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Posttraumatic stress disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933312/the-genetics-and-epigenetics-of-ptsd-overview-recent-advances-and-future-directions
#1
Christina M Sheerin, Mackenzie J Lind, Kaitlin Bountress, Nicole R Nugent, Ananda B Amstadter
This paper provides a brief summary and commentary on the growing literature and current developments related to the genetic underpinnings of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We first briefly provide an overview of the behavioral genetic literature on PTSD, followed by a short synopsis of the substantial candidate gene literature with a focus on genes that have been meta-analyzed. We then discuss the genome-wide association studies (GWAS) that have been conducted, followed by an introduction to other molecular platforms used in PTSD genomic studies, such as epigenetic and expression approaches...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931783/reduced-p3b-brain-response-during-sustained-visual-attention-is-associated-with-remote-blast-mtbi-and-current-ptsd-in-u-s-military-veterans
#2
Casey S Gilmore, Craig A Marquardt, Seung Suk Kang, Scott R Sponheim
Approximately 275,000 American service members deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan have sustained a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), with 75% of these incidents involving an explosive blast. Combat-related mTBI is frequently associated with comorbid mental health disorders, especially posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Attention problems, including sustained attention, are common cognitive complaints of veterans with TBI and PTSD. The present study sought to examine neural correlates of sustained attention in veterans with blast mTBI and/or current PTSD...
December 5, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930966/nonsuicidal-self-injury-and-interpersonal-violence-in-u-s-veterans-seeking-help-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#3
Patrick S Calhoun, Elizabeth E Van Voorhees, Eric B Elbogen, Eric A Dedert, Carolina P Clancy, Lauren P Hair, Michael Hertzberg, Jean C Beckham, Nathan A Kimbrel
Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has been defined as deliberately damaging one's body tissue without conscious suicidal intent. NSSI is a robust predictor of suicidal ideation and attempts in adults. While NSSI has been associated with other-directed violence in adolescent populations, the link between NSSI and interpersonal violence in adults is less clear. The current study examined the cross-sectional relationship between NSSI and past-year interpersonal violence among 729 help-seeking veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)...
November 27, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930926/changes-in-coping-behavior-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-concurrent-treatment-for-ptsd-and-alcohol-dependence
#4
Yinyin Zang, Jessica Yu, Daniel Chazin, Anu Asnaani, Laurie J Zandberg, Edna B Foa
OBJECTIVE: The current study examines changes in coping among 165 adults meeting DSM-IV criteria for co-morbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol dependence (AD). METHOD: Participants were randomized to receive naltrexone or placebo, with or without prolonged exposure (PE). All participants received supportive counseling focused on alcohol use (BRENDA). Assessments of coping, PTSD, and AD were conducted at pre-treatment, mid-treatment, post-treatment, 3-month follow-up, and 6-month follow-up...
November 24, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930500/effect-of-rivastigmine-augmentation-in-treatment-of-male-patients-with-combat-related-chronic-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Amir Rezaei Ardani, Golkoo Hosseini, Mohammad Reza Fayyazi Bordbar, Ali Talaei, Hesam Mostafavi Toroghi
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the chronic and disabling psychiatric disorders, particularly in combat veterans. In a case series, rivastigmine was suggested to be an effective augmentation in treatment of PTSD. The aim of the present study was to evaluate this finding in a randomized controlled trial. METHOD: A 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed on 36 male patients (aged 42-60 years) diagnosed with chronic, combat-related PTSD...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930498/prazosin-in-children-and-adolescents-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-who-have-nightmares-a-systematic-review
#6
Adefolake Akinsanya, Raman Marwaha, Rajesh R Tampi
BACKGROUND: The aim of this systematic review was to identify published articles that evaluated the use of prazosin for treating nightmares in children and adolescents who have posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PROCEDURES: A literature search was conducted of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Collaboration, and PsycINFO databases for published articles in any language that evaluated the use of prazosin for treating nightmares in the context of PTSD in children and adolescents using the following key words: PTSD, nightmares, prazosin, children, adolescents, trauma, and sleep...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929328/association-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-with-migraine-and-headache-after-a-natural-disaster
#7
Mariana C Arcaya, Sarah R Lowe, Asad L Asad, S V Subramanian, Mary C Waters, Jean Rhodes
OBJECTIVE: Previous research shows that migraine and general headache symptoms increase after traumatic events. Questions remain about whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) produces migraine/headache symptoms, or if individuals afflicted by migraine/headache are especially likely to develop PTSD. We test whether PTSD symptoms following a natural disaster are associated with higher odds of reporting frequent headaches/migraines postdisaster. We decompose PTSD into intrusion, avoidance, and hyperarousal symptom clusters to examine which, if any, are uniquely related to headache/migraine postdisaster...
December 8, 2016: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929311/different-types-of-combat-experiences-and-associated-symptoms-in-oef-and-oif-national-guard-and-reserve-veterans
#8
M Tracie Shea, Candice Presseau, Shauna L Finley, Madhavi K Reddy, Christopher Spofford
OBJECTIVE: It is well established that exposure to combat is a risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The experiences of military personnel serving in combat zones vary widely however, leading to increased attention to the impact of different types of combat trauma. The present study examined the relationships among 3 conceptually based categories of combat exposure with 4 PTSD symptom clusters (reexperiencing, avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal) and symptoms of guilt, depression, and anxiety...
December 8, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929309/is-posttraumatic-growth-trauma-specific-invariance-across-trauma-and-stressor-exposed-groups
#9
Madison W Silverstein, Daniel J Lee, Tracy K Witte, Frank W Weathers
OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic growth (PTG), or multidimensional positive change following a traumatic event (TE), is conceptualized as qualitatively distinct from growth following a nontraumatic stressful event (NTSE; Tedeschi & Calhoun, 2004; Zoellner & Maercker, 2006). However, the degree to which PTG is a trauma-specific phenomenon has yet to be established. Although research indicates that individuals who experience TEs endorse greater PTG than those who experience NTSEs (Kastenmüller et al...
December 8, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929307/when-traumatic-event-exposure-characteristics-matter-impact-of-traumatic-event-exposure-characteristics-on-posttraumatic-and-dissociative-symptoms
#10
Abdel H Boudoukha, Ornella Ouagazzal, Nelly Goutaudier
OBJECTIVE: Traumatic events can lead to posttraumatic (posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD] specific symptoms) and dissociative symptoms (PTSD nonspecific symptoms). However, the trauma exposure characteristics (type of exposure, categorical form, number of exposures and the age of the exposure) are rarely studied. We hypothesized that the characteristics of a traumatic event are the only predictors of specific posttraumatic symptoms (intrusion, avoidance, negative cognitive impairment) and nonspecific symptoms (dissociation)...
December 8, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928982/hospitals-soft-target-for-terrorism
#11
Harald De Cauwer, Francis Somville, Marc Sabbe, Luc J Mortelmans
In recent years, the world has been rocked repeatedly by terrorist attacks. Arguably, the most remarkable were: the series of four coordinated suicide plane attacks on September 11, 2001 on buildings in New York, Virginia, and Pennsylvania, USA; and the recent series of two coordinated attacks in Brussels (Belgium), on March 22, 2016, involving two bombings at the departure hall of Brussels International Airport and a bombing at Maalbeek Metro Station located near the European Commission headquarters in the center of Brussels...
December 8, 2016: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923359/dosage-effectiveness-and-safety-of-sertraline-treatment-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-a-japanese-clinical-setting-a-retrospective-study
#12
Toshiko Kamo, Masaharu Maeda, Misari Oe, Hiroshi Kato, Jun Shigemura, Kazuhiko Kuribayashi, Yuko Hoshino
BACKGROUND: Many of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment guidelines recognize the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors as first-line pharmacological treatment. In Japan, there were no published studies investigating the effectiveness and safety of sertraline for PTSD in a clinical setting. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective medical chart review of the dosage, effectiveness, and safety of sertraline for the PTSD treatment in Japan. Data were collected from medical charts of patients of PTSD, caused by various types of trauma, who were treated with sertraline between July 2006 and October 2012 during their regular clinical practice...
December 7, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923267/sleep-and-processing-of-trauma-memories
#13
Ihori Kobayashi, Thomas A Mellman, Duaa Altaee, Mary Katherine Howell, Joseph Lavela
Sleep has been implicated in learning processes that appear to underlie recovery from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The importance of quality and timing of sleep following exposure-based therapies has been suggested. The present study evaluated relationships between sleep and adaptive emotional processing following written narrative exposure (WNE) to memories of traumatic events experienced by participants with clinically significant PTSD symptoms. Participants included 21 urban-residing nontreatment-seeking adults with full or subthreshold symptoms of PTSD who completed 4 sessions of 30-min WNE with the first session either in the evening or the morning...
December 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923266/brief-practical-screeners-in-english-and-spanish-for-acute-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-in-children
#14
Nancy Kassam-Adams, Meghan L Marsac
With millions of children experiencing acute traumatic events, validated screening tools are needed in both research and service contexts. We aimed to identify and evaluate short forms of the Acute Stress Checklist for Children in English (ASC-Kids) and Spanish (Cuestionario de Estrés Agudo-Niños [CEA-N]), using data from 4 samples (Ns of 254, 225, 176, and 80) of children with recent acute trauma. Confirmatory factor analyses of the full checklist in the largest sample guided item selection for 6-item and 3-item short forms...
December 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923183/the-distal-consequences-of-physical-and-emotional-neglect-in-emerging-adults-a-person-centered-multi-wave-longitudinal-study
#15
Joseph R Cohen, Suvarna V Menon, Ryan C Shorey, Vi Donna Le, Jeff R Temple
Despite being the most prevalent form of child maltreatment, the correlates and consequences of neglect are poorly understood, particularly during early adulthood. The present multi-wave, longitudinal study sought to address this gap in this literature by examining physical and emotional neglect in emerging adults in a diverse community sample. 580 adolescents (AgeMean=18.25; AgeSD=0.59; 58.3% female; 31% Hispanic, 28.9% Caucasian; 26.2% African-American; 13.9% other) completed self-report measures for child maltreatment at baseline, and measures for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and substance use every year for three years...
December 3, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922725/resilience-and-traumatic-brain-injury-among-iraq-afghanistan-war-veterans-differential-patterns-of-adjustment-and-quality-of-life
#16
Timothy R Elliott, Yu-Yu Hsiao, Nathan A Kimbrel, Eric Meyer, Bryann B DeBeer, Suzy Bird Gulliver, Oi-Man Kwok, Sandra B Morissette
OBJECTIVE: We examined the degree to which a resilient personality prototype predicted adjustment among war Veterans with and without a traumatic brain injury (TBI) while covarying the level of combat exposure. METHOD: A total of 127 war Veterans (107 men, 20 women; average age = 37 years) participated. Personality prototypes were derived from the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (Patrick, Curtain, & Tellegen, 2002). Measures were administered at baseline, and a subset was administered at 4- and 8-month follow-ups...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921637/facets-of-psychopathy-in-relation-to-trauma-exposure-and-posttraumatic-stress-symptomology-in-a-sample-of-incarcerated-male-offenders
#17
Russell Woodfield, Katie Dhingra, Daniel Boduszek, Agata Debowska
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the moderating role of psychopathy facets on the relationship between traumatic exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomology. Design/methodology/approach Participants were male prisoners incarcerated in the UK. Findings The analysis revealed differential associations between the two facets of psychopathy, with potentially traumatic events and symptoms of PTSD. Specifically, neither primary psychopathy nor trauma exposure were significantly related to PTSD, while secondary psychopathy was positively and significantly related with PTSD symptoms...
December 19, 2016: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921352/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-associated-with-unexpected-death-of-a-loved-one-cross-national-findings-from-the-world-mental-health-surveys
#18
Lukoye Atwoli, Dan J Stein, Andrew King, Maria Petukhova, Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola, Jordi Alonso, Evelyn J Bromet, Giovanni de Girolamo, Koen Demyttenaere, Silvia Florescu, Josep Maria Haro, Elie G Karam, Norito Kawakami, Sing Lee, Jean-Pierre Lepine, Fernando Navarro-Mateu, Siobhan O'Neill, Beth-Ellen Pennell, Marina Piazza, Jose Posada-Villa, Nancy A Sampson, Margreet Ten Have, Alan M Zaslavsky, Ronald C Kessler
BACKGROUND: Unexpected death of a loved one (UD) is the most commonly reported traumatic experience in cross-national surveys. However, much remains to be learned about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after this experience. The WHO World Mental Health (WMH) survey initiative provides a unique opportunity to address these issues. METHODS: Data from 19 WMH surveys (n = 78,023; 70.1% weighted response rate) were collated. Potential predictors of PTSD (respondent sociodemographics, characteristics of the death, history of prior trauma exposure, history of prior mental disorders) after a representative sample of UDs were examined using logistic regression...
December 6, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921349/repeated-trauma-exposure-does-not-impair-distress-reduction-during-imaginal-exposure-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#19
Alissa B Jerud, Frank J Farach, Michele Bedard-Gilligan, Hillary Smith, Lori A Zoellner, Norah C Feeny
BACKGROUND: Based on experimental research on threat extinction, individuals exposed to repeated traumatic events may have impaired outcome in exposure therapy compared to those who have experienced a single trauma (Lang & McTeague, ). This study examined whether repeated trauma exposure predicts smaller changes in self-reported distress during imaginal exposure and worse outcomes for patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHODS: Adults (N = 116) with chronic PTSD received up to 10 sessions of prolonged exposure (PE) therapy...
December 6, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918881/a-preliminary-investigation-of-a-relapse-prevention-mobile-application-to-maintain-smoking-abstinence-among-individuals-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#20
Terrell A Hicks, Shaun P Thomas, Sarah M Wilson, Patrick S Calhoun, Eric R Kuhn, Jean C Beckham
OBJECTIVES: Smokers with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have increased difficulty achieving and maintaining abstinence. Contingency management approaches to smoking cessation interventions have demonstrated short-term efficacy, but are limited by high rates of relapse. The goal of this pilot study was to evaluate the usability and feasibility of a smartphone-based smoking cessation application (Stay Quit Coach) designed to prevent relapse among individuals with PTSD. METHODS: Smokers (N = 11) were randomized to 1) QUIT4EVER, an intervention combining mobile contingency management smoking cessation counseling and medications, and Stay Quit Coach or 2) a contact control condition that was identical to QUIT4EVER except Stay Quit Coach was not included...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
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