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Nature Genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226291/cell-free-synthetic-biology-for-environmental-sensing-and-remediation
#1
REVIEW
David K Karig
The fields of biosensing and bioremediation leverage the phenomenal array of sensing and metabolic capabilities offered by natural microbes. Synthetic biology provides tools for transforming these fields through complex integration of natural and novel biological components to achieve sophisticated sensing, regulation, and metabolic function. However, the majority of synthetic biology efforts are conducted in living cells, and concerns over releasing genetically modified organisms constitute a key barrier to environmental applications...
February 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226236/new-strategies-and-tools-in-quantitative-genetics-how-to-go-from-the-phenotype-to-the-genotype
#2
C Bazakos, M Hanemian, C Trontin, J M Jiménez-Gómez, O Loudet
Quantitative genetics has a long history in plants: It has been used to study specific biological processes, identify the factors important for trait evolution, and breed new crop varieties. These classical approaches to quantitative trait locus mapping have naturally improved with technology. In this review, we show how quantitative genetics has evolved recently in plants and how new developments in phenotyping, population generation, sequencing, gene manipulation, and statistics are rejuvenating both the classical linkage mapping approaches (for example, through nested association mapping) as well as the more recently developed genome-wide association studies...
February 6, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226234/zooming-in-on-plant-hormone-analysis-tissue-and-cell-specific-approaches
#3
Ondřej Novák, Richard Napier, Karin Ljung
Plant hormones are a group of naturally occurring, low-abundance organic compounds that influence physiological processes in plants. Our knowledge of the distribution profiles of phytohormones in plant organs, tissues, and cells is still incomplete, but advances in mass spectrometry have enabled significant advances in tissue- and cell-type-specific analyses of phytohormones over the last decade. Mass spectrometry is able to simultaneously identify and quantify hormones and their related substances. Biosensors, on the other hand, offer continuous monitoring; can visualize local distributions and realtime quantification; and, in the case of genetically encoded biosensors, are noninvasive...
February 10, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225073/high-mutation-rates-explain-low-population-genetic-divergence-at-copy-number-variable-loci-in-homo-sapiens
#4
Xin-Sheng Hu, Francis C Yeh, Yang Hu, Li-Ting Deng, Richard A Ennos, Xiaoyang Chen
Copy-number-variable (CNV) loci differ from single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) sites in size, mutation rate, and mechanisms of maintenance in natural populations. It is therefore hypothesized that population genetic divergence at CNV loci will differ from that found at SNP sites. Here, we test this hypothesis by analysing 856 CNV loci from the genomes of 1184 healthy individuals from 11 HapMap populations with a wide range of ancestry. The results show that population genetic divergence at the CNV loci is generally more than three times lower than at genome-wide SNP sites...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224411/personalized-medicine-for-prevention-can-risk-stratified-screening-decrease-colorectal-cancer-mortality-at-an-acceptable-cost
#5
Sujha Subramanian, Georgiy Bobashev, Robert J Morris, Sonja Hoover
PURPOSE: Tailored health care interventions are expected to transform clinical practice. The objective of this study was to develop an innovative model to assess the effectiveness, cost, and harms of risk stratified colorectal cancer screening. METHODS: We updated a previously validated microsimulation model consisting of three interlinked components: risk assessment, natural history, and screening/treatment modules. We used data from representative national surveys and the literature to create a synthetic population that mimics the family history and genetic profile of the US population...
February 21, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224271/the-perfect-womb-promoting-equality-of-fetal-opportunity
#6
Evie Kendal
This paper aims to address how artificial gestation might affect equality of opportunity for the unborn and any resultant generation of "ectogenetic" babies. It will first explore the current legal obstacles preventing the development of ectogenesis, before looking at the benefits of allowing this technology to control fetal growth and development. This will open up a discussion of the treatment/enhancement divide regarding the use of reproductive technologies, a topic featured in various bioethical debates on the subject...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224060/twenty-microsatellite-markers-for-the-endangered-vatica-mangachapoi-dipterocarpaceae
#7
Jun-Jie Guo, Shuai-Bin Shang, Chun-Sheng Wang, Zhi-Gang Zhao, Jie Zeng
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Microsatellite markers were developed for Vatica mangachapoi (Dipterocarpaceae), an endangered species indigenous to Southeast Asia and southern China. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty microsatellite markers, including 12 polymorphic markers, were identified from V. mangachapoi using high-throughput sequencing. Polymorphism at each marker was evaluated using 87 individuals from three natural populations. The number of alleles per polymorphic locus ranged from six to 15, and the observed and expected heterozygosity varied from 0...
February 2017: Applications in Plant Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224021/mesenchymal-stem-cells-as-potential-therapeutic-approaches-in-celiac-disease
#8
REVIEW
Ali Moheb-Alian, Flora Forouzesh, Mohammad Rostami-Nejad, Kamran Rostami
As a chronic immune complication, celiac disease has a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations and gluten ingestion as an external trigger will induce the onset of this disease in genetically predisposed individuals. Because of the complex nature of celiac disease and various cascades of immunological pathways, therapies which are tend to target a single pathway or factor, often have unsatisfactory results. Thus, it should be considered that the new emerging area of cellular therapy by targeting multiple pathways may hold the key for treating celiac affected patients with complicated forms of this disease...
December 2016: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223907/comparative-bioavailability-and-utilization-of-particular-forms-of-b12-supplements-with-potential-to-mitigate-b12-related-genetic-polymorphisms
#9
REVIEW
Cristiana Paul, David M Brady
CONTEXT: Three natural forms of vitamin B12 are commercially available: methylcobalamin (MeCbl), adenosylcobalamin (AdCbl), and hydroxycobalamin (OHCbl), all of which have been shown in clinical studies to improve vitamin B12 status. They are bioidentical to the B12 forms occurring in human physiology and animal foods. In contrast, cyanocobalamin (CNCbl), a synthetic B12 compound used for food fortification and in some supplements, occurs only in trace amounts in human tissues as a result of cyanide intake from smoking or other sources...
February 2017: Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223460/mechanism-of-h2s-oxidation-by-the-dissimilatory-perchlorate-reducing-microorganism-azospira-suillum-ps
#10
Misha G Mehta-Kolte, Dana Loutey, Ouwei Wang, Matthew D Youngblut, Christopher G Hubbard, Kelly M Wetmore, Mark E Conrad, John D Coates
The genetic and biochemical basis of perchlorate-dependent H2S oxidation (PSOX) was investigated in the dissimilatory perchlorate-reducing microorganism (DPRM) Azospira suillum PS (PS). Previously, it was shown that all known DPRMs innately oxidize H2S, producing elemental sulfur (S(o)). Although the process involving PSOX is thermodynamically favorable (ΔG°' = -206 kJ ⋅ mol(-1) H2S), the underlying biochemical and genetic mechanisms are currently unknown. Interestingly, H2S is preferentially utilized over physiological electron donors such as lactate or acetate although no growth benefit is obtained from the metabolism...
February 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223325/mendelian-randomization-using-natural-genetic-variation-to-assess-the-causal-role-of-modifiable-risk-factors-in-observational-studies
#11
EDITORIAL
Ian J Neeland, Julia Kozlitina
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 21, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223312/natural-variation-and-dosage-of-the-hei10-meiotic-e3-ligase-control-arabidopsis-crossover-recombination
#12
Piotr A Ziolkowski, Charles J Underwood, Christophe Lambing, Marina Martinez-Garcia, Emma J Lawrence, Liliana Ziolkowska, Catherine Griffin, Kyuha Choi, F Chris H Franklin, Robert A Martienssen, Ian R Henderson
During meiosis, homologous chromosomes undergo crossover recombination, which creates genetic diversity and balances homolog segregation. Despite these critical functions, crossover frequency varies extensively within and between species. Although natural crossover recombination modifier loci have been detected in plants, causal genes have remained elusive. Using natural Arabidopsis thaliana accessions, we identified two major recombination quantitative trait loci (rQTLs) that explain 56.9% of crossover variation in Col×Ler F2 populations...
February 21, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222116/the-role-of-short-term-memory-and-visuo-spatial-skills-in-numerical-magnitude-processing-evidence-from-turner-syndrome
#13
Lucie Attout, Marie-Pascale Noël, Marie-Cécile Nassogne, Laurence Rousselle
Most studies on magnitude representation have focused on the visual modality with no possibility of disentangling the influence of visuo-spatial skills and short-term memory (STM) abilities on quantification processes. This study examines this issue in patients with Turner syndrome (TS), a genetic condition characterized by a specific cognitive profile frequently associating poor mathematical achievement, low spatial skills and reduced STM abilities. In order to identify the influence of visuo-spatial and STM processing on numerical magnitude abilities, twenty female participants with TS and twenty control female participants matched for verbal IQ and education level were administered a series of magnitude comparison tasks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222092/the-genetic-basis-of-resistance-and-matching-allele-interactions-of-a-host-parasite-system-the-daphnia-magna-pasteuria-ramosa-model
#14
Gilberto Bento, Jarkko Routtu, Peter D Fields, Yann Bourgeois, Louis Du Pasquier, Dieter Ebert
Negative frequency-dependent selection (NFDS) is an evolutionary mechanism suggested to govern host-parasite coevolution and the maintenance of genetic diversity at host resistance loci, such as the vertebrate MHC and R-genes in plants. Matching-allele interactions of hosts and parasites that prevent the emergence of host and parasite genotypes that are universally resistant and infective are a genetic mechanism predicted to underpin NFDS. The underlying genetics of matching-allele interactions are unknown even in host-parasite systems with empirical support for coevolution by NFDS, as is the case for the planktonic crustacean Daphnia magna and the bacterial pathogen Pasteuria ramosa...
February 21, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221366/pathway-wide-association-study-identifies-five-shared-pathways-associated-with-schizophrenia-in-three-ancestral-distinct-populations
#15
C Liu, C A Bousman, C Pantelis, E Skafidas, D Zhang, W Yue, I P Everall
Genome-wide association studies have confirmed the polygenic nature of schizophrenia and suggest that there are hundreds or thousands of alleles associated with increased liability for the disorder. However, the generalizability of any one allelic marker of liability is remarkably low and has bred the notion that schizophrenia may be better conceptualized as a pathway(s) disorder. Here, we empirically tested this notion by conducting a pathway-wide association study (PWAS) encompassing 255 experimentally validated Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways among 5033 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and 5332 unrelated healthy controls across three distinct ethnic populations; European-American (EA), African-American (AA) and Han Chinese (CH)...
February 21, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220952/progress-on-nature-and-nurture-commentary-on-granqvist-and-nkara-s-nature-meets-nurture-in-religious-and-spiritual-development
#16
Chris J Boyatzis
This commentary addresses several key ideas in the Granqvist and Nkara (this issue) conceptual piece on the need for a more sophisticated understanding of how nature and nurture interact to influence religious and spiritual development. Cultural and genetic factors are explored.
March 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220817/a-simple-approach-for-preparation-of-affinity-matrices-simultaneous-purification-and-reversible-immobilization-of-a-streptavidin-mutein-to-agarose-matrix
#17
Sau-Ching Wu, Chris Wang, Dave Hansen, Sui-Lam Wong
SAVSBPM18 is an engineered streptavidin for affinity purification of both biotinylated biomolecules and recombinant proteins tagged with streptavidin binding peptide (SBP) tags. To develop a user-friendly approach for the preparation of the SAVSBPM18-based affinity matrices, a designer fusion protein containing SAVSBPM18 and a galactose binding domain was engineered. The galactose binding domain derived from the earthworm lectin EW29 was genetically modified to eliminate a proteolytic cleavage site located at the beginning of the domain...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220806/on-the-long-term-stability-of-clines-in-some-metabolic-genes-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#18
Rodrigo Cogni, Kate Kuczynski, Spencer Koury, Erik Lavington, Emily L Behrman, Katherine R O'Brien, Paul S Schmidt, Walter F Eanes
Very little information exists for long-term changes in genetic variation in natural populations. Here we take the unique opportunity to compare a set of data for SNPs in 15 metabolic genes from eastern US collections of Drosophila melanogaster that span a large latitudinal range and represent two collections separated by 12 to 13 years. We also expand this to a 22-year interval for the Adh gene and approximately 30 years for the G6pd and Pgd genes. During these intervals, five genes showed a statistically significant change in average SNP allele frequency corrected for latitude...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220371/multiple-nonsyndromic-acquired-basal-cell-carcinomas-uncommon-clinical-presentation-in-a-bulgarian-patient
#19
Georgi Tchernev, Ivan Pidakev, Ilia Lozev, Torello Lotti, Uwe Wollina
Basal cell carcinoma is the most frequent cutaneous neoplasm, with slowly progressive nature and locally invasive behavior. Despite the low metastatic potential, local tissue destruction and disfigurement caused by the tumor can be large if not eradicated in time by early diagnosis and treatment. Both genetic predisposition and exposure to environmental risks are involved in the pathogenesis of the malignant transformation in BCC. The total number of nonmelanocytic skin cancers is a risk factor for recurrence of previous tumor, on the one hand, as well as for the formation of new ones, on the other...
February 20, 2017: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220136/novel-sources-of-witchweed-striga-resistance-from-wild-sorghum-accessions
#20
Dorothy A Mbuvi, Clet W Masiga, Eric Kuria, Joel Masanga, Mark Wamalwa, Abdallah Mohamed, Damaris A Odeny, Nada Hamza, Michael P Timko, Steven Runo
Sorghum is a major food staple in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), but its production is constrained by the parasitic plant Striga that attaches to the roots of many cereals crops and causes severe stunting and loss of yield. Away from cultivated farmland, wild sorghum accessions grow as weedy plants and have shown remarkable immunity to Striga. We sought to determine the extent of the resistance to Striga in wild sorghum plants. Our screening strategy involved controlled laboratory assays of rhizotrons, where we artificially infected sorghum with Striga, as well as field experiments at three sites, where we grew sorghum with a natural Striga infestation...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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