Read by QxMD icon Read


Valeria Caneparo, Santo Landolfo, Marisa Gariglio, Marco De Andrea
Absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2)-like receptors (ALRs) are a newly characterized class of pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) involved in cytosolic and nuclear pathogen DNA recognition. In recent years, two ALR family members, the interferon (IFN)-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) and AIM2, have been linked to the pathogenesis of various autoimmune diseases, among which systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has recently gained increasing attention. SLE patients are indeed often characterized by constitutively high serum IFN levels and increased expression of IFN-stimulated genes due to an abnormal response to pathogens and/or incorrect self-DNA recognition process...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Xintong Ge, Wenzhu Li, Shan Huang, Zhenyu Yin, Xin Xu, Fanglian Chen, Xiaodong Kong, Haichen Wang, Jianning Zhang, Ping Lei
Pyroptosis is a highly specific type of inflammatory programmed cell death that different from necrosis or apoptosis. It is initiated by cellular detection of acute damage via recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by NOD-like receptors (NLRs) or AIM2-like receptor (AIM2). NLRs and AIM2 could trigger the formation of a multi-protein complex, known as inflammasome. It also contains apoptotic speck-containing protein (ASC) and pro-Caspase-1, and could process the signals to induce a cascade of inflammatory response...
June 7, 2018: Brain Research
Spyridon Stavrou, Alexya N Aguilera, Kristin Blouch, Susan R Ross
Host recognition of viral nucleic acids generated during infection leads to the activation of innate immune responses essential for early control of virus. Retrovirus reverse transcription creates numerous potential ligands for cytosolic host sensors that recognize foreign nucleic acids, including single-stranded RNA (ssRNA), RNA/DNA hybrids, and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). We and others recently showed that the sensors cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), DEAD-box helicase 41 (DDX41), and members of the Aim2-like receptor (ALR) family participate in the recognition of retroviral reverse transcripts...
June 5, 2018: MBio
Jeffrey S Martin, Allison M Martin, Petey W Mumford, Lorena P Salom, Angelique N Moore, David D Pascoe
Background: We sought to determine the effects of unilateral lower-limb external pneumatic compression (EPC) on bilateral lower-limb vascular reactivity and skin blood flow. Methods: Thirty-two participants completed this two-aim study. In AIM1 ( n  = 18, age: 25.5 ± 4.7 years; BMI: 25.6 ± 3.5 kg/m2 ), bilateral femoral artery blood flow and reactivity (flow mediated dilation [FMD]) measurements were performed via ultrasonography at baseline (PRE) and immediately following 30-min of unilateral EPC treatment (POST)...
2018: PeerJ
Yue Lang, Fengna Chu, Donghui Shen, Weiguanliu Zhang, Chao Zheng, Jie Zhu, Li Cui
Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes that can sense pathogen-associated molecular patterns and damage-associated molecular signals. They are involved in the initiation and development of inflammation via activation of IL-1 β and IL-18. Many recent studies suggest a strong correlation between inflammasomes and neurological diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and Parkinson's disease (PD). Several components of inflammasomes, such as nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain- (NOD-) like receptor, absent in melanoma 2- (AIM2-) like receptors (ALRs), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC), and caspase-1, as well as the upstream factors and downstream effectors, are associated with the initiation and development of MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Daeho So, Hyun-Woo Shin, Jiyoung Kim, Mingyu Lee, Jongyun Myeong, Yang-Sook Chun, Jong-Wan Park
Mammalian cells are equipped with antiviral innate immunity. To survive and grow, human papilloma virus (HPV)-infected cervical cancer cells must overcome this host defense system. However, the precise mechanism whereby cervical cancer cells evade the immunity is not fully understood. We noted that Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is overexpressed in HPV-infected cervical cancer cells and hypothesized that SIRT1 counteracts antiviral immunity. Here, we found that cervical cancer cells undergo massive death by SIRT1 knockdown, but this effect is reversed by SIRT1 restoration...
May 29, 2018: Oncogene
Young-Su Yi
Inflammation is an innate immune response to noxious stimuli to protect the body from pathogens and dangers. Inflammatory responses consist of two main steps: priming and triggering. In priming, inflammatory cells increase expressions of inflammatory molecules, while in triggering, inflammasomes are activated, resulting in cell death and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. Inflammasomes are protein complexes comprising intracellular pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) (e.g. nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs), absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2), and caspases-4/5/11) and pro-caspase-1 with or without a bipartite adaptor molecule ASC...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Su-Bin Kwak, Sushruta Koppula, Eun-Jung In, Xiao Sun, Young-Kyu Kim, Myong-Ki Kim, Kwang-Ho Lee, Tae-Bong Kang
Artemisia princeps var. orientalis (Asteraceae, A. princeps ) is a well-known traditional medicinal herb used for treating various inflammatory disorders in Korea, Japan, China, and other Asian countries. In the present study, we investigated the effects of A. princeps extract (APO) on interleukin- (IL-) 1 β regulation and inflammasome activation in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) and monosodium urate- (MSU-) induced peritonitis mouse model in vivo . The APO treatment to BMDMs primed with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) attenuated the NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasome activation induced by danger signals, such as ATP, nigericin, silica crystals, and poly (dA:dT), respectively...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Michela Terlizzi, Antonio Molino, Chiara Colarusso, Chantal Donovan, Pasquale Imitazione, Pasquale Somma, Rita P Aquino, Philip M Hansbro, Aldo Pinto, Rosalinda Sorrentino
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic fibro-proliferative disease characterized by poor prognosis, with a mean survival of ~2-3 years after definite diagnosis. The cause of IPF is still unknown but it is a heterogeneous condition in which the aberrant deposition of extracellular matrix leads to extensive lung remodeling. This remodeling is a consequence of inflammatory responses, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. In this study, we first analyzed a bleomycin-induced mouse model, which showed that higher expression of IL-1β, but not IL-18, was correlated to pulmonary cell infiltration and fibrosis...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Manuel Gerónimo Feria, Natalia Andrea Taborda, Juan C Hernandez, Maria Teresa Rugeles
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) promotes an inflammatory process, leading to the progressive loss of the functional capacity of the immune system. The HIV infection induces alterations in several tissues, but mainly in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). However, the degree of GALT deterioration varies among infected individuals. In fact, it has been shown that HIV-controllers, who spontaneously control viral replication, exhibit a lower inflammatory response, and a relative normal frequency and function of most of the immune cells...
2018: PloS One
William G Fusco, Joseph A Duncan
Inflammasomes are multiprotein structures that activate caspase-1, support secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and IL-18, and also induce inflammatory programmed cell death, termed pyoptosis. Inflammasomes are activated in response to the detection of endogenous and microbially derived danger signals and are mediated by several classes of inflammasome-forming sensors. These include several nucleotide-binding proteins of the NOD-like receptor (NLR) family, including NLRP1, NLRP3 and NLRC4, as well as the proteins Absent in Melanoma 2 (AIM2) and Pyrin...
April 25, 2018: International Immunology
Alice C-H Chen, Hai B Tran, Yang Xi, Stephanie T Yerkovich, Katherine J Baines, Susan J Pizzutto, Melanie Carroll, Avril A B Robertson, Matthew A Cooper, Kate Schroder, Jodie L Simpson, Peter G Gibson, Greg Hodge, Ian B Masters, Helen M Buntain, Helen L Petsky, Samantha J Prime, Anne B Chang, Sandra Hodge, John W Upham
Protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB) in young children is characterised by prolonged wet cough, prominent airway interleukin (IL)-1β expression and infection, often with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). The mechanisms responsible for IL-1-driven inflammation in PBB are poorly understood. We hypothesised that the inflammation in PBB involves the NLRP3 and/or AIM2 inflammasome/IL-1β axis. Lung macrophages obtained from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), blood monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages from patients with PBB and age-matched healthy controls were cultured in control medium or exposed to live NTHi...
January 2018: ERJ Open Research
Young-Kyu Kim, Sushruta Koppula, Do-Wan Shim, Eun-Jung In, Su-Bin Kwak, Myong-Ki Kim, Sang-Hyeun Yu, Kwang-Ho Lee, Tae-Bong Kang
Arctium lappa (A. lappa) , Compositae, is considered a potential source of nutrition and is used as a traditional medicine in East Asian countries for centuries. Although several studies have shown its biological activities as an anti-inflammatory agent, there have been no reports on A. lappa with regard to regulatory role in inflammasome activation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of A. lappa extract (ALE) on NLRP3 inflammasome activation and explore the underlying mechanisms...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Rajendra Karki, Ein Lee, David Place, Parimal Samir, Jayadev Mavuluri, Bhesh Raj Sharma, Arjun Balakrishnan, R K Subbarao Malireddi, Rechel Geiger, Qifan Zhu, Geoffrey Neale, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
Inflammasome activation is critical for host defenses against various microbial infections. Activation of the NLRC4 inflammasome requires detection of flagellin or type III secretion system (T3SS) components by NLR family apoptosis inhibitory proteins (NAIPs); yet how this pathway is regulated is unknown. Here, we found that interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) is required for optimal activation of the NLRC4 inflammasome in bone-marrow-derived macrophages infected with Salmonella Typhimurium, Burkholderia thailandensis, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa but is dispensable for activation of the canonical and non-canonical NLRP3, AIM2, and Pyrin inflammasomes...
May 3, 2018: Cell
S Lehmann, E Esch, P Hartmann, A Goswami, S Nikolin, J Weis, C Beyer, S Johann
AIMS: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by degeneration of motoneurons and progressive muscle wasting. Inflammatory processes, mediated by non-neuronal cells, such as glial cells, are known to contribute to disease progression. Inflammasomes consist of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC) and caspase 1 and are essential for interleukin (IL) processing and a rapid immune response after tissue damage. Recently, we described inflammasome activation in the spinal cord of ALS patients and in SOD1(G93A) ALS mice...
March 25, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
Qifan Zhu, Si Ming Man, Rajendra Karki, R K Subbarao Malireddi, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
Interferons (IFNs) and inflammasomes are essential mediators of anti-microbial immunity. Type I IFN signaling drives activation of the AIM2 inflammasome in macrophages; however, the relative contribution of IFNs and inflammasome responses in host defense is less understood. We report intact AIM2 inflammasome responses in mice lacking type I IFN signaling during infection with F. novicida. Lack of type I IFN signaling conferred protection to F. novicida infection in contrast to the increased susceptibility in AIM2-deficient mice...
March 20, 2018: Cell Reports
Aigli G Vakrakou, Sorina Boiu, Panayiotis D Ziakas, Evangelia Xingi, Haralabia Boleti, Menelaos N Manoussakis
Sjögren's syndrome (SS) patients manifest high cell-free DNA (cf-DNA) levels in serum, associated with impaired DNaseI activity. Undegraded DNA may accumulate in tissues and act as an inflammasome-activating signal. Herein, we investigated the occurrence of aberrant DNA build-up in various biologic compartments of SS patients and its correlation with the activity of NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasomes. For this purpose, we evaluated sera, PBMC, circulating monocytes and salivary glands (SG) from different SS patient subgroups and controls...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
Haipeng Yin, Qiang Guo, Xin Li, Tiantian Tang, Cuiling Li, Hengxiao Wang, Yuanxin Sun, Qi Feng, Chunhong Ma, Chengjiang Gao, Fan Yi, Jun Peng
Turmeric is traditionally used as a spice and coloring in foods. Curcumin is the primary active ingredient in the turmeric, and compelling evidence has shown that it has the ability to inhibit inflammation. However, the mechanism mediating its anti-inflammatory effects are not fully understood. We report that curcumin inhibited caspase-1 activation and IL-1β secretion through suppressing LPS priming and the inflammasome activation pathway in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages. The inhibitory effect of curcumin on inflammasome activation was specific to the NLRP3, not to the NLRC4 or the AIM2 inflammasomes...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Yi Huang, Hua Jiang, Yun Chen, Xiaqiong Wang, Yanqing Yang, Jinhui Tao, Xianming Deng, Gaolin Liang, Huafeng Zhang, Wei Jiang, Rongbin Zhou
The dysregulation of NLRP3 inflammasome can cause uncontrolled inflammation and drive the development of a wide variety of human diseases, but the medications targeting NLRP3 inflammasome are not available in clinic. Here, we show that tranilast (TR), an old anti-allergic clinical drug, is a direct NLRP3 inhibitor. TR inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages, but has no effects on AIM2 or NLRC4 inflammasome activation. Mechanismly, TR directly binds to the NACHT domain of NLRP3 and suppresses the assembly of NLRP3 inflammasome by blocking NLRP3 oligomerization...
April 2018: EMBO Molecular Medicine
Andreas Linkermann, Simon P Parmentier, Christian Hugo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"