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abnormal eating behaviour

Marlies E van Bochove, Eva Ketel, Miles Wischnewski, Joost Wegman, Esther Aarts, Benjamin de Jonge, W Pieter Medendorp, Dennis J L G Schutter
Research on the hedonic value of food has been important in understanding the motivational and emotional correlates of normal and abnormal eating behaviour. The aim of the present study was to explore associations between hemispheric asymmetries recorded during resting state electroencephalography (EEG) and hedonic valuation of food. Healthy adult volunteers were recruited and four minutes of resting state EEG were recorded from the scalp. Hedonic food valuation and reward sensitivity were assessed with the hedonic attitude to food and behavioural activation scale...
October 8, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Ian Hall, Amar Shah
Adherence with antipsychotic monitoring guidelines is notoriously low nationally. Without active monitoring and measures to improve metabolic abnormalities, more patients may develop related morbidity and mortality. An audit highlighted antipsychotic monitoring in this learning disability service in London did not match guideline recommendations. People with intellectual disability also experience health inequalities. Psychiatrists are well placed to provide advice and assistance that is suitable for those with complex communication, behaviour, and social needs...
2016: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
Marcio M de Oliveira, Cristiane Conti, Gilmar F Prado
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review, published in 2009, Issue 2.Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS) is a rare disorder that mainly affects adolescent men. It is characterised by recurrent episodes of hypersomnia, usually accompanied by hyperphagia, cognitive and mood disturbances, abnormal behaviour, such as hypersexuality, and signs of dysautonomia.In 1990, the diagnostic criteria for Kleine-Levin syndrome were modified in the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, where KLS was defined as a syndrome comprised of recurring episodes of undue sleepiness lasting some days, which may or may not be associated with hyperphagia and abnormal behaviour...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
E Aparicio, J Canals, V Arija, S De Henauw, N Michels
Stress and negative emotions pose a major threat to public health, by increasing the risk of obesity. Since the management process for emotions (emotion regulation; ER) is developed in childhood, we present a novel conceptual framework model for the role of ER in the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity. A narrative review of the literature by electronic database search (MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge and Scopus) was conducted of observational and interventional/experimental literature on ER and obesity and the underlying concepts...
June 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
Christine Feinle-Bisset
Both the stomach and small intestine play important roles in sensing the arrival of a meal, and its physico-chemical characteristics, in the gastrointestinal lumen. The presence of a meal in the stomach provides a distension stimulus, and, as the meal empties into the small intestine, nutrients interact with small intestinal receptors, initiating the release of gut hormones, associated with feedback regulation of gastrointestinal functions, including gut motility, and signaling to the central nervous system, modulating eating behaviours, including energy intake...
August 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Vesa Pohjola, Aino Rekola, Kristina Kunttu, Jorma I Virtanen
BACKGROUND: First-year university students are in a new, independent life situation, which may affect health behaviour, including oral health habits. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between dental fear and oral health habits, while considering the simultaneous effects of attitude toward food and treatment need at dental check-ups. METHODS: The data (n = 8514) for this national cross-sectional study were collected from health registers of Finnish Student Health Service...
2016: BMC Oral Health
Lily O'Hara, Sabrina Tahboub-Schulte, Justin Thomas
This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between abnormal eating attitudes, weight teasing, internalized weight stigma and self-esteem in the United Arab Emirates in a sample of 420 female Emirati undergraduate students (mean age = 23.12 years). Participants completed an online survey including validated and reliable measures. Regression and mediation analyses were used to test for relationships between the factors. Thirty percent of respondents had eating disorder symptomatology, and 44% of respondents reported being frequently teased about their weight...
July 1, 2016: Appetite
Jesus Pujol, Laura Blanco-Hinojo, Susanna Esteba-Castillo, Assumpta Caixàs, Ben J Harrison, Marta Bueno, Joan Deus, Mercedes Rigla, Dídac Macià, Jone Llorente-Onaindia, Ramón Novell-Alsina
BACKGROUND: Prader Willi syndrome is a genetic disorder with a behavioural expression characterized by the presence of obsessive-compulsive phenomena ranging from elaborate obsessive eating behaviour to repetitive skin picking. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been recently associated with abnormal functional coupling between the frontal cortex and basal ganglia. We have tested the potential association of functional connectivity anomalies in basal ganglia circuits with obsessive-compulsive behaviour in patients with Prader Willi syndrome...
June 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Joji Maruo, Yoshinori Haraguchi, Hiroshi Tateishi, Tomoyuki Noguchi, Yoshito Mizoguchi, Takahiro A Kato, Toshiro Kawashima, Akira Monji
Cotard's syndrome is a relatively rare condition that involves a delusion of negation in which an individual believes he or she has lost his or her soul, is dead, or is without functional body systems. This syndrome is observed in various neuropsychiatric disorders but most commonly in mood disorders. Pramipexole has often been used in the adjunctive treatment of both bipolar and unipolar depression, and it is known to cause rare but serious adverse effects such as compulsive behaviours in the treatment of Parkinson's disease...
September 29, 2015: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
Martina Bocchetta, Elizabeth Gordon, Emily Manning, Josephine Barnes, David M Cash, Miklos Espak, David L Thomas, Marc Modat, Martin N Rossor, Jason D Warren, Sebastien Ourselin, Giovanni B Frisoni, Jonathan D Rohrer
Abnormal eating behaviors are frequently reported in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). The hypothalamus is the regulatory center for feeding and satiety but its involvement in bvFTD has not been fully clarified, partly due to its difficult identification on MR images. We measured hypothalamic volume in 18 patients with bvFTD (including 9 MAPT and 6 C9orf72 mutation carriers) and 18 cognitively normal controls using a novel optimized multimodal segmentation protocol, combining 3D T1 and T2-weighted 3T MRIs (intrarater intraclass correlation coefficients ≥0...
December 2015: Journal of Neurology
Yosuke Usumoto, Keiko Kudo, Naomi Sameshima, Kazuo Sato, Akiko Tsuji, Noriaki Ikeda
Zolpidem is a widely used ultrashort-acting non-benzodiazepine in clinical practice; compared with benzodiazepines, it does not have side effects such as daytime hangover, rebound insomnia, and development of tolerance. We report an autopsy case of abnormal behaviour induced by zolpidem. A man in his 60's had suffered from postherpetic neuralgia about 2 months ago and had been prescribed zolpidem for insomnia. According to his family, he had no memory of his actions such as striking a wall, taking his futon outside, and eating 5 times a day after he took zolpidem...
June 2015: Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi, Hukuoka Acta Medica
Valentina Cardi, Freya Corfield, Jenni Leppanen, Charlotte Rhind, Stephanie Deriziotis, Alexandra Hadjimichalis, Rebecca Hibbs, Nadia Micali, Janet Treasure
BACKGROUND: Difficulties in social cognition have been identified in eating disorders (EDs), but the exact profile of these abnormalities is unclear. The aim of this study is to examine distinct processes of social-cognition in this patient group, including attentional processing and recognition, empathic reaction and evoked facial expression in response to discrete vignettes of others displaying positive (i.e. happiness) or negative (i.e. sadness and anger) emotions. METHOD: One hundred and thirty-eight female participants were included in the study: 73 healthy controls (HCs) and 65 individuals with an ED (49 with Anorexia Nervosa and 16 with Bulimia Nervosa)...
2015: PloS One
Dawna Royall, Paula Brauer, Laura Bjorklund, Olivia O'Young, Angelo Tremblay, Khursheed Jeejeebhoy, Daren Heyland, Rupinder Dhaliwal, Doug Klein, David M Mutch
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) refers to a particular cluster of metabolic abnormalities (hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, and visceral fat deposition) that can lead to a 1.5- to 2-fold increased relative risk of cardiovascular disease. Various combinations of healthier eating patterns and increased physical activity have been shown to improve metabolic abnormalities and reduce MetS prevalence. Dietitians who counsel MetS patients are challenged to integrate guidance from various medical management guidelines and research studies with effective behavioural change strategies and specific advice on what food and eating pattern changes will be most effective, feasible, and acceptable to clients...
September 2014: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
Jennifer R Davies, Trevor Humby, Dominic M Dwyer, Alastair S Garfield, Hannah Furby, Lawrence S Wilkinson, Timothy Wells, Anthony R Isles
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by deletion or inactivation of paternally expressed imprinted genes on human chromosome 15q11-q13, the most recognised feature of which is hyperphagia. This is thought to arise as a consequence of abnormalities in both the physiological drive for food and the rewarding properties of food. Although a number of mouse models for PWS exist, the underlying variables dictating maladaptive feeding remain unknown. Here, feeding behaviour in a mouse model in which the imprinting centre (IC) of the syntenic PWS interval has been deleted (PWS(ICdel) mice) is characterised...
August 2015: European Journal of Neuroscience
A U R Muhammad, C Q Xia, B H Cao
The objective of study was to evaluate the effect of forage concentration (F:C) and forage particle length (FPL) on sorting, feeding behaviour, intake, growth and body measurements of growing calves. Twenty-eight weaned calves of body weight 156.79 ± 33.44 (mean ± SD) were used in 2 × 2 factorial arrangements with the factors FPL of hay grass (full and short) and hay grass concentrations (low, 50% and high, 65%). The treatments were as follows: full length (FL) with low F:C (50:50), FL with high F:C(65:35), short length (SL) with low F:C (50:50) and SL with high F:C (65:35)...
April 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Rafael Dias Lopes, Claudio E M Banzato, Amilton Santos
Abnormal eating behaviour among psychiatric patients is associated with several psychiatric conditions, but may also be caused by a comorbid physical condition. Clinical assessment of a psychiatric patient is often challenging, which contributes to an increased rate of undiagnosed medical conditions and an increased mortality rate. We present the clinical case of a 46-year-old woman with a long-term delusion of triplet pregnancy, and recurrent vomiting. She experienced intense weight loss and eventually faced a life-threatening situation due to achalasia, which was incidentally discovered on a chest X-ray during her second psychiatric hospitalization, after several other tests, including upper digestive endoscopy, returned normal results...
June 2014: Oxford Medical Case Reports
Antonina Luca, Maria Luca, Carmela Calandra
Eating disorders are a heterogeneous group of complex psychiatric disorders characterized by abnormal eating behaviours that lead to a high rate of morbidity, or even death, if underestimated and untreated. The main disorders enlisted in the chapter of the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders-5 dedicated to "Feeding and Eating Disorders" are: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Even though these abnormal behaviours are mostly diagnosed during childhood, interesting cases of late-life eating disorders have been reported in literature...
February 2015: Aging and Disease
Luis F Alguacil, Carmen González-Martín
Addictive disorders (substance-use disorder and gambling disorder) are collected together in the fifth edition of The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) partially because of a common brain origin, which seems to involve dysfunction of the reward system. Beyond these disorders, other neuropsychiatric diseases also share abnormal reward sensitivity, maladaptive impulsivity or compulsive behaviours, and have been reunited under the 'reward deficiency syndrome' (RDS) umbrella. Research in this field could then provide novel drugs with positive actions in all these diseases, but many animal models used for this purpose lack enough translational value to enable the identification of novel targets and should be then avoided...
March 2015: Drug Discovery Today
Sahruh Turkmen, Lotta Andreen, Yucel Cengiz
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with abnormal eating habits. We examined whether surgical treatment affected allopregnanolone levels and eating behaviour in nine women with PCOS who qualified for Rou-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Blood samples were obtained to measure sex-hormone-binding globulin, total testosterone, progesterone, and allopregnanolone, and eating behaviour was evaluated using the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire before surgery and at 6 and 12 months after surgery. Body mass index and total testosterone levels decreased, and progesterone and sex-hormone-binding globulin levels increased after bariatric surgery compared with pre-surgical values...
April 2015: Gynecological Endocrinology
Agnieszka Woźniak, Marta Artych, Agata Wawrzyniak
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a vital part of child development, where acquired eating/dietary behaviour is often associated with ones' perception of body shape. OBJECTIVES: To assess eating habits in relation to body shape perception and esteem in middle-school (junior-high) pupils. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Surveyed subjects were 170 middle-school pupils from Warsaw; 101 girls and 69 boys aged 15 years. An anonymous questionnaire was used to determine eating habits, body mass, growth and body shape perception...
2014: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
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