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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914013/inhibitory-effect-of-homocysteine-on-rat-neural-stem-cell-growth-in-vitro-is-associated-with-reduced-protein-levels-and-enzymatic-activities-of-aconitase-and-respiratory-complex-iii
#1
Xu-Mei Zhang, Ya-Qian Zhao, Hai Yan, Huan Liu, Guo-Wei Huang
Increased blood plasma concentration of the sulphur amino acid homocysteine (Hcy) is considered as an independent risk factor of the neurodegenerative diseases. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms by which Hcy leads to neurotoxicity have yet to be clarified. Recent research has suggested that neurotoxicity of Hcy may involve negative regulation of neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation. In the current study, primary NSCs were isolated from neonatal rat brain hippocampus and the inhibition in cell growth was observed after exposure to l50 μM and 500 μM L-Hcy...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908414/licl-regulates-mitochondrial-biogenesis-during-megakaryocyte-development
#2
Ram Babu Undi, Usha Gutti, Ravi Kumar Gutti
JAK-STAT, PI3K-AKT and MAPK signaling pathways are involved in platelet production process. Although wnt signaling has been reported in the biogenesis of platelets, but its role in megakaryocyte development is not well studied. We used an inducible canonical wnt signaling system that utilizes LiCl (GSK-3β inhibitor). LiCl could activate wnt signaling pathway along with maturation of megakaryocytes. Mitochondrial staining showed an increase in mitochondrial mass upon induction with LiCl. Also, mitochondrial markers PGC-1α and TFAM were up regulated with increase in mitochondrial DNA content...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907185/antioxidant-antimicrobial-and-cytotoxic-properties-as-well-as-the-phenolic-content-of-the-extract-from-hancornia-speciosa-gomes
#3
Uilson P Santos, Jaqueline F Campos, Heron Fernandes V Torquato, Edgar Julian Paredes-Gamero, Carlos Alexandre Carollo, Leticia M Estevinho, Kely de Picoli Souza, Edson Lucas Dos Santos
Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae) is a fruit tree, popularly known as mangabeira, and it is widely distributed throughout Brazil. Several parts of the plant are used in folk medicine, and the leaf and bark extracts have anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, and antimicrobial properties. In this study, we investigated the chemical composition of the ethanolic extract of Hancornia speciosa leaves (EEHS) and its antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activities as well as the mechanisms involved in cell death...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902770/mitochondrial-targeted-decyl-triphenylphosphonium-enhances-2-deoxy-d-glucose-mediated-oxidative-stress-and-clonogenic-killing-of-multiple-myeloma-cells
#4
Jeanine Schibler, Ann M Tomanek-Chalkley, Jessica L Reedy, Fenghuang Zhan, Douglas R Spitz, Michael K Schultz, Apollina Goel
Therapeutic advances have markedly prolonged overall survival in multiple myeloma (MM) but the disease currently remains incurable. In a panel of MM cell lines (MM.1S, OPM-2, H929, and U266), using CD138 immunophenotyping, side population staining, and stem cell-related gene expression, we demonstrate the presence of stem-like tumor cells. Hypoxic culture conditions further increased CD138low stem-like cells with upregulated expression of OCT4 and NANOG. Compared to MM cells, these stem-like cells maintained lower steady-state pro-oxidant levels with increased uptake of the fluorescent deoxyglucose analog...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901032/from-the-past-to-future-from-energy-expenditure-to-energy-intake-to-energy-expenditure
#5
REVIEW
M J Müller, C Geisler
Although most recent research on energy balance focusses on energy intake (EI) there is still need to think about both sides of the energy balance. Current research on energy expenditure (EE) relates to metabolic adaptation to negative energy balance, mitochondrial metabolism associated with aging, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, the role of EE in hunger and appetite control, non-shivering thermogenesis and brown adipose tissue activity, cellular bioenergetics as a target of obesity treatment and the evolutionary and ecological determinants of EE in humans and other primates...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900071/association-between-leukocyte-mitochondrial-dna-copy-number-and-regular-exercise-in-postmenopausal-women
#6
Yu Kyung Chang, Da Eun Kim, Soo Hyun Cho, Jung-Ha Kim
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that habitual exercise can improve skeletal mitochondrial function; however, to date, the association between exercise and mitochondrial function in peripheral leukocytes has not been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between regular exercise and mitochondrial function by measuring leukocyte mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number in postmenopausal women. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 144 relatively healthy, non-diabetic, non-smoking, postmenopausal women...
November 2016: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897980/protective-effects-of-%C3%AE-tocopherol-%C3%AE-tocopherol-and-oleic-acid-three-compounds-of-olive-oils-and-no-effect-of-trolox-on-7-ketocholesterol-induced-mitochondrial-and-peroxisomal-dysfunction-in-microglial-bv-2-cells
#7
Meryam Debbabi, Thomas Nury, Amira Zarrouk, Nadia Mekahli, Maryem Bezine, Randa Sghaier, Stéphane Grégoire, Lucy Martine, Philippe Durand, Emmanuelle Camus, Anne Vejux, Aymen Jabrane, Lionel Bretillon, Michel Prost, Thibault Moreau, Sofien Ben Ammou, Mohamed Hammami, Gérard Lizard
Lipid peroxidation products, such as 7-ketocholesterol (7KC), may be increased in the body fluids and tissues of patients with neurodegenerative diseases and trigger microglial dysfunction involved in neurodegeneration. It is therefore important to identify synthetic and natural molecules able to impair the toxic effects of 7KC. We determined the impact of 7KC on murine microglial BV-2 cells, especially its ability to trigger mitochondrial and peroxisomal dysfunction, and evaluated the protective effects of α- and γ-tocopherol, Trolox, and oleic acid (OA)...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890806/the-endocrine-disrupting-potential-of-monosodium-glutamate-msg-on-secretion-of-the-glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-gut-hormone-and-glp-1-receptor-interaction
#8
Maeve Shannon, Brian Green, Gary Willars, Jodie Wilson, Natalie Matthews, Joanna Lamb, Anna Gillespie, Lisa Connolly
Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a suspected obesogen with epidemiological evidence positively correlating consumption to increased body mass index and higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome. ELISA and high content analysis (HCA) were employed to examine the disruptive effects of MSG on the secretion of enteroendocrine hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R), respectively. Following 3h MSG exposure of the enteroendocrine pGIP/neo: STC-1 cell line model (500μg/ml) significantly increased GLP-1 secretion (1...
November 24, 2016: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890531/short-term-effects-of-diabetes-on-neurosteroidogenesis-in-the-rat-hippocampus
#9
Simone Romano, Nico Mitro, Silvia Diviccaro, Roberto Spezzano, Matteo Audano, Luis Miguel Garcia-Segura, Donatella Caruso, Roberto Cosimo Melcangi
Diabetes may induce neurophysiological and structural changes in the central nervous system (i.e., diabetic encephalopathy). We here explored whether the levels of neuroactive steroids (i.e., neuroprotective agents) in the hippocampus may be altered by short-term diabetes (i.e., one month). To this aim, by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry we observed that in the experimental model of the rat raised diabetic by streptozotocin injection, one month of pathology induced changes in the levels of several neuroactive steroids, such as pregnenolone, progesterone and its metabolites (i...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890529/mass-spectrometry-analysis-shows-the-biosynthetic-pathways-supported-by-pyruvate-carboxylase-in-highly-invasive-breast-cancer-cells
#10
Phatchariya Phannasil, Israr-Ul H Ansari, Mahmoud El Azzouny, Melissa J Longacre, Khanti Rattanapornsompong, Charles F Burant, Sarawut Jitrapakdee, Michael J MacDonald
We recently showed that the anaplerotic enzyme pyruvate carboxylase (PC) is up-regulated in human breast cancer tissue and its expression is correlated with the late stages of breast cancer and tumor size [Phannasil et al., PloS One 10, e0129848, 2015]. In the current study we showed that PC enzyme activity is much higher in the highly invasive breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 than in less invasive breast cancer cell lines. We generated multiple stable PC knockdown cell lines from the MDA-MB-231 cell line and used mass spectrometry with (13)C6-glucose and (13)C5-glutamine to discern the pathways that use PC in support of cell growth...
November 23, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889100/epigenetic-regulation-of-an-adverse-metabolic-phenotype-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-the-impact-of-the-leukocyte-methylation-of-ppargc1a-promoter
#11
Hongcui Zhao, Yue Zhao, Yun Ren, Min Li, Tianjie Li, Rong Li, Yang Yu, Jie Qiao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate PPARGC1A promoter methylation and mitochondria DNA (mtDNA) content in the leukocytes of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and analyze the relationship between these indices and metabolic risk for women with PCOS. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: University hospital. PATIENT(S): A total of 175 women with PCOS and 127 healthy controls. INTERVENTION(S): None...
November 23, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882441/regioselective-synthesis-and-biological-studies-of-novel-1-aryl-3-5-bis-het-aryl-pyrazole-derivatives-as-potential-antiproliferative-agents
#12
Hanumappa Ananda, Kothanahally S Sharath Kumar, Mayilaadumveettil Nishana, Mahesh Hegde, Mrinal Srivastava, Raghava Byregowda, Bibha Choudhary, Sathees C Raghavan, Kanchugarakoppal S Rangappa
Pyrazole moiety represents an important category of heterocyclic compound in pharmaceutical and medicinal chemistry. The novel 1-aryl-3, 5-bis (het) aryl pyrazole derivatives were synthesized with complementary regioselectivity. The chemical structures were confirmed by IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and mass spectral analysis. The chemical entities were screened in various cancer cell lines to assess their cell viability activity. Results showed that the compound 3-(1-(4-bromophenyl)-5-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl) pyridine (5d) possessed maximum cytotoxic effect against breast cancer and leukemic cells...
November 24, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881400/loss-of-ucp1-exacerbates-western-diet-induced-glycemic-dysregulation-independent-of-changes-in-body-weight-in-female-mice
#13
Nathan C Winn, Victoria J Vieira-Potter, Michelle L Gastecki, Rebecca J Welly, Rebecca J Scroggins, Terese M Zidon, T'Keaya L Gaines, Makenzie L Woodford, Natalia G Karasseva, Jill A Kanaley, Harold S Sacks, Jaume Padilla
We tested the hypothesis that female mice null for UCP1 would have increased susceptibility to Western diet-induced "whitening" of brown adipose tissue (AT) and glucose intolerance. Six-week old C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) and UCP1 knockout (UCP1(-/-)) mice, housed at 25°C, were randomized to either a control diet (10% kcal from fat) or Western diet (45% kcal from fat and 1% cholesterol) for 28 weeks. Loss of UCP1 had no effect on energy intake, energy expenditure, spontaneous physical activity, weight gain, or visceral white AT mass...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876792/mtorc1-is-required-for-brown-adipose-tissue-recruitment-and-metabolic-adaptation-to-cold
#14
Sébastien M Labbé, Mathilde Mouchiroud, Alexandre Caron, Blandine Secco, Elizaveta Freinkman, Guillaume Lamoureux, Yves Gélinas, Roger Lecomte, Yohan Bossé, Patricia Chimin, William T Festuccia, Denis Richard, Mathieu Laplante
In response to cold, brown adipose tissue (BAT) increases its metabolic rate and expands its mass to produce heat required for survival, a process known as BAT recruitment. The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) controls metabolism, cell growth and proliferation, but its role in regulating BAT recruitment in response to chronic cold stimulation is unknown. Here, we show that cold activates mTORC1 in BAT, an effect that depends on the sympathetic nervous system. Adipocyte-specific mTORC1 loss in mice completely blocks cold-induced BAT expansion and severely impairs mitochondrial biogenesis...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871066/a-novel-amino-acid-and-metabolomics-signature-in-mice-overexpressing-muscle-uncoupling-protein-3
#15
Céline Aguer, Brian D Piccolo, Oliver Fiehn, Sean H Adams, Mary-Ellen Harper
Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is highly selectively expressed in skeletal muscle and is known to lower mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and promote fatty acid oxidation; however, the global impact of UCP3 activity on skeletal muscle and whole-body metabolism have not been extensively studied. We utilized untargeted metabolomics to identify novel metabolites that distinguish mice overexpressing UCP3 in muscle, both at rest and after exercise regimens that challenged muscle metabolism, to potentially unmask subtle phenotypes...
November 10, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869792/genomic-diversity-in-onchocerca-volvulus-and-its-wolbachia-endosymbiont
#16
Young-Jun Choi, Rahul Tyagi, Samantha N McNulty, Bruce A Rosa, Philip Ozersky, John Martin, Kymberlie Hallsworth-Pepin, Thomas R Unnasch, Carmelle T Norice, Thomas B Nutman, Gary J Weil, Peter U Fischer, Makedonka Mitreva
Ongoing elimination efforts have altered the global distribution of Onchocerca volvulus, the agent of river blindness, and further population restructuring is expected as efforts continue. Therefore, a better understanding of population genetic processes and their effect on biogeography is needed to support elimination goals. We describe O. volvulus genome variation in 27 isolates from the early 1990s (before widespread mass treatment) from four distinct locales: Ecuador, Uganda, the West African forest and the West African savanna...
November 21, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866076/antioxidant-properties-of-tea-blunt-ros-dependent-lipogenesis-beneficial-effect-on-hepatic-steatosis-in-a-high-fat-high-sucrose-diet-nafld-obese-rat-model
#17
Laura Braud, Sylvain Battault, Grégory Meyer, Alessandro Nascimento, Sandrine Gaillard, Georges de Sousa, Roger Rahmani, Catherine Riva, Martine Armand, Jean-Michel Maixent, Cyril Reboul
Oxidative stress could trigger lipid accumulation in liver and thus hepatic steatosis. Tea is able to prevent liver disorders, but a direct link between antioxidant capacities and prevention of steatosis has not been reported yet. We aimed to investigate such relationship in a rat model of high fat-high sucrose diet (HFS)-induced obesity and to explore more deeply the mechanisms in isolated hepatocytes. Wistar rats were divided into a control group (standard diet), an HFS group (high fat-sucrose diet) and an HFS+tea group (HFS diet with ad-libitum access to tea drink)...
October 29, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864892/introgression-of-mtdna-in-urosaurus-lizards-historical-and-ecological-processes
#18
Gregory J Haenel
Introgression of mtDNA appears common in animals but the implications of acquiring a novel mitochondrial genome are not well known. This study investigates mito-genome introgression between the lizard species Urosaurus graciosus, a thermal specialist, and U. ornatus, a species that occupies a wider range of thermal environments. As ectotherms, their metabolic rate is strongly influenced by the thermal environment; with mitochondria being linked to metabolic rates, overall energy budgets could be impacted by introgression...
November 19, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864061/melanogenesis-inhibits-respiration-in-b16-f10-melanoma-cells-whereas-enhances-mitochondrial-cell-content
#19
Willian Vanderlei Meira, Tassiele Andréa Heinrich, Silvia Maria Suter Correia Cadena, Glaucia Regina Martinez
Melanoma is a rare and aggressive skin tumor; the survival of patients diagnosed late is fairly low. This high mortality rate is due to the characteristics of the cells that allow them to be resistant to radiotherapy and conventional chemotherapy, besides of being able to evade the immune system. Melanin, the pigment responsible for skin, hair and eye color, seems to be involved in this resistance. The main function of melanin is to protect the cells against ultraviolet (UV) light by absorbing this radiation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging...
November 15, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863990/cytochrome-p450-enzymes-but-not-nadph-oxidases-are-the-source-of-the-nadph-dependent-lucigenin-chemiluminescence-in-membrane-assays
#20
Flávia Rezende, Kim-Kristin Prior, Oliver Löwe, Ilka Wittig, Valentina Strecker, Franziska Moll, Valeska Helfinger, Frank Schnütgen, Nina Kurrle, Frank Wempe, Maria Walter, Sven Zukunft, Bert Luck, Ingrid Fleming, Norbert Weissmann, Ralf P Brandes, Katrin Schröder
: Measuring NADPH oxidase (Nox)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) in living tissues and cells is a constant challenge. All probes available display limitations regarding sensitivity, specificity or demand highly specialized detection techniques. In search for a presumably easy, versatile, sensitive and specific technique, numerous studies have used NADPH-stimulated assays in membrane fractions which have been suggested to reflect Nox activity. However, we previously found an unaltered activity with these assays in triple Nox knockout mouse (Nox1-Nox2-Nox4(-/-)) tissue and cells compared to wild type...
November 15, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
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