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Mitochondrial mass mitochondrial metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902770/mitochondrial-targeted-decyl-triphenylphosphonium-enhances-2-deoxy-d-glucose-mediated-oxidative-stress-and-clonogenic-killing-of-multiple-myeloma-cells
#1
Jeanine Schibler, Ann M Tomanek-Chalkley, Jessica L Reedy, Fenghuang Zhan, Douglas R Spitz, Michael K Schultz, Apollina Goel
Therapeutic advances have markedly prolonged overall survival in multiple myeloma (MM) but the disease currently remains incurable. In a panel of MM cell lines (MM.1S, OPM-2, H929, and U266), using CD138 immunophenotyping, side population staining, and stem cell-related gene expression, we demonstrate the presence of stem-like tumor cells. Hypoxic culture conditions further increased CD138low stem-like cells with upregulated expression of OCT4 and NANOG. Compared to MM cells, these stem-like cells maintained lower steady-state pro-oxidant levels with increased uptake of the fluorescent deoxyglucose analog...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901032/from-the-past-to-future-from-energy-expenditure-to-energy-intake-to-energy-expenditure
#2
REVIEW
M J Müller, C Geisler
Although most recent research on energy balance focusses on energy intake (EI) there is still need to think about both sides of the energy balance. Current research on energy expenditure (EE) relates to metabolic adaptation to negative energy balance, mitochondrial metabolism associated with aging, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, the role of EE in hunger and appetite control, non-shivering thermogenesis and brown adipose tissue activity, cellular bioenergetics as a target of obesity treatment and the evolutionary and ecological determinants of EE in humans and other primates...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900071/association-between-leukocyte-mitochondrial-dna-copy-number-and-regular-exercise-in-postmenopausal-women
#3
Yu Kyung Chang, Da Eun Kim, Soo Hyun Cho, Jung-Ha Kim
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that habitual exercise can improve skeletal mitochondrial function; however, to date, the association between exercise and mitochondrial function in peripheral leukocytes has not been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between regular exercise and mitochondrial function by measuring leukocyte mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number in postmenopausal women. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 144 relatively healthy, non-diabetic, non-smoking, postmenopausal women...
November 2016: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890806/the-endocrine-disrupting-potential-of-monosodium-glutamate-msg-on-secretion-of-the-glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-gut-hormone-and-glp-1-receptor-interaction
#4
Maeve Shannon, Brian Green, Gary Willars, Jodie Wilson, Natalie Matthews, Joanna Lamb, Anna Gillespie, Lisa Connolly
Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a suspected obesogen with epidemiological evidence positively correlating consumption to increased body mass index and higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome. ELISA and high content analysis (HCA) were employed to examine the disruptive effects of MSG on the secretion of enteroendocrine hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R), respectively. Following 3h MSG exposure of the enteroendocrine pGIP/neo: STC-1 cell line model (500μg/ml) significantly increased GLP-1 secretion (1...
November 24, 2016: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890531/short-term-effects-of-diabetes-on-neurosteroidogenesis-in-the-rat-hippocampus
#5
Simone Romano, Nico Mitro, Silvia Diviccaro, Roberto Spezzano, Matteo Audano, Luis Miguel Garcia-Segura, Donatella Caruso, Roberto Cosimo Melcangi
Diabetes may induce neurophysiological and structural changes in the central nervous system (i.e., diabetic encephalopathy). We here explored whether the levels of neuroactive steroids (i.e., neuroprotective agents) in the hippocampus may be altered by short-term diabetes (i.e., one month). To this aim, by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry we observed that in the experimental model of the rat raised diabetic by streptozotocin injection, one month of pathology induced changes in the levels of several neuroactive steroids, such as pregnenolone, progesterone and its metabolites (i...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890529/mass-spectrometry-analysis-shows-the-biosynthetic-pathways-supported-by-pyruvate-carboxylase-in-highly-invasive-breast-cancer-cells
#6
Phatchariya Phannasil, Israr-Ul H Ansari, Mahmoud El Azzouny, Melissa J Longacre, Khanti Rattanapornsompong, Charles F Burant, Sarawut Jitrapakdee, Michael J MacDonald
We recently showed that the anaplerotic enzyme pyruvate carboxylase (PC) is up-regulated in human breast cancer tissue and its expression is correlated with the late stages of breast cancer and tumor size [Phannasil et al., PloS One 10, e0129848, 2015]. In the current study we showed that PC enzyme activity is much higher in the highly invasive breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 than in less invasive breast cancer cell lines. We generated multiple stable PC knockdown cell lines from the MDA-MB-231 cell line and used mass spectrometry with (13)C6-glucose and (13)C5-glutamine to discern the pathways that use PC in support of cell growth...
November 23, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889100/epigenetic-regulation-of-an-adverse-metabolic-phenotype-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-the-impact-of-the-leukocyte-methylation-of-ppargc1a-promoter
#7
Hongcui Zhao, Yue Zhao, Yun Ren, Min Li, Tianjie Li, Rong Li, Yang Yu, Jie Qiao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate PPARGC1A promoter methylation and mitochondria DNA (mtDNA) content in the leukocytes of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and analyze the relationship between these indices and metabolic risk for women with PCOS. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: University hospital. PATIENT(S): A total of 175 women with PCOS and 127 healthy controls. INTERVENTION(S): None...
November 23, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881400/loss-of-ucp1-exacerbates-western-diet-induced-glycemic-dysregulation-independent-of-changes-in-body-weight-in-female-mice
#8
Nathan C Winn, Victoria J Vieira-Potter, Michelle L Gastecki, Rebecca J Welly, Rebecca J Scroggins, Terese M Zidon, T'Keaya L Gaines, Makenzie L Woodford, Natalia G Karasseva, Jill A Kanaley, Harold S Sacks, Jaume Padilla
We tested the hypothesis that female mice null for UCP1 would have increased susceptibility to Western diet-induced "whitening" of brown adipose tissue (AT) and glucose intolerance. Six-week old C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) and UCP1 knockout (UCP1(-/-)) mice, housed at 25°C, were randomized to either a control diet (10% kcal from fat) or Western diet (45% kcal from fat and 1% cholesterol) for 28 weeks. Loss of UCP1 had no effect on energy intake, energy expenditure, spontaneous physical activity, weight gain, or visceral white AT mass...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876792/mtorc1-is-required-for-brown-adipose-tissue-recruitment-and-metabolic-adaptation-to-cold
#9
Sébastien M Labbé, Mathilde Mouchiroud, Alexandre Caron, Blandine Secco, Elizaveta Freinkman, Guillaume Lamoureux, Yves Gélinas, Roger Lecomte, Yohan Bossé, Patricia Chimin, William T Festuccia, Denis Richard, Mathieu Laplante
In response to cold, brown adipose tissue (BAT) increases its metabolic rate and expands its mass to produce heat required for survival, a process known as BAT recruitment. The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) controls metabolism, cell growth and proliferation, but its role in regulating BAT recruitment in response to chronic cold stimulation is unknown. Here, we show that cold activates mTORC1 in BAT, an effect that depends on the sympathetic nervous system. Adipocyte-specific mTORC1 loss in mice completely blocks cold-induced BAT expansion and severely impairs mitochondrial biogenesis...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871066/a-novel-amino-acid-and-metabolomics-signature-in-mice-overexpressing-muscle-uncoupling-protein-3
#10
Céline Aguer, Brian D Piccolo, Oliver Fiehn, Sean H Adams, Mary-Ellen Harper
Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is highly selectively expressed in skeletal muscle and is known to lower mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and promote fatty acid oxidation; however, the global impact of UCP3 activity on skeletal muscle and whole-body metabolism have not been extensively studied. We utilized untargeted metabolomics to identify novel metabolites that distinguish mice overexpressing UCP3 in muscle, both at rest and after exercise regimens that challenged muscle metabolism, to potentially unmask subtle phenotypes...
November 10, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864892/introgression-of-mtdna-in-urosaurus-lizards-historical-and-ecological-processes
#11
Gregory J Haenel
Introgression of mtDNA appears common in animals but the implications of acquiring a novel mitochondrial genome are not well known. This study investigates mito-genome introgression between the lizard species Urosaurus graciosus, a thermal specialist, and U. ornatus, a species that occupies a wider range of thermal environments. As ectotherms, their metabolic rate is strongly influenced by the thermal environment; with mitochondria being linked to metabolic rates, overall energy budgets could be impacted by introgression...
November 19, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860192/metabolite-profiling-of-whole-murine-embryos-reveals-metabolic-perturbations-associated-with-maternal-valproate-induced-neural-tube-closure-defects
#12
Darya Akimova, Bogdan J Wlodarczyk, Ying Lin, M Elizabeth Ross, Richard H Finnell, Qiuying Chen, Steven S Gross
BACKGROUND: Valproic acid (VPA) is prescribed therapeutically for multiple conditions, including epilepsy. When taken during pregnancy, VPA is teratogenic, increasing the risk of several birth and developmental defects including neural tube defects (NTDs). The mechanism by which VPA causes NTDs remains controversial and how VPA interacts with folic acid (FA), a vitamin commonly recommended for the prevention of NTDs, remains uncertain. We sought to address both questions by applying untargeted metabolite profiling analysis to neural tube closure (NTC) stage mouse embryos...
November 18, 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858383/effect-of-creatine-on-rat-sciatic-nerve-injury-a-comparative-ultrastructural-study
#13
Fatma Helvacioglu, Ersin Kandemir, Büşra Karabacak, İdil Karataş, Ahmet Peçen, İpek Ercan, Tuğçe Şençelikel, Attila Dağdeviren
AIM: Creatine is an endogenous molecule synthesized in liver, kidney and pancreas from glycin and arginine which is important for mitochondrial metabolism. It is widely used as a supplement for improving muscle mass and function for many years. As it is expected to prevent apoptosis and diminish oxidative stress it is also studied in a number of neurodegenerative diseases for its beneficial effect in recent years. We studied the effect of creatine on the peripheral nerve injury in an experimental rat crush injury model to obtain ultrastructural evidence...
October 13, 2016: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835923/ros-no-mediated-inter-organ-communication-in-skeletal-muscle-wasting-diseases
#14
Lucia Maria Leitner, Rebecca June Wilson, Zhen Yan, Axel Gödecke
SIGNIFICANCE: Cachexia is defined as a complex metabolic syndrome associated with underlying illness and a loss of muscle with or without loss of fat mass. This disease is associated with high incidence with chronic diseases such as heart failure, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, AIDS, among others. Since there is currently no effective treatment available, cachectic patients have a poor prognosis. Elucidation of the underlying mechanisms is therefore an important medical task...
November 11, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830716/metabolic-alterations-by-indoxyl-sulfate-in-skeletal-muscle-induce-uremic-sarcopenia-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#15
Emiko Sato, Takefumi Mori, Eikan Mishima, Arisa Suzuki, Sanae Sugawara, Naho Kurasawa, Daisuke Saigusa, Daisuke Miura, Tomomi Morikawa-Ichinose, Ritsumi Saito, Ikuko Oba-Yabana, Yuji Oe, Kiyomi Kisu, Eri Naganuma, Kenji Koizumi, Takayuki Mokudai, Yoshimi Niwano, Tai Kudo, Chitose Suzuki, Nobuyuki Takahashi, Hiroshi Sato, Takaaki Abe, Toshimitsu Niwa, Sadayoshi Ito
Sarcopenia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Pathogenic mechanism of skeletal muscle loss in CKD, which is defined as uremic sarcopenia, remains unclear. We found that causative pathological mechanism of uremic sarcopenia is metabolic alterations by uremic toxin indoxyl sulfate. Imaging mass spectrometry revealed indoxyl sulfate accumulated in muscle tissue of a mouse model of CKD. Comprehensive metabolomics revealed that indoxyl sulfate induces metabolic alterations such as upregulation of glycolysis, including pentose phosphate pathway acceleration as antioxidative stress response, via nuclear factor (erythroid-2-related factor)-2...
November 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827387/dna-sequence-diversity-and-the-efficiency-of-natural-selection-in-animal-mitochondrial-dna
#16
J James, D Castellano, A Eyre-Walker
Selection is expected to be more efficient in species that are more diverse because both the efficiency of natural selection and DNA sequence diversity are expected to depend upon the effective population size. We explore this relationship across a data set of 751 mammal species for which we have mitochondrial polymorphism data. We introduce a method by which we can examine the relationship between our measure of the efficiency of natural selection, the nonsynonymous relative to the synonymous nucleotide site diversity (πN/πS), and synonymous nucleotide diversity (πS), avoiding the statistical non-independence between the two quantities...
November 9, 2016: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816874/prevailing-vitamin-d-status-influences-mitochondrial-and-glycolytic-bioenergetics-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-obtained-from-adults
#17
Emily K Calton, Kevin N Keane, Mario J Soares, Jordan Rowlands, Philip Newsholme
BACKGROUND: Circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are exposed to metabolic and immunological stimuli that influence their functionality. We hypothesized that prevailing vitamin D status [25(OH)D] would modulate the bioenergetic profile of PBMCs derived from humans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 38 participants (16 males, 22 females) ranging in body fat from 14-51% were studied. PBMCs were isolated from whole blood, counted and freshly seeded for bioenergetic analysis using the Seahorse XF(e)96 flux analyser...
December 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799869/proteomic-profiling-of-retinoblastoma-by-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#18
Ravikanth Danda, Kalaivani Ganapathy, Gajanan Sathe, Anil K Madugundu, Sharavan Ramachandran, Uma Maheswari Krishnan, Vikas Khetan, Pukhraj Rishi, T S Keshava Prasad, Akhilesh Pandey, Subramanian Krishnakumar, Harsha Gowda, Sailaja V Elchuri
BACKGROUND: Retinoblastoma is an ocular neoplastic cancer caused primarily due to the mutation/deletion of RB1 gene. Due to the rarity of the disease very limited information is available on molecular changes in primary retinoblastoma. High throughput analysis of retinoblastoma transcriptome is available however the proteomic landscape of retinoblastoma remains unexplored. In the present study we used high resolution mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics to identify proteins associated with pathogenesis of retinoblastoma...
2016: Clinical Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788581/environmental-tobacco-smoke-alters-metabolic-systems-in-adult-rats
#19
Dinesh Kumar Barupal, Kent E Pinkerton, Carol Hood, Tobias Kind, Oliver Fiehn
Human exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with an increased incidence of pulmonary and cardiovascular disease and possibly lung cancer. Metabolomics can reveal changes in metabolic networks in organisms under different physio-pathological conditions. Our objective was to identify spatial and temporal metabolic alterations with acute and repeated subchronic ETS exposure to understand mechanisms by which ETS exposure may cause adverse physiological and structural changes in the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems...
October 28, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771717/co2-and-hco3-permeability-of-the-rat-liver-mitochondrial-membrane
#20
Mariela Arias-Hidalgo, Jan Hegermann, Georgios Tsiavaliaris, Fabrizio Carta, Claudiu T Supuran, Gerolf Gros, Volker Endeward
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Across the mitochondrial membrane an exceptionally intense exchange of O2 and CO2 occurs. We have asked, 1) whether the CO2 permeability, PM,CO2, of this membrane is also exceptionally high, and 2) whether the mitochondrial membrane is sufficiently permeable to HCO3- to make passage of this ion an alternative pathway for exit of metabolically produced CO2. METHODS: The two permeabilities were measured using the previously published mass spectrometric 18O exchange technique to study suspensions of mitochondria freshly isolated from rat livers...
October 24, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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