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Immunoevasion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703466/anti-platelet-treatments-in-cancer-basic-and-clinical-research
#1
Paolo Gresele, Marco Malvestiti, Stefania Momi
Over the past few decades the central role that platelets play in cancer development and progression, and especially in metastasis, has been elucidated. The molecular mechanisms responsible for initiating and mediating tumor cell-induced platelet aggregation and secretion have been largely unravelled. Considerable mechanistic insight into how platelets contribute to tumor angiogenesis, immunoevasion and cancer cell invasion have been clarified and, consequently, platelets have been identified as potential new drug targets for cancer therapy...
April 2018: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666625/dying-to-be-noticed-epigenetic-regulation-of-immunogenic-cell-death-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#2
REVIEW
Brianne Cruickshank, Michael Giacomantonio, Paola Marcato, Sherri McFarland, Jonathan Pol, Shashi Gujar
Immunogenic cell death (ICD) activates both innate and adaptive arms of the immune system during apoptotic cancer cell death. With respect to cancer immunotherapy, the process of ICD elicits enhanced adjuvanticity and antigenicity from dying cancer cells and consequently, promotes the development of clinically desired antitumor immunity. Cancer ICD requires the presentation of various "hallmarks" of immunomodulation, which include the cell-surface translocation of calreticulin, production of type I interferons, and release of high-mobility group box-1 and ATP, which through their compatible actions induce an immune response against cancer cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623082/combination-immunotherapy-taking-cancer-vaccines-to-the-next-level
#3
REVIEW
Jeremy M Grenier, Stephen T Yeung, Kamal M Khanna
With the advent of checkpoint blockade therapies, immunotherapy is now a critical modality for the treatment of some cancers. While some patients respond well to checkpoint blockade, many do not, necessitating the need for other forms of therapy. Vaccination against malignancy has been a long sought goal of science. For cancers holding a microbial etiology, vaccination has been highly effective in reducing the incidence of disease. However, vaccination against established malignancy has been largely disappointing...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516671/surface-protein-components-from-entomopathogenic-nematodes-and-their-symbiotic-bacteria-effects-on-immune-responses-of-the-greater-wax-moth-galleria-mellonella-lepidoptera-pyralidae
#4
Maurizio Francesco Brivio, Andrea Toscano, Simone Maria De Pasquale, Andrea De Lerma Barbaro, Stefano Giovannardi, Giovanna Finzi, Maristella Mastore
BACKGROUND: Steinernema carpocapsae is a nematocomplex widely used as an alternative to chemicals for the biological control of insect pests; this nematode is symbiotically associated with the bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila and both contribute to host death. The architecture and functions of structures and molecular components of the surface of nematodes and their symbiont bacteria are integral to early interactions with their hosts; thus, we assessed the role of protein pools isolated from the surface of S...
March 8, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393023/a-comparison-of-the-effect-of-molluscum-contagiosum-virus-mc159-and-mc160-proteins-on-vaccinia-virus-virulence-in-intranasal-and-intradermal-infection-routes
#5
Sunetra Biswas, Geoffrey L Smith, Edward J Roy, Brian Ward, Joanna L Shisler
Molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) causes persistent, benign skin neoplasm in children and adults. MCV is refractive to growth in standard tissue culture and there is no relevant animal model of infection. Here we investigated whether another poxvirus (vaccinia virus; VACV) could be used to examine MCV immunoevasion protein properties in vivo. The MCV MC159L or MC160L genes, which encode NF-κB antagonists, were inserted into an attenuated VACV lacking an NF-κB antagonist (vΔA49), creating vMC159 and vMC160...
February 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371595/defining-the-role-of-the-tumor-vasculature-in-antitumor-immunity-and-immunotherapy
#6
REVIEW
Marco B Schaaf, Abhishek D Garg, Patrizia Agostinis
It is now well established that cancer cells co-exist within a complex environment with stromal cells and depend for their growth and dissemination on tight and plastic interactions with components of the tumor microenvironment (TME). Cancer cells incite the formation of new blood and lymphatic vessels from preexisting vessels to cope with their high nutrient/oxygen demand and favor tumor outgrowth. Research over the past decades has highlighted the crucial role played by tumor-associated blood and lymphatic vasculature in supporting immunoevasion and in subverting T-cell-mediated immunosurveillance, which are the main hallmarks of cancers...
January 25, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283429/the-dark-side-of-ifn-%C3%AE-its-role-in-promoting-cancer-immunoevasion
#7
REVIEW
Marija Mojic, Kazuyoshi Takeda, Yoshihiro Hayakawa
Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) is a pleiotropic cytokine that has long been praised as an important effector molecule of anti-tumor immunity, capable of suppressing tumor growth through various mechanisms. On the contrary to such a bright side of IFN-γ, it has also been involved in promoting an outgrowth of tumor cells with immunoevasive phenotype suggesting an existence of a dark "tumor-promoting" side effect of IFN-γ. In this review, we will summarize this multi-functional role of IFN-γ in tumor context, how it promotes changes in tumor phenotype towards increased fitness for growth in immunocompetent host...
December 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221973/pathogens-toolbox-to-manipulate-human-complement
#8
REVIEW
Francisco J Fernández, Sara Gómez, M Cristina Vega
The surveillance and pathogen fighting functions of the complement system have evolved to protect mammals from life-threatening infections. In turn, pathogens have developed complex molecular mechanisms to subvert, divert and evade the effector functions of the complement. The study of complement immunoevasion by pathogens sheds light on their infection drivers, knowledge that is essential to implement therapies. At the same time, complement evasion also acts as a discovery ground that reveals important aspects of how complement works under physiological conditions...
December 14, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156850/harness-the-synergy-between-targeted-therapy-and-immunotherapy-what-have-we-learned-and-where-are-we-headed
#9
REVIEW
Xiaoyan Liu, Qing Zhou, Yan Xu, Minjiang Chen, Jing Zhao, Mengzhao Wang
Since the introduction of imatinib for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia, several oncogenic mutations have been identified in various malignancies that can serve as targets for therapy. More recently, a deeper insight into the mechanism of antitumor immunity and tumor immunoevasion have facilitated the development of novel immunotherapy agents. Certain targeted agents have the ability of inhibiting tumor growth without causing severe lymphocytopenia and amplifying antitumor immune response by increasing tumor antigenicity, enhancing intratumoral T cell infiltration, and altering the tumor immune microenvironment, which provides a rationale for combining targeted therapy with immunotherapy...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145950/a-combination-of-allogeneic-stem-cells-promotes-cardiac-regeneration
#10
Makoto Natsumeda, Victoria Florea, Angela C Rieger, Bryon A Tompkins, Monisha N Banerjee, Samuel Golpanian, Julia Fritsch, Ana Marie Landin, Nilesh D Kashikar, Vasileios Karantalis, Viky Y Loescher, Kostas E Hatzistergos, Luiza Bagno, Cristina Sanina, Muzammil Mushtaq, Jose Rodriguez, Marcos Rosado, Ariel Wolf, Kevin Collon, Louis Vincent, Anthony J Kanelidis, Ivonne H Schulman, Raul Mitrani, Alan W Heldman, Wayne Balkan, Joshua M Hare
BACKGROUND: The combination of autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and cardiac stem cells (CSCs) synergistically reduces scar size and improves cardiac function in ischemic cardiomyopathy. Whereas allogeneic (allo-)MSCs are immunoevasive, the capacity of CSCs to similarly elude the immune system remains controversial, potentially limiting the success of allogeneic cell combination therapy (ACCT). OBJECTIVES: This study sought to test the hypothesis that ACCT synergistically promotes cardiac regeneration without provoking immunologic reactions...
November 14, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123951/characterization-of-a-switchable-chimeric-antigen-receptor-platform-in-a-pre-clinical-solid-tumor-model
#11
Elham Pishali Bejestani, Marc Cartellieri, Ralf Bergmann, Armin Ehninger, Simon Loff, Michael Kramer, Johannes Spehr, Antje Dietrich, Anja Feldmann, Susann Albert, Martin Wermke, Michael Baumann, Mechthild Krause, Martin Bornhäuser, Gerhard Ehninger, Michael Bachmann, Malte von Bonin
The universal modular chimeric antigen receptor (UniCAR) platform redirects CAR-T cells using a separated, soluble targeting module with a short half-life. This segregation allows precise controllability and flexibility. Herein we show that the UniCAR platform can be used to efficiently target solid cancers in vitro and in vivo using a pre-clinical prostate cancer model which overexpresses prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA). Short-term administration of the targeting module to tumor bearing immunocompromised mice engrafted with human UniCAR-T cells significantly delayed tumor growth and prolonged survival of recipient mice both in a low and high tumor burden model...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981210/proteome-and-structural-organization-of-the-knob-complex-on-the-surface-of-the-plasmodium-infected-red-blood-cell
#12
Shuba Varshini Alampalli, Manish Grover, Syama Chandran, Utpal Tatu, Pragyan Acharya
PURPOSE: The cell membrane of the erythrocytes infected with the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum undergoes several changes during the course of parasite life cycle and forms protrusions known as 'knobs' on its surface during the mature trophozoite and schizont stages. The structural organization of knob components especially PfEMP1 on the iRBC surface is the main determinant for the cytoadhesive and rosetting capacity of the iRBC by binding to various host receptors as well as for the variable antigenicity, which is crucial for immunoevasion...
October 5, 2017: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960320/cmv-and-natural-killer-cells-shaping-the-response-to-vaccination
#13
REVIEW
Martin R Goodier, Stipan Jonjić, Eleanor M Riley, Vanda Juranić Lisnić
Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) are highly prevalent, persistent human pathogens that not only evade but also shape our immune responses. Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in the control of CMV and CMVs have in turn developed a plethora of immunoevasion mechanisms targeting NK cells. This complex interplay can leave a long-lasting imprint on the immune system in general and affect responses toward other pathogens and vaccines. This review aims to provide an overview of NK cell biology and development, the manipulation of NK cells by CMVs and the potential impact of these evasion strategies on responses to vaccination...
January 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936707/immunoglobulin-genotypes-and-cognitive-functions-in-schizophrenia
#14
Janardan P Pandey, Aryan M Namboodiri, Paul J Nietert, Reiji Yoshimura, Hikaru Hori
Exposure to neurotropic viruses, such as herpes simplex virus type 1 and human cytomegalovirus, has been reported to be associated with cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. These viruses have evolved highly sophisticated strategies for decreasing the efficacy of the host immune response and interfering with viral clearance. Particular immunoglobulin GM (γ marker) genotypes modulate these viral immunoevasion strategies, influence antibody responsiveness to viral proteins, and are also associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia, providing an excellent rationale for determining their possible involvement in the cognitive functions in this highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder...
January 2018: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759001/tumor-immunoevasion-by-the-conversion-of-effector-nk-cells-into-type-1-innate-lymphoid-cells
#15
Yulong Gao, Fernando Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes, Tobias Bald, Susanna S Ng, Arabella Young, Shin Foong Ngiow, Jai Rautela, Jasmin Straube, Nic Waddell, Stephen J Blake, Juming Yan, Laurent Bartholin, Jason S Lee, Eric Vivier, Kazuyoshi Takeda, Meriem Messaoudene, Laurence Zitvogel, Michele W L Teng, Gabrielle T Belz, Christian R Engwerda, Nicholas D Huntington, Kyohei Nakamura, Michael Hölzel, Mark J Smyth
Avoiding destruction by immune cells is a hallmark of cancer, yet how tumors ultimately evade control by natural killer (NK) cells remains incompletely defined. Using global transcriptomic and flow-cytometry analyses and genetically engineered mouse models, we identified the cytokine-TGF-β-signaling-dependent conversion of NK cells (CD49a- CD49b+ Eomes+ ) into intermediate type 1 innate lymphoid cell (intILC1) (CD49a+ CD49b+ Eomes+ ) populations and ILC1 (CD49a+ CD49b- Eomesint ) populations in the tumor microenvironment...
September 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746870/identification-of-a-genetic-variation-in-erap1-aminopeptidase-that-prevents-human-cytomegalovirus-mir-ul112-5p-mediated-immunoevasion
#16
Paolo Romania, Loredana Cifaldi, Benedetta Pignoloni, Nadia Starc, Valerio D'Alicandro, Ombretta Melaiu, Giuseppina Li Pira, Ezio Giorda, Rosalba Carrozzo, Monika Bergvall, Tomas Bergström, Lars Alfredsson, Tomas Olsson, Ingrid Kockum, Ilkka Seppälä, Terho Lehtimäki, Mikko A Hurme, Hartmut Hengel, Angela Santoni, Cristina Cerboni, Franco Locatelli, Mauro D'Amato, Doriana Fruci
Herein, we demonstrate that HCMV miR-UL112-5p targets ERAP1, thereby inhibiting the processing and presentation of the HCMV pp65495-503 peptide to specific CTLs. In addition, we show that the rs17481334 G variant, naturally occurring in the ERAP1 3' UTR, preserves ERAP1 from miR-UL112-5p-mediated degradation. Specifically, HCMV miR-UL112-5p binds the 3' UTR of ERAP1 A variant, but not the 3' UTR of ERAP1 G variant, and, accordingly, ERAP1 expression is reduced both at RNA and protein levels only in human fibroblasts homozygous for the A variant...
July 25, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611248/the-aspergillus-fumigatus-crza-transcription-factor-activates-chitin-synthase-gene-expression-during-the-caspofungin-paradoxical-effect
#17
Laure Nicolas Annick Ries, Marina Campos Rocha, Patrícia Alves de Castro, Rafael Silva-Rocha, Roberto Nascimento Silva, Fernanda Zanolli Freitas, Leandro José de Assis, Maria Célia Bertolini, Iran Malavazi, Gustavo H Goldman
Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes invasive aspergillosis (IA), a life-threatening disease in immunocompromised humans. The echinocandin caspofungin, adopted as a second-line therapy in combating IA, is a β-1,3-glucan synthase inhibitor, which, when used in high concentrations, reverts the anticipated A. fumigatus growth inhibition, a phenomenon called the "caspofungin paradoxical effect" (CPE). The CPE has been widely associated with increased chitin content in the cell wall due to a compensatory upregulation of chitin synthase-encoding genes...
June 13, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589207/prediction-and-in-vitro-verification-of-potential-ctl-epitopes-conserved-among-prrsv-2-strains
#18
Simon Welner, Morten Nielsen, Michael Rasmussen, Søren Buus, Gregers Jungersen, Lars Erik Larsen
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) is the causative agent of one of the most important porcine diseases with a high impact on animal health, welfare, and production economy. PRRSV exhibits a multitude of immunoevasive strategies that, in combination with a very high mutation rate, has hampered the development of safe and broadly protective vaccines. Aiming at a vaccine inducing an effective cytotoxic T cell response, a bioinformatics approach was taken to identify conserved PRRSV-derived peptides predicted to react broadly with common swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) class I alleles...
October 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534024/cancer-immunoprevention-and-public-health
#19
REVIEW
Sandeep K Singh, Mehmet Tevfik Dorak
The power of cancer immune surveillance has been documented beyond doubt, and the successful exploitation of immune response to cancer has started a new era in the war against cancer. Cancer biologists have recognized immunoevasion as an emerging hallmark in addition to the six hallmarks of cancer. Besides the natural connection between the immune system and cancer development, most established environmental risk factors are now known to interfere with immune surveillance mechanisms. Genetic variations regulating immunity may also modulate cancer susceptibility, but evidence for this is currently limited...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467889/pi3k-akt-mtor-inhibition-in-cancer-immunotherapy-redux
#20
REVIEW
Jake S O'Donnell, Daniela Massi, Michele W L Teng, Mario Mandala
Cancer therapies will increasingly be utilized in combination to treat advanced malignancies so as to increase their long-term efficacy in a greater proportion of patients. In particular, much attention has focused on developing targeted therapies that inhibit the PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling network which is dysregulated in many cancer types. In addition, there is now a growing appreciation that targeting of these pathways can impact not only on cancer cells, but also host immunity. The clinical success of cancer immunotherapies targeting T-cell immune checkpoint receptors PD-1/PD-L1 has demonstrated the importance of immunoevasion as a hallmark of cancer...
February 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
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