progressed to DM, 20 regressed to NGR, and 68 remained at pre-DM. Alterations in plasma metabolites in these groups were evaluated by untargeted ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS)...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742928/shotgun-mitogenomics-across-body-size-classes-in-a-local-assemblage-of-tropical-diptera-phylogeny-species-diversity-and-mitochondrial-abundance-spectrum
#19
Le Qin Choo, Alex Crampton-Platt, Alfried P Vogler
Mitochondrial genomes can be assembled readily from shotgun sequenced DNA mixtures of mass-trapped arthropods ('mitochondrial metagenomics'), speeding up the taxonomic characterization. Bulk sequencing was conducted on some 800 individuals of Diptera obtained by canopy-fogging of a single tree in Borneo dominated by small (<1.5 mm) individuals. Specimens were split into five body-size classes for DNA extraction, to equalize read numbers across specimens and to study how body size, a key ecological trait, interacts with species and phylogenetic diversity...
July 25, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730486/phosphoproteomic-analysis-of-isolated-mitochondria-in-yeast
#20
Margaux Renvoisé, Ludovic Bonhomme, Marlène Davanture, Michel Zivy, Claire Lemaire
Mitochondria play a central role in cellular energy metabolism and cell death. Deregulation of mitochondrial functions is associated with several human pathologies (neurodegenerative diseases, neuromuscular diseases, type II diabetes, obesity, cancer). The steadily increasing number of identified mitochondrial phosphoproteins, kinases, and phosphatases in recent years suggests that reversible protein phosphorylation plays an important part in the control of mitochondrial processes. In addition, many mitochondrial phosphoproteins probably still remain to be identified, considering that 30% of proteins are expected to be phosphorylated in eukaryotes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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