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Javier Querol-García, Francisco J Fernández, Ana V Marin, Sara Gómez, Daniel Fullà, Cecilia Melchor-Tafur, Virginia Franco-Hidalgo, Sebastián Albertí, Jordi Juanhuix, Santiago Rodríguez de Córdoba, José R Regueiro, M Cristina Vega
The Gram-positive anaerobic human pathogenic bacterium Atopobium vaginae causes most diagnosed cases of bacterial vaginosis as well as opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients. In addition to its well-established role in carbohydrate metabolism, D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) from Streptococcus pyogenes and S. pneumoniae have been reported to act as extracellular virulence factors during streptococcal infections. Here, we report the crystal structure of GAPDH from A. vaginae (AvGAPDH) at 2...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
T G Shrihari
Inflammation is the body's response to noxious stimuli such as infectious, physiological or chemical agents, it releases various inflammatory mediators via immune cells such as neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes. These inflammatory mediators are growth factors, chemokines, and cytokines. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) activate transcriptional factors (NF-KB, STAT-3) and bring about cellular proliferation, genomic instability, angiogenesis, resistance to apoptosis, invasion, and metastasis...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
Huawei Mao, Yinping Liu, Sin Fun Sia, J S Malik Peiris, Yu-Lung Lau, Wenwei Tu
Natural killer (NK) cell is a key component of innate immunity and plays an important role in host defense against virus infection by directly destroying infected cells. Influenza is a respiratory disease transmitted in the early phase of virus infection. Evasion of host innate immunity including NK cells is critical for the virus to expand and establish a successful acute infection. Previously, we showed that human influenza H1N1 virus infects NK cells and induces cell apoptosis, as well as inhibits NK cell activity...
February 23, 2017: Virologica Sinica
Cristian Loretelli, Robert F Moore, Moufida Ben Nasr, Sergio Dellepiane, Murugabaskar Balan, Marwan Mounayar, Vera Usuelli, Basset El Essawy, Francesca D'Addio, Anat O Stemmer-Rachamimov, Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti, Soumitro Pal, Paolo Fiorina, Reza Abdi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 21, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006105.].
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
Guillaume Claisse, Olivier Thaunat, Christiane Mousson, Kathryn J Wood, Gérard Rifle, Christophe Mariat
Recent progress in deciphering the mechanisms underlying the concepts of tumor immunosurveillance and immunoevasion has opened new opportunities for the development of effective anti-tumor therapies. Transplant physicians and immunologists have much to learn from those direct clinical translations of basic science. The 2016 Beaune Seminar in Transplant research brought together researchers from both fields to explore and discuss significant advances in cancer biology, immunotherapies and their potential impacts for the management of cancer in transplant recipients...
January 9, 2017: Transplantation
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006021.].
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Ahmad Bakur Mahmoud, Megan M Tu, Andrew Wight, Haggag S Zein, Mir Munir A Rahim, Seung-Hwan Lee, Harman S Sekhon, Earl G Brown, Andrew P Makrigiannis
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005446.].
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Wanbo Tai, Yufei Wang, Craig A Fett, Guangyu Zhao, Fang Li, Stanley Perlman, Shibo Jiang, Yusen Zhou, Lanying Du
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) binds to cellular receptor dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) via the spike (S) protein receptor-binding domain (RBD). The RBD contains critical neutralizing epitopes and serves as an important vaccine target. Since RBD mutations occur in different MERS-CoV isolates and antibody escape mutants, cross-neutralization of divergent MERS-CoV strains by RBD-induced antibodies remains unknown. Here, we constructed four recombinant RBD (rRBD) proteins with single or multiple mutations detected in representative human MERS-CoV strains from the 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015 outbreaks, respectively, and one rRBD protein with multiple changes derived from camel MERS-CoV strains...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
Christopher S Eickhoff, Xiuli Zhang, Jose R Vasconcelos, R Geoffrey Motz, Nicole L Sullivan, Kelly O'Shea, Nicola Pozzi, David W Gohara, Jennifer R Blase, Enrico Di Cera, Daniel F Hoft
Trypanosoma cruzi infection is controlled but not eliminated by host immunity. The T. cruzi trans-sialidase (TS) gene superfamily encodes immunodominant protective antigens, but expression of altered peptide ligands by different TS genes has been hypothesized to promote immunoevasion. We molecularly defined TS epitopes to determine their importance for protection versus parasite persistence. Peptide-pulsed dendritic cell vaccination experiments demonstrated that one pair of immunodominant CD4+ and CD8+ TS peptides alone can induce protective immunity (100% survival post-lethal parasite challenge)...
September 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Stacy A Malaker, Michael J Ferracane, Florence R Depontieu, Angela L Zarling, Jeffrey Shabanowitz, Dina L Bai, Suzanne L Topalian, Victor H Engelhard, Donald F Hunt
The MHC class II (MHCII) processing pathway presents peptides derived from exogenous or membrane-bound proteins to CD4+ T cells. Several studies have shown that glycopeptides are necessary to modulate CD4+ T cell recognition, though glycopeptide structures in these cases are generally unknown. Here, we present a total of 93 glycopeptides from three melanoma cell lines and one matched EBV-transformed line with most found only in the melanoma cell lines. The glycosylation we detected was diverse and comprised 17 different glycoforms...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
Alicia M Holmgren, Cameron A McConkey, Sunny Shin
Originally described by the late evolutionary biologist Leigh Van Valen, the Red Queen hypothesis posits that the evolutionary arms race between hosts and their pathogens selects for discrete, genetically encoded events that lead to competitive advantages over the other species. Examples of immune evasion strategies are seen throughout the co-evolution of the mammalian immune system and pathogens, such as the enzymatic inactivation of nuclear factor-κB signaling or host translation by pathogen-encoded virulence factors...
January 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Kazuhide Sato, Noriko Sato, Biying Xu, Yuko Nakamura, Tadanobu Nagaya, Peter L Choyke, Yoshinori Hasegawa, Hisataka Kobayashi
Current immunotherapies for cancer seek to modulate the balance among different immune cell populations, thereby promoting antitumor immune responses. However, because these are systemic therapies, they often cause treatment-limiting autoimmune adverse effects. It would be ideal to manipulate the balance between suppressor and effector cells within the tumor without disturbing homeostasis elsewhere in the body. CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) are well-known immunosuppressor cells that play a key role in tumor immunoevasion and have been the target of systemic immunotherapies...
August 17, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
Erik Ladomersky, Lijie Zhai, Galina Gritsina, Matthew Genet, Kristen L Lauing, Meijing Wu, C David James, Derek A Wainwright
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults, with an average age of 64 years at the time of diagnosis. To study GBM, a number of mouse brain tumor models have been utilized. In these animal models, subjects tend to range from 6 to 12 weeks of age, which is analogous to that of a human teenager. Here, we examined the impact of age on host immunity and the gene expression associated with immune evasion in immunocompetent mice engrafted with syngeneic intracranial GL261. The data indicate that, in mice with brain tumors, youth conveys an advantage to survival...
September 6, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Brian T Luk, Ronnie H Fang, Che-Ming J Hu, Jonathan A Copp, Soracha Thamphiwatana, Diana Dehaini, Weiwei Gao, Kang Zhang, Shulin Li, Liangfang Zhang
The therapeutic potential of nanoparticle-based drug carriers depends largely on their ability to evade the host immune system while delivering their cargo safely to the site of action. Of particular interest are simple strategies for the functionalization of nanoparticle surfaces that are both inherently safe and can also bestow immunoevasive properties, allowing for extended blood circulation times. Here, we evaluated a recently reported cell membrane-coated nanoparticle platform as a drug delivery vehicle for the treatment of a murine model of lymphoma...
2016: Theranostics
Megan M Tu, Ahmad Bakur Mahmoud, Andrew P Makrigiannis
Natural killer (NK) cells are known for their well characterized ability to control viral infections and eliminate tumor cells. Through their repertoire of activating and inhibitory receptors, NK cells are able to survey different potential target cells for various surface markers, such as MHC-I - which signals to the NK cell that the target is healthy - as well as stress ligands or viral proteins, which alert the NK cell to the aberrant state of the target and initiate a response. According to the "licensing" hypothesis, interactions between self-specific MHC-I receptors - Ly49 in mice and KIR in humans - and self-MHC-I molecules during NK cell development is crucial for NK cell functionality...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Roberta Ettari, Santo Previti, Lucia Tamborini, Gregorio Cullia, Silvana Grasso, Maria Zappalà
Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) is an endemic parasitic disease of sub-Saharan Africa, caused by two subspecies of protozoa belonging to Trypanosoma genus: T. brucei gambiense and T. brucei rhodesiense. In this context the inhibition of the papain-family cysteine proteases rhodesain and TbCatB has to be considered a promising strategy for HAT treatment. Rhodesain, the major cathepsin L-like cysteine protease of T. brucei rhodesiense, is a lysosomal protease essential for parasite survival. It is involved in parasite invasivity, allowing it to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) of the human host, causing the second lethal stage of the disease...
2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Xia Zhou, Yiwei Liao, Haoyu Li, Zijin Zhao, Qing Liu
CONTEXT: It has been verified that dendritic cell (DC) vaccination can improve the prognosis of malignant glioma. However, recent evidence suggests the problems with DC vaccines lies, at least in part, with the cancers ability to induce an immunosupressive response that suppresses any vaccine-mediated active immunity. Our previous studies indicate that subcutaneous vaccine can restrain the cancer cells implanted in the brain, but the effect is limited on vascularized tumor in the brain...
January 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
Zengjin Liu, Huamin Han, Xin He, Shouwei Li, Chenxing Wu, Chunjiang Yu, Shengdian Wang
Glioma is known to induce local and systemic immunosuppression, which inhibits antitumor T cell responses. The galectin-9-Tim-3-pathway negatively regulates T cell pathways in the tumor immunosuppressive environment. The present study assessed the expression of Tim-3 and galectin-9 in glioma patients, and evaluated the association between the expression of Tim-3 and galectin-9 with clinical characteristics. The present study identified that Tim-3 expression was significantly increased in peripheral blood T cells of glioma patients compared with those of healthy controls, and was additionally increased on tumor-infiltrating T cells...
March 2016: Oncology Letters
Ahmad Bakur Mahmoud, Megan M Tu, Andrew Wight, Haggag S Zein, Mir Munir A Rahim, Seung-Hwan Lee, Harman S Sekhon, Earl G Brown, Andrew P Makrigiannis
The immune response to influenza virus infection comprises both innate and adaptive defenses. NK cells play an early role in the destruction of tumors and virally-infected cells. NK cells express a variety of inhibitory receptors, including those of the Ly49 family, which are functional homologs of human killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR). Like human KIR, Ly49 receptors inhibit NK cell-mediated lysis by binding to major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules that are expressed on normal cells...
February 2016: PLoS Pathogens
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