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Immunoevasion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611248/the-aspergillus-fumigatus-crza-transcription-factor-activates-chitin-synthase-gene-expression-during-the-caspofungin-paradoxical-effect
#1
Laure Nicolas Annick Ries, Marina Campos Rocha, Patrícia Alves de Castro, Rafael Silva-Rocha, Roberto Nascimento Silva, Fernanda Zanolli Freitas, Leandro José de Assis, Maria Célia Bertolini, Iran Malavazi, Gustavo H Goldman
Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes invasive aspergillosis (IA), a life-threatening disease in immunocompromised humans. The echinocandin caspofungin, adopted as a second-line therapy in combating IA, is a β-1,3-glucan synthase inhibitor, which, when used in high concentrations, reverts the anticipated A. fumigatus growth inhibition, a phenomenon called the "caspofungin paradoxical effect" (CPE). The CPE has been widely associated with increased chitin content in the cell wall due to a compensatory upregulation of chitin synthase-encoding genes...
June 13, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589207/prediction-and-in-vitro-verification-of-potential-ctl-epitopes-conserved-among-prrsv-2-strains
#2
Simon Welner, Morten Nielsen, Michael Rasmussen, Søren Buus, Gregers Jungersen, Lars Erik Larsen
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) is the causative agent of one of the most important porcine diseases with a high impact on animal health, welfare, and production economy. PRRSV exhibits a multitude of immunoevasive strategies that, in combination with a very high mutation rate, has hampered the development of safe and broadly protective vaccines. Aiming at a vaccine inducing an effective cytotoxic T cell response, a bioinformatics approach was taken to identify conserved PRRSV-derived peptides predicted to react broadly with common swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) class I alleles...
June 7, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534024/cancer-immunoprevention-and-public-health
#3
REVIEW
Sandeep K Singh, Mehmet Tevfik Dorak
The power of cancer immune surveillance has been documented beyond doubt, and the successful exploitation of immune response to cancer has started a new era in the war against cancer. Cancer biologists have recognized immunoevasion as an emerging hallmark in addition to the six hallmarks of cancer. Besides the natural connection between the immune system and cancer development, most established environmental risk factors are now known to interfere with immune surveillance mechanisms. Genetic variations regulating immunity may also modulate cancer susceptibility, but evidence for this is currently limited...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467889/pi3k-akt-mtor-inhibition-in-cancer-immunotherapy-redux
#4
REVIEW
Jake S O'Donnell, Daniela Massi, Michele W L Teng, Mario Mandala
Cancer therapies will increasingly be utilized in combination to treat advanced malignancies so as to increase their long-term efficacy in a greater proportion of patients. In particular, much attention has focused on developing targeted therapies that inhibit the PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling network which is dysregulated in many cancer types. In addition, there is now a growing appreciation that targeting of these pathways can impact not only on cancer cells, but also host immunity. The clinical success of cancer immunotherapies targeting T-cell immune checkpoint receptors PD-1/PD-L1 has demonstrated the importance of immunoevasion as a hallmark of cancer...
April 30, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448566/il-33-st2-pathway-drives-regulatory-t-cell-dependent-suppression-of-liver-damage-upon-cytomegalovirus-infection
#5
Branka Popovic, Mijo Golemac, Jürgen Podlech, Jelena Zeleznjak, Lidija Bilic-Zulle, Miodrag L Lukic, Luka Cicin-Sain, Matthias J Reddehase, Tim Sparwasser, Astrid Krmpotic, Stipan Jonjic
Regulatory T (Treg) cells dampen an exaggerated immune response to viral infections in order to avoid immunopathology. Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) are herpesviruses usually causing asymptomatic infection in immunocompetent hosts and induce strong cellular immunity which provides protection against CMV disease. It remains unclear how these persistent viruses manage to avoid induction of immunopathology not only during the acute infection but also during life-long persistence and virus reactivation. This may be due to numerous viral immunoevasion strategies used to specifically modulate immune responses but also induction of Treg cells by CMV infection...
April 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443070/crystal-structure-of-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase-from-the-gram-positive-bacterial-pathogen-a-vaginae-an-immunoevasive-factor-that-interacts-with-the-human-c5a-anaphylatoxin
#6
Javier Querol-García, Francisco J Fernández, Ana V Marin, Sara Gómez, Daniel Fullà, Cecilia Melchor-Tafur, Virginia Franco-Hidalgo, Sebastián Albertí, Jordi Juanhuix, Santiago Rodríguez de Córdoba, José R Regueiro, M Cristina Vega
The Gram-positive anaerobic human pathogenic bacterium Atopobium vaginae causes most diagnosed cases of bacterial vaginosis as well as opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients. In addition to its well-established role in carbohydrate metabolism, D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) from Streptococcus pyogenes and S. pneumoniae have been reported to act as extracellular virulence factors during streptococcal infections. Here, we report the crystal structure of GAPDH from A. vaginae (AvGAPDH) at 2...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275390/dual-role-of-inflammatory-mediators-in-cancer
#7
REVIEW
T G Shrihari
Inflammation is the body's response to noxious stimuli such as infectious, physiological or chemical agents, it releases various inflammatory mediators via immune cells such as neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes. These inflammatory mediators are growth factors, chemokines, and cytokines. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) activate transcriptional factors (NF-KB, STAT-3) and bring about cellular proliferation, genomic instability, angiogenesis, resistance to apoptosis, invasion, and metastasis...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255852/avian-influenza-virus-directly-infects-human-natural-killer-cells-and-inhibits-cell-activity
#8
Huawei Mao, Yinping Liu, Sin Fun Sia, J S Malik Peiris, Yu-Lung Lau, Wenwei Tu
Natural killer (NK) cell is a key component of innate immunity and plays an important role in host defense against virus infection by directly destroying infected cells. Influenza is a respiratory disease transmitted in the early phase of virus infection. Evasion of host innate immunity including NK cells is critical for the virus to expand and establish a successful acute infection. Previously, we showed that human influenza H1N1 virus infects NK cells and induces cell apoptosis, as well as inhibits NK cell activity...
February 23, 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224274/immunoevasion-rather-than-intrinsic-oncogenicity-may-confer-mscs-from-non-obese-diabetic-mice-the-ability-to-generate-neural-tumors
#9
Cristian Loretelli, Robert F Moore, Moufida Ben Nasr, Sergio Dellepiane, Murugabaskar Balan, Marwan Mounayar, Vera Usuelli, Basset El Essawy, Francesca D'Addio, Anat O Stemmer-Rachamimov, Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti, Soumitro Pal, Paolo Fiorina, Reza Abdi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199391/correction-correction-correction-influenza-virus-targets-class-i-mhc-educated-nk-cells-for-immunoevasion
#10
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006105.].
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072758/how-to-escape-the-immune-response-what-tumours-have-to-teach-to-transplant-immunologists
#11
Guillaume Claisse, Olivier Thaunat, Christiane Mousson, Kathryn J Wood, Gérard Rifle, Christophe Mariat
Recent progress in deciphering the mechanisms underlying the concepts of tumor immunosurveillance and immunoevasion has opened new opportunities for the development of effective anti-tumor therapies. Transplant physicians and immunologists have much to learn from those direct clinical translations of basic science. The 2016 Beaune Seminar in Transplant research brought together researchers from both fields to explore and discuss significant advances in cancer biology, immunotherapies and their potential impacts for the management of cancer in transplant recipients...
January 9, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992584/correction-correction-influenza-virus-targets-class-i-mhc-educated-nk-cells-for-immunoevasion
#12
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006021.].
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814389/correction-influenza-virus-targets-class-i-mhc-educated-nk-cells-for-immunoevasion
#13
Ahmad Bakur Mahmoud, Megan M Tu, Andrew Wight, Haggag S Zein, Mir Munir A Rahim, Seung-Hwan Lee, Harman S Sekhon, Earl G Brown, Andrew P Makrigiannis
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005446.].
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795425/recombinant-receptor-binding-domains-of-multiple-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronaviruses-mers-covs-induce-cross-neutralizing-antibodies-against-divergent-human-and-camel-mers-covs-and-antibody-escape-mutants
#14
Wanbo Tai, Yufei Wang, Craig A Fett, Guangyu Zhao, Fang Li, Stanley Perlman, Shibo Jiang, Yusen Zhou, Lanying Du
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) binds to cellular receptor dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) via the spike (S) protein receptor-binding domain (RBD). The RBD contains critical neutralizing epitopes and serves as an important vaccine target. Since RBD mutations occur in different MERS-CoV isolates and antibody escape mutants, cross-neutralization of divergent MERS-CoV strains by RBD-induced antibodies remains unknown. Here, we constructed four recombinant RBD (rRBD) proteins with single or multiple mutations detected in representative human MERS-CoV strains from the 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015 outbreaks, respectively, and one rRBD protein with multiple changes derived from camel MERS-CoV strains...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642757/costimulatory-effects-of-an-immunodominant-parasite-antigen-paradoxically-prevent-induction-of-optimal-cd8-t-cell-protective-immunity
#15
Christopher S Eickhoff, Xiuli Zhang, Jose R Vasconcelos, R Geoffrey Motz, Nicole L Sullivan, Kelly O'Shea, Nicola Pozzi, David W Gohara, Jennifer R Blase, Enrico Di Cera, Daniel F Hoft
Trypanosoma cruzi infection is controlled but not eliminated by host immunity. The T. cruzi trans-sialidase (TS) gene superfamily encodes immunodominant protective antigens, but expression of altered peptide ligands by different TS genes has been hypothesized to promote immunoevasion. We molecularly defined TS epitopes to determine their importance for protection versus parasite persistence. Peptide-pulsed dendritic cell vaccination experiments demonstrated that one pair of immunodominant CD4+ and CD8+ TS peptides alone can induce protective immunity (100% survival post-lethal parasite challenge)...
September 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550523/identification-and-characterization-of-complex-glycosylated-peptides-presented-by-the-mhc-class-ii-processing-pathway-in-melanoma
#16
Stacy A Malaker, Michael J Ferracane, Florence R Depontieu, Angela L Zarling, Jeffrey Shabanowitz, Dina L Bai, Suzanne L Topalian, Victor H Engelhard, Donald F Hunt
The MHC class II (MHCII) processing pathway presents peptides derived from exogenous or membrane-bound proteins to CD4+ T cells. Several studies have shown that glycopeptides are necessary to modulate CD4+ T cell recognition, though glycopeptide structures in these cases are generally unknown. Here, we present a total of 93 glycopeptides from three melanoma cell lines and one matched EBV-transformed line with most found only in the melanoma cell lines. The glycosylation we detected was diverse and comprised 17 different glycoforms...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27545071/outrunning-the-red-queen-bystander-activation-as-a-means-of-outpacing-innate-immune-subversion-by-intracellular-pathogens
#17
REVIEW
Alicia M Holmgren, Cameron A McConkey, Sunny Shin
Originally described by the late evolutionary biologist Leigh Van Valen, the Red Queen hypothesis posits that the evolutionary arms race between hosts and their pathogens selects for discrete, genetically encoded events that lead to competitive advantages over the other species. Examples of immune evasion strategies are seen throughout the co-evolution of the mammalian immune system and pathogens, such as the enzymatic inactivation of nuclear factor-κB signaling or host translation by pathogen-encoded virulence factors...
January 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535621/spatially-selective-depletion-of-tumor-associated-regulatory-t-cells-with-near-infrared-photoimmunotherapy
#18
Kazuhide Sato, Noriko Sato, Biying Xu, Yuko Nakamura, Tadanobu Nagaya, Peter L Choyke, Yoshinori Hasegawa, Hisataka Kobayashi
Current immunotherapies for cancer seek to modulate the balance among different immune cell populations, thereby promoting antitumor immune responses. However, because these are systemic therapies, they often cause treatment-limiting autoimmune adverse effects. It would be ideal to manipulate the balance between suppressor and effector cells within the tumor without disturbing homeostasis elsewhere in the body. CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) are well-known immunosuppressor cells that play a key role in tumor immunoevasion and have been the target of systemic immunotherapies...
August 17, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27493076/advanced-age-negatively-impacts-survival-in-an-experimental-brain-tumor-model
#19
Erik Ladomersky, Lijie Zhai, Galina Gritsina, Matthew Genet, Kristen L Lauing, Meijing Wu, C David James, Derek A Wainwright
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults, with an average age of 64 years at the time of diagnosis. To study GBM, a number of mouse brain tumor models have been utilized. In these animal models, subjects tend to range from 6 to 12 weeks of age, which is analogous to that of a human teenager. Here, we examined the impact of age on host immunity and the gene expression associated with immune evasion in immunocompetent mice engrafted with syngeneic intracranial GL261. The data indicate that, in mice with brain tumors, youth conveys an advantage to survival...
September 6, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27217833/safe-and-immunocompatible-nanocarriers-cloaked-in-rbc-membranes-for-drug-delivery-to-treat-solid-tumors
#20
Brian T Luk, Ronnie H Fang, Che-Ming J Hu, Jonathan A Copp, Soracha Thamphiwatana, Diana Dehaini, Weiwei Gao, Kang Zhang, Shulin Li, Liangfang Zhang
The therapeutic potential of nanoparticle-based drug carriers depends largely on their ability to evade the host immune system while delivering their cargo safely to the site of action. Of particular interest are simple strategies for the functionalization of nanoparticle surfaces that are both inherently safe and can also bestow immunoevasive properties, allowing for extended blood circulation times. Here, we evaluated a recently reported cell membrane-coated nanoparticle platform as a drug delivery vehicle for the treatment of a murine model of lymphoma...
2016: Theranostics
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