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Nature Genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749043/transcriptome-profiling-reveals-the-immune-response-of-goose-t-cells-under-selenium-stimuli
#1
Nan Cao, Wanyan Li, Bingxin Li, Yunbo Tian, Danning Xu
The goose is an economically important poultry species and a principal natural host of avian viruses. This study aimed to determine the effects of selenium on the immune response of geese. Under selenium stimulation, gene expression profiling was investigated using transcriptome sequencing. The selenoproteins were promoted by selenium stimulation, while the heat shock proteins, interleukin and interferons were mainly down-regulated. After comparison, 2228 differentially expressed genes were primarily involved in immune and environmental response, and infectious disease and genetic information processing related pathways were identified...
July 27, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748223/phenoplasm-a-database-of-disruption-phenotypes-for-malaria-parasite-genes
#2
Theo Sanderson, Julian C Rayner
Two decades after the first Plasmodium transfection, attempts have been made to disrupt more than 3,151 genes in malaria parasites, across five Plasmodium species. While results from rodent malaria transfections have been curated and systematised, empowering large-scale analysis, phenotypic data from human malaria parasite transfections currently exists as individual reports scattered across a the literature. To facilitate systematic analysis of published experimental genetic data across Plasmodium species, we have built PhenoPlasm ( http://www...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748212/genetically-engineered-multilineage-differentiating-stress-enduring-cells-as-cellular-vehicles-against-malignant-gliomas
#3
Tomohiro Yamasaki, Shohei Wakao, Hiroshi Kawaji, Shinichiro Koizumi, Tetsuro Sameshima, Mari Dezawa, Hiroki Namba
Malignant glioma, the most common malignant brain tumor in adults, is difficult to treat due to its aggressive invasive nature. Enzyme/prodrug suicide gene therapy based on the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk)/ganciclovir (GCV) system is an efficient strategy for treating malignant gliomas. In the present study, we evaluated treatment with multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells, which are endogenous non-tumorigenic pluripotent-like stem cells that are easily collectable from the bone marrow as SSEA-3(+) cells, as carriers of the HSVtk gene...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy Oncolytics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748037/periodontitis-pathogenesis-and-progression-mirna-mediated-cellular-responses-to-porphyromonas-gingivalis
#4
Ingar Olsen, Sim K Singhrao, Harald Osmundsen
Porphyromonas gingivalis is considered a keystone pathogen in periodontitis, a disease typically driven by dysbiosis of oral inflammophilic polymicrobial pathobionts. To combat infectious agents, the natural defense response of the host is to switch on inflammatory signaling cascades, whereby microRNA (miRNA) species serve as alternative genetic inhibitory transcriptional endpoints. miRNA profiles from diseased sites differ from those detected in disease-free tissues. miRNA profiles could therefore be harnessed as potential diagnostic/prognostic tools...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747915/t-cell-lymphoma-and-leukemia-in-severe-combined-immunodeficiency-pigs-following-bone-marrow-transplantation-a-case-report
#5
Ellis J Powell, Jared Graham, N M Ellinwood, Jesse Hostetter, Michael Yaeger, Chak-Sum Ho, Lynden Gault, Veronica Norlin, Elizabeth N Snella, Jackie Jens, Emily H Waide, Adeline N Boettcher, Maureen Kerrigan, Raymond R R Rowland, Jason W Ross, Jack C M Dekkers, Christopher K Tuggle
After the discovery of naturally occurring severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) within a selection line of pigs at Iowa State University, we found two causative mutations in the Artemis gene: haplotype 12 (ART12) and haplotype 16 (ART16). Bone marrow transplants (BMTs) were performed to create genetically SCID and phenotypically immunocompetent breeding animals to establish a SCID colony for further characterization and research utilization. Of nine original BMT transfer recipients, only four achieved successful engraftment...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747532/negative-phenotypic-and-genetic-correlation-between-natal-dispersal-propensity-and-nest-defence-behaviour-in-a-wild-bird
#6
Pierre Bize, Grégory Daniel, Vincent A Viblanc, Julien G A Martin, Blandine Doligez
Natural selection is expected to favour the integration of dispersal and phenotypic traits allowing individuals to reduce dispersal costs. Accordingly, associations have been found between dispersal and personality traits such as aggressiveness and exploration, which may facilitate settlement in a novel environment. However, the determinism of these associations has only rarely been explored. Here, we highlight the functional integration of individual personality in nest-defence behaviour and natal dispersal propensity in a long-lived colonial bird, the Alpine swift (Apus melba), providing insights into genetic constraints shaping the coevolution of these two traits...
July 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747083/a-novel-variant-with-positive-natural-selection-influenced-hb-a2-levels-in-chinese-individuals-with-%C3%AE-thalassemia
#7
Shanjuan Yu, Yang Chen, Ketong Lai, Roma Kajal Dewan, Yunyan He
β-Thalassemia (β-thal) is the most common inherited hemolytic anemia worldwide. Elevated Hb A2 is a mark of β-thal carriers. The aim of this study was to identify the pathogenic variants associated with the Hb A2 levels. One thousand and thirty β-thal carriers were recruited for this study. Using positive natural expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis, a significant variant was selected. Genotyping for the rs231841 polymorphism was performed by the Sequenom MassARRAY IPLEX platform. All genetic association analyses were performed with the PLINK program...
July 26, 2017: Hemoglobin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746870/identification-of-a-genetic-variation-in-erap1-aminopeptidase-that-prevents-human-cytomegalovirus-mir-ul112-5p-mediated-immunoevasion
#8
Paolo Romania, Loredana Cifaldi, Benedetta Pignoloni, Nadia Starc, Valerio D'Alicandro, Ombretta Melaiu, Giuseppina Li Pira, Ezio Giorda, Rosalba Carrozzo, Monika Bergvall, Tomas Bergström, Lars Alfredsson, Tomas Olsson, Ingrid Kockum, Ilkka Seppälä, Terho Lehtimäki, Mikko A Hurme, Hartmut Hengel, Angela Santoni, Cristina Cerboni, Franco Locatelli, Mauro D'Amato, Doriana Fruci
Herein, we demonstrate that HCMV miR-UL112-5p targets ERAP1, thereby inhibiting the processing and presentation of the HCMV pp65495-503 peptide to specific CTLs. In addition, we show that the rs17481334 G variant, naturally occurring in the ERAP1 3' UTR, preserves ERAP1 from miR-UL112-5p-mediated degradation. Specifically, HCMV miR-UL112-5p binds the 3' UTR of ERAP1 A variant, but not the 3' UTR of ERAP1 G variant, and, accordingly, ERAP1 expression is reduced both at RNA and protein levels only in human fibroblasts homozygous for the A variant...
July 25, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746835/genetic-ataxia-telangiectasia-porcine-model-phenocopies-the-multisystemic-features-of-the-human-disease
#9
Rosanna Beraldi, David K Meyerholz, Alexei Savinov, Attila D Kovács, Jill M Weimer, Jordan A Dykstra, Ryan D Geraets, David A Pearce
Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is a progressive multisystem autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the AT-mutated (ATM) gene. Early onset AT in children is characterized by cerebellar degeneration, leading to motor impairment. Lung disease and cancer are the two most common causes of death in AT patients. Accelerated thymic involution may contribute to the cancer, and recurrent and/or chronic respiratory infections may be a contributing factor to lung disease in AT. AT patients have fertility issues, are highly sensitive to ionizing radiation and they present oculocutaneous telangiectasia...
July 23, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746770/unexpected-high-genetic-diversity-in-small-populations-suggests-maintenance-by-associative-overdominance
#10
Mads F Schou, Volker Loeschcke, Jesper Bechsgaard, Christian Schlötterer, Torsten N Kristensen
The effective population size (Ne ) is a central factor in determining maintenance of genetic variation. The neutral theory predicts that loss of variation depends on Ne , with less genetic drift in larger populations. We monitored genetic drift in 42 Drosophila melanogaster populations of different adult census population sizes (10, 50 or 500) using pooled RAD sequencing. In small populations, variation was lost at a substantially lower rate than expected. This observation was consistent across two ecological relevant thermal regimes, one stable and one with a stressful increase in temperature across generations...
July 26, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746768/de-extinction-and-the-community-of-being
#11
Curt Meine
Extinction deeply colors the way we think about conservation and the role of humans in nature. It is easy to overlook how recently, in fact, it has entered our consciousness. Only in the last two centuries has science sought to critically study life's origins, development, and diversification. Only in the last several generations have we identified and calibrated life's five major extinction events and speculated on their causes and effects. And only in recent decades have we come to appreciate the still-unfolding fate of life's diversity under the increasing influence of humanity...
July 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746767/the-moral-imagination-of-de-extinction
#12
Bruce Jennings
We live amidst the sixth great extinction of life on Earth, and we live under the sign of molecular biology and biotechnology. An ethical maxim that is well-nigh universally acknowledged holds that with great power comes great moral responsibility. For those who accept the science and embrace the responsibility, there are two rather different kinds of moral vision and moral imagination at work. Detractors of biotechnology say that we should see ourselves as creaturely good citizens of the biotic community, accepting and accommodating what evolutionary natural selection has bequeathed to us, warts and all...
July 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746764/de-extinction-and-taking-control-of-earth-s-metabolism
#13
Christopher J Preston
In a laboratory on a university campus in Santa Cruz, California, Ben Novak is doing everything he can to bring Ectopistes migratorius back from the dead. Using techniques now available in genome reading and gene synthesis, he and paleogenomicist Beth Shapiro hope that, by 2032, a flock of passenger pigeons ten thousand or more strong will have resumed an ecologically significant role in the mast forests of the Eastern United States. Novak knows-and the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) affirms-that the challenges involved in making de-extinction work are far from solely genetic...
July 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746735/early-transcriptional-response-pathways-in-daphnia-magna-are-coordinated-in-networks-of-crustacean-specific-genes
#14
Luisa Orsini, James B Brown, Omid Shams Solari, Dong Li, Shan He, Ram Podicheti, Marcus H Stoiber, Katina I Spanier, Donald Gilbert, Mieke Jansen, Douglas Rusch, Michael E Pfrender, John K Colbourne, Mikko J Frilander, Jouni Kvist, Ellen Decaestecker, Karel A C De Schamphelaere, Luc De Meester
Natural habitats are exposed to an increasing number of environmental stressors that cause important ecological consequences. However, the multifarious nature of environmental change, the strength and the relative timing of each stressor largely limit our understanding of biological responses to environmental change. In particular early response to unpredictable environmental change, critical to survival and fitness in later life stages, is largely uncharacterized. Here, we characterize the early transcriptional response of the keystone species Daphnia magna to twelve environmental perturbations, including biotic and abiotic stressors...
July 26, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746379/confirmation-of-independent-introductions-of-an-exotic-plant-pathogen-of-cornus-species-discula-destructiva-on-the-east-and-west-coasts-of-north-america
#15
Kristie Mantooth, Denita Hadziabdic, Sarah Boggess, Mark Windham, Stephen Miller, Guohong Cai, Joseph Spatafora, Ning Zhang, Meg Staton, Bonnie Ownley, Robert Trigiano
Cornus florida (flowering dogwood) and C. nuttallii (Pacific dogwood) are North American native tree species that belong to the big-bracted group of dogwoods. Cornus species are highly valued for their ornamental characteristics, and have fruits that contain high fat content for animals. Also, they are an important understory tree in natural forests. Dogwood anthracnose, caused by Discula destructiva, was observed in the late 1970s on the east and west coasts of the United States and by 1991 had quickly spread throughout most of the native ranges of C...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745517/it-is-all-about-location-how-to-pinpoint-microorganisms-and-their-functions-in-multispecies-biofilms
#16
Angela M Costa, Filipe J Mergulhão, Romain Briandet, Nuno F Azevedo
Multispecies biofilms represent the dominant mode of life for the vast majority of microorganisms. Bacterial spatial localization in such biostructures governs ecological interactions between different populations and triggers the overall community functions. Here, we discuss the pros and cons of fluorescence-based techniques used to decipher bacterial species patterns in biofilms at single cell level, including fluorescence in situ hybridization and the use of genetically modified bacteria that express fluorescent proteins, reporting the significant improvements of those techniques...
July 26, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745417/secondary-metabolite-production-from-industrially-relevant-bacteria-is-enhanced-by-organic-nanofibers
#17
Maria Moffa, Daniela Pasanisi, Elisa Scarpa, Anna Rita Marra, Pietro Alifano, Dario Pisignano
Streptomycetes are exploited for the production of a wide range of secondary metabolites, including antibiotics. Therefore, both academic and industrial research efforts are focused on enhancing production of these precious metabolites. So far, this has been mostly achieved by classical or recombinant genetic techniques, in association with process optimization for either submerged or solid state fermentation. New cultivation approaches addressing the natural mycelial growth and life cycle would allow the biosynthetic potential of filamentous strains to be much better exploited...
July 26, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745028/chemical-communication-sexual-selection-and-introgression-in-wall-lizards
#18
Hannah E A MacGregor, Rachel A M Lewandowsky, Patrizia d'Ettorre, Chloé Leroy, Noel W Davies, Geoffrey M While, Tobias Uller
Divergence in communication systems should influence the likelihood that individuals from different lineages interbreed, and consequently shape the direction and rate of hybridization. Here, we studied the role of chemical communication in hybridization, and its contribution to asymmetric and sexually selected introgression, between two lineages of the common wall lizard (Podarcis muralis). Males of the two lineages differed in the chemical composition of their femoral secretions. Chemical profiles provided information regarding male secondary sexual characters, but the associations were variable and inconsistent between lineages...
July 26, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744923/the-role-of-t-type-calcium-channels-in-the-subiculum-to-burst-or-not-to-burst
#19
Srdjan M Joksimovic, Pierce Eggan, Yukitoshi Izumi, Sonja Lj Joksimovic, Vesna Tesic, Robert M Dietz, James E Orfila, Michael R DiGruccio, Paco S Herson, Vesna Jevtovic-Todorovic, Charles F Zorumski, Slobodan M Todorovic
Several studies suggest that voltage-gated calcium currents are involved in generating high frequency burst firing in the subiculum, but the exact nature of these currents remains unknown. Here, we used selective pharmacology, molecular and genetic approaches to implicate Cav3.1-containing T-channels in subicular burst firing, in contrast to several previous reports discounting T-channels as major contributors to subicular neuron physiology. Furthermore, pharmacological antagonism of T-channels completely suppressed development of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1-subiculum, but not in the CA3-CA1 pathway...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744655/whose-turn-chromosome-research-and-the-study-of-the-human-genome
#20
Soraya de Chadarevian
A common account sees the human genome sequencing project of the 1990s as a "natural outgrowth" of the deciphering of the double helical structure of DNA in the 1950s. The essay aims to complicate this neat narrative by putting the spotlight on the field of human chromosome research that flourished at the same time as molecular biology. It suggests that we need to consider both endeavors - the human cytogeneticists who collected samples and looked down the microscope and the molecular biologists who probed the molecular mechanisms of gene function - to understand the rise of the human genome sequencing project and the current genomic practices...
July 25, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
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