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cirrhosis of liver

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161790/-anticoagulation-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis
#1
REVIEW
Jae Youn Cheong
Cirrhotic patients have bleeding tendencies due to the lack of coagulation factors and thrombocytopenia. However, decreased levels of procoagulants are also accompanied by decreased levels of natural anticoagulants. However, there have been contrasting reports. It has been reported that patients with cirrhosis are at risk for thrombotic complications, including portal vein thrombosis and venous thromboembolism. Physicians consider active anticoagulation for prophylaxis and treatment of portal vein thrombosis and/or venous thromboembolism in cirrhotic patients with high risk of thrombosis...
November 25, 2017: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159718/genetics-and-epigenetics-in-the-pathogenesis-of-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#2
REVIEW
Satoru Joshita, Takeji Umemura, Eiji Tanaka, Masao Ota
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic, slowly progressive cholestatic autoimmune liver disease predominantly afflicting women. PBC is characterized by the presence of disease-specific antimitochondrial antibodies and the histological destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts, which eventually lead to cirrhosis and hepatic failure. Fortunately, ursodeoxycholic acid therapy has improved the outcome of the vast majority of PBC cases. Although the etiology of PBC has not yet been elucidated, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II alleles have been consistently associated with disease onset for decades...
November 20, 2017: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159256/cirrhosis-of-liver-interference-of-serpins-in-quantification-of-serpina4-a-preliminary-study
#3
Krishna Sumanth Nallagangula, K N Shashidhar, V Lakshmaiah, C Muninarayana
Background: Cirrhosis of liver is a pathological condition, wherein functions of liver are impaired by chronic liver exploitations. Due to decrease in synthetic capacity, expressions of plasma proteins tend to decrease in blood stream. Serpins (Serine protease inhibitors) are class of plasma proteins expressed from liver with structural similarities and diverse functions. SERPINA4 (Kallistatin) is a multifunctional serpin clade A protein expressed from liver and concentration in serum is the reflection of extent of liver dysfunction...
December 2017: Pract Lab Med
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158854/current-condition-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-cuban-adults
#4
Castellanos Fernández Marlen Ivón, Dorta Guridi Zaily, Da Silva Conde-Eduardo Leda Patricia, Galbán García Enrique, Arús Soler Enrique, Martinez Pérez Yadina
Background: The reduction of the incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Cuba can be attributed to the effectiveness of the national immunization program. However, the number of patients with chronic HBV observed in clinical practice is not negligible. Objective: A cross-sectional study was conducted to describe the main clinical characteristics of patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Methods: A total of 146 patients who had at least a 6-month history of hepatitis B surface antigen positivity were recruited between 2013 and 2015...
2017: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158853/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-autoimmune-liver-diseases-in-a-tertiary-referral-center-in-cuba
#5
Marlen Ivón Castellanos Fernández, Deyanira la Rosa Hernández, Diego Enrique Cabrera Eugenio, Wilson Palanca, Zaily Dorta Guridi, Licet González Fabián
Background: Autoimmune liver diseases (AILD) comprise a set of entities characterized by tissue damage as a result of the loss of self-tolerance. There are few reports of AILD from Caribbean countries. Objectives: The aim of our study was to investigate the clinical patterns, laboratory findings, and immunologic features, treatment responses, and prognoses of AILD in adult patients at a Cuban tertiary referral center. Methods: A prospective study was conducted at the National Institute of Gastroenterology in Havana, Cuba, from May 2012 to April 2016...
2017: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158695/pnpla3-expression-and-its-impact-on-the-liver-current-perspectives
#6
REVIEW
Francesca Virginia Bruschi, Matteo Tardelli, Thierry Claudel, Michael Trauner
A single-nucleotide polymorphism occurring in the sequence of the human patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 gene (PNPLA3), known as I148M variant, is one of the best characterized and deeply investigated variants in several clinical scenarios, because of its tight correlation with increased risk for developing hepatic steatosis and more aggressive part of the disease spectrum, such as nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis. Further, the I148M variant is positively associated with alcoholic liver diseases, chronic hepatitis C-related cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma...
2017: Hepatic Medicine: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158186/diffusion-kurtosis-imaging-with-the-breath-hold-technique-for-staging-hepatic-fibrosis-a-preliminary-study
#7
Daisuke Yoshimaru, Toshiaki Miyati, Yuichi Suzuki, Yuhki Hamada, Nozomi Mogi, Ayumu Funaki, Ayumi Tabata, Atsuko Masunaga, Masahiko Shimada, Maki Tobari, Takayoshi Nishino
PURPOSE: To evaluate the potential of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) analysis with the breath-hold technique to assess the stage or classify hepatic fibrosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients (n=67) suspected of having a disease of the hepatobiliary system examined by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) using a 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging unit were enrolled in this study. To evaluate hepatic fibrosis, mean kurtosis, Mean apparent diffusion (MD) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were compared between groups with varying fibrosis; F0-F1, F2-F3, and F4...
November 17, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157977/cell-type-specific-pharmacological-kinase-inhibition-for-cancer-chemoprevention
#8
Manjeet Deshmukh, Shigeki Nakagawa, Takaaki Higashi, Adam Vincek, Anu Venkatesh, Marina Ruiz de Galarreta, Anna P Koh, Nicolas Goossens, Hadassa Hirschfield, C Billie Bian, Naoto Fujiwara, Atsushi Ono, Hiroki Hoshida, Mohamed El-Abtah, Noor B Ahmad, Amaia Lujambio, Roberto Sanchez, Bryan C Fuchs, Klaas Poelstra, Jai Prakash, Yujin Hoshida
Safety is prerequisite for preventive medicine, but non-toxic agents are generally ineffective as clinical chemoprevention. Here we propose a strategy overcoming this challenge by delivering molecular-targeted agent specifically to the effector cell type to achieve sufficient potency, while circumventing toxicity in the context of cancer chemoprevention. Hepatic myofibroblasts drive progressive fibrosis that results in cirrhosis and liver cancer. In a rat model of cirrhosis-driven liver cancer, a small molecule epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor, erlotinib, was delivered specifically to myofibroblasts by a versatile nanoparticle-based system, targeting platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta uniquely expressed on their surface in the liver...
November 17, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157245/low-1-5-anhydroglucitol-levels-are-associated-with-long-term-cardiac-mortality-in-acute-coronary-syndrome-patients-with-hemoglobin-a1c-levels-less-than-7-0
#9
Shohei Ouchi, Kazunori Shimada, Tetsuro Miyazaki, Shuhei Takahashi, Yurina Sugita, Megumi Shimizu, Azusa Murata, Tomoyasu Kadoguchi, Takao Kato, Tatsuro Aikawa, Shoko Suda, Eiryu Sai, Masaru Hiki, Hiroshi Iwata, Takatoshi Kasai, Katsumi Miyauchi, Hiroyuki Daida
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is considered an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. High hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, which indicate poor glycemic control, have been associated with occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. There are few parameters which can predict cardiovascular risk in patients with well-controlled diabetes. Low 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) levels are considered a clinical marker of postprandial hyperglycemia. We hypothesized that low 1,5-AG levels could predict long-term mortality in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with relatively low HbA1c levels...
November 21, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157231/risk-factors-for-contralateral-inguinal-hernia-repair-after-unilateral-inguinal-hernia-repair-in-male-adult-patients-analysis-from-a-nationwide-population-based-cohort-study
#10
Cheng-Hung Lee, Yu-Ting Chiu, Chi-Fu Cheng, Jin-Chia Wu, Wen-Yao Yin, Jian-Han Chen
BACKGROUND: To identify the rate of and risk factors for contralateral inguinal hernia (CIH) after unilateral inguinal hernia repair in adult male patients. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). Information on all adult patients who underwent primary unilateral inguinal hernia repair without any other operation was collected using ICD-9 diagnostic and procedure codes. The exclusion criteria were laparoscopic hernia repair, non-primary repair, complicated hernia, other combined procedures, female and undetermined gender...
November 21, 2017: BMC Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156808/serum-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-levels-predict-insignificant-fibrosis-and-non-cirrhosis-in-hepatitis-b-e-antigen-positive-patients-with-normal-or-mildly-elevated-alanine-transaminase-levels
#11
Qiang Li, Weixia Li, Chuan Lu, Yuxian Huang, Liang Chen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) levels for liver fibrosis in hepatitis B e antigen-positive [HBeAg (+)] chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with alanine transaminase (ALT)≤twice upper limit of normal (ULN). METHODS: 505 patients who underwent liver biopsies and HBsAg quantitative detections were included. Liver histology was scored using METAVIR scoring system. The area under the receiver-operator curve (AUROC) was used to determine the diagnostic accuracy...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156683/shycd-induces-ape1-ref-1-subcellular-localization-to-regulate-the-p53-apoptosis-signaling-pathway-in-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure
#12
Jianxin Diao, Haiye Li, Wei Huang, Wenxiao Ma, Huan Dai, Yawei Liu, Ming Wang, He Yu Hua, Jinying Ou, Xiaomin Sun, Xuegang Sun, Yungao Yang
Background & Aims: San huang yin chi decoction(SHYCD) is derived from the yin chen hao decoction, a well-known and canonical Chinese medicine formula from the "Treatise on Febrile Diseases". Over the past decade, SHYCD has been used to treat and prevent the liver cirrhosis and liver failure. In the present study, we investigated the effects of SHYCD for acute on chronic liver failure(ACLF) and explored its potential mechanism. an ACLF rat model, which induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) combined with D-galactosamine (D-GalN) and lipopolysaccharide(LPS), was used and confirmed by B-ultrasound analysis...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156655/the-role-of-glyoxalase-i-glo-i-advanced-glycation-endproducts-ages-and-their-receptor-rage-in-chronic-liver-disease-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-hcc
#13
REVIEW
Marcus Hollenbach
Glyoxalase-I (Glo-I) and glyoxalase-II (Glo-II) comprise the glyoxalase system and are responsible for the detoxification of methylglyoxal (MGO). MGO is formed non-enzymatically as a by-product, mainly in glycolysis, and leads to the formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). AGEs bind to their receptor, RAGE, and activate intracellular transcription factors, resulting in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress, and inflammation. This review will focus on the implication of the Glo-I/AGE/RAGE system in liver injury and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156048/unmet-needs-in-clinical-and-basic-hepatitis-b-virus-research
#14
Tung-Hung Su, Jia-Horng Kao
Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) has become a treatable and controllable disease. The current nucleos(t)ide analogue (NUC) and pegylated interferon therapies effectively help slow disease progression and reduce the risk of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and CHB-associated mortality. Long-term viral suppression is easily achievable by NUC therapy, with limited adverse reactions. However, several unmet requirements still exist, including safety and risk-stratified HCC surveillance among patients who received long-term NUC therapy...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155718/the-murine-choline-deficient-ethionine-supplemented-cde-diet-model-of-chronic-liver-injury
#15
Jully Gogoi-Tiwari, Julia Köhn-Gaone, Corey Giles, Dirk Schmidt-Arras, Francis D Gratte, Caryn L Elsegood, Geoffrey W McCaughan, Grant A Ramm, John K Olynyk, Janina E E Tirnitz-Parker
Chronic liver diseases, such as viral hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, are characterized by continual inflammation, progressive destruction and regeneration of the hepatic parenchyma, liver progenitor cell proliferation, and fibrosis. The end-stage of every chronic liver disease is cirrhosis, a major risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. To study processes regulating disease initiation, establishment, and progression, several animal models are used in laboratories...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155355/molecular-ellipticity-of-circulating-albumin-bilirubin-complex-associates-with-mortality-in-patients-with-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis
#16
Sukanta Das, Jaswinder Singh Maras, Rakhi Maiwall, S M Shasthry, Md Shabir Hussain, Shvetank Sharma, S Sukriti, T P Singh, Shiv Kumar Sarin
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hyperbilirubinemia and hypoalbuminemia are features of hepatic dysfunction that associate with disease severity. This is because hepatic insufficiency causes hypoalbuminemia, which indirectly increases the circulating levels of free bilirubin. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy can be used to quantify the molecular ellipticity (ME) of the albumin-bilirubin complex, and might associate with the severity or outcome of severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH). METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 265 patients with SAH admitted in the Department of Hepatology, Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences in New Delhi, India from January 2014 through January 2016...
November 16, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155019/the-risk-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-cirrhotic-patients-with-hepatitis-c-and-sustained-viral-response-role-of-the-treatment-regimen
#17
Hamish Innes, Stephen T Barclay, Peter C Hayes, Andrew Fraser, John F Dillon, Adrian Stanley, Andy Bathgate, Scott A McDonald, David Goldberg, Heather Valerio, Ray Fox, Nick Kennedy, Pete Bramley, Sharon J Hutchinson
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported a high frequency of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurrence in patients with advanced liver disease, after receipt of interferon(IFN)-free therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Our objective was to verify and account for this phenomenon using data from the Scottish HCV Clinical Database. METHODS: We identified HCC-naïve individuals with liver cirrhosis receiving a course of antiviral therapy in Scotland from 1997-2016 resulting in a SVR...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154966/determinants-of-fibrosis-progression-and-regression-in-nash
#18
REVIEW
Detlef Schuppan, Rambabu Surabattula, Xiao Yu Wang
Cirrhosis has become the major liver related clinical endpoint in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. However, progression to cirrhosis is less predictable in NASH compared to other chronic liver diseases. This is due to the complex and multifactorial etiology of NASH, which is determined by life style and nutrition, multiple genetic and epigenetic factors, and a prominent role of hepatic and extrahepatic comorbidities. Thus modest changes in these cofactors can also induce fibrosis regression, at least in precirrhotic patients...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154019/local-specialty-pharmacy-and-specialty-clinic-collaboration-assists-access-to-hepatitis-c-direct-acting-antivirals
#19
Julia Zhu, Ronald J Hazen, Cara Joyce, Ambrose Delpino, Heather S Kirkham, Carson Dietrich Strickland, Shauna Markes-Wilson, Tomeka Kim, Meen Kang, Raymond A Rubin, Lance L Stein
OBJECTIVES: To measure prescribed time to therapy (TtT) and sustained virologic response (SVR). Secondary objectives were to assess insurance appeals and copay assistance amount facilitated by a local specialty pharmacy (LSP). METHODS: This descriptive, retrospective study used a joint clinical and pharmacy database of patients who were prescribed direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) at a single-center liver specialty clinic and received LSP services from December 2013 to December 2015...
November 16, 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152988/value-and-innovation-of-direct-acting-antivirals-long-term-health-outcomes-of-the-strategic-plan-for-the-management-of-hepatitis-c-in-spain
#20
Juan Turnes, Raquel Domínguez-Hernández, Miguel Ángel Casado
OBJECTIVE: To assess the long-term healthcare costs and health outcome in association with the access to new direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), during the first year of the National Strategic Plan for Chronic Hepatitis C (SPCHC) in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in Spain. METHODS: A decision tree and a lifetime Markov model were developed to simulate the natural history, morbidity, and mortality of a cohort of 51,900 patients with CHC before (pre-DAA strategy) and after (post-DAA strategy) access to DAA, following SPCHC approval...
November 20, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
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