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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913923/actn3-x-allele-carriers-had-greater-levels-of-muscle-damage-during-a-half-ironman
#1
Juan Del Coso, Juan José Salinero, Beatriz Lara, César Gallo-Salazar, Francisco Areces, Carlos Puente, David Herrero
PURPOSE: Alpha-actinin-3, encoded by the ACTN3 gene, is an actin-binding protein with an important role in myofibril contraction and muscle force output. In humans, there is a relatively common deficiency of the α-actinin-3 due to homozygosity in a polymorphism of the ACTN3 gene (R577X, rs1815739), that has been related to decreased resistance to strain during voluntary muscle contractions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the ACTN3 genotype on the level of exercise-induced muscle damage attained by 23 experienced triathletes during an official half-ironman competition...
December 2, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850233/594-intravenous-iron-or-placebo-for-anaemia-in-the-icu-the-ironman-multicentre-randomized-blinded-trial
#2
Edward Litton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817192/positive-pacing-in-elite-ironman-triathletes
#3
Nicole Angehrn, Christoph A. Rüst, Pantelis T. Nikolaidis, Thomas Rosemann, Beat Knechtle
Pacing is known to influence athletic performance. For the Ironman triathlon program, a positive pacing strategy, i.e., the continuous decrease of speed over time was recommended. By analyzing split times, we assessed the pacing strategies of the top 100 finishers of the cycling part of 13 Ironman races and of the running part of 11 Ironman races taking place in 2014. Furthermore, sex-associated differences in performance and pacing strategies were calculated. We analyzed 7,687 cycling and 11,894 running split times of 1,392 triathletes (1,263 men, 129 women)...
December 31, 2016: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686346/intravenous-iron-or-placebo-for-anaemia-in-intensive-care-the-ironman-multicentre-randomized-blinded-trial-a-randomized-trial-of-iv-iron-in-critical-illness
#4
Edward Litton, Stuart Baker, Wendy N Erber, Shannon Farmer, Janet Ferrier, Craig French, Joel Gummer, David Hawkins, Alisa Higgins, Axel Hofmann, Bart De Keulenaer, Julie McMorrow, John K Olynyk, Toby Richards, Simon Towler, Robert Trengove, Steve Webb
PURPOSE: Both anaemia and allogenic red blood cell transfusion are common and potentially harmful in patients admitted to the intensive care unit. Whilst intravenous iron may decrease anaemia and RBC transfusion requirement, the safety and efficacy of administering iron intravenously to critically ill patients is uncertain. METHODS: The multicentre, randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded Intravenous Iron or Placebo for Anaemia in Intensive Care (IRONMAN) study was designed to test the hypothesis that, in anaemic critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit, early administration of intravenous iron, compared with placebo, reduces allogeneic red blood cell transfusion during hospital stay and increases the haemoglobin level at the time of hospital discharge...
September 30, 2016: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669445/triathletes-lose-their-advantageous-pain-modulation-under-acute-psychosocial-stress
#5
Nirit Geva, Jens Pruessner, Ruth Defrin
INTRODUCTION: Triathletes, who constantly engage in intensely stressful sport, were recently found to exhibit greater pain tolerance and more efficient pain inhibition capabilities than non athletes. However, pain inhibition correlated negatively with retrospective reports of mental stress during training and competition. The aim of the current study was to test pain inhibition capabilities of triathletes under acute, controlled psychological stress manipulation. METHODS: Participants were 25 triathletes and ironman triathletes who underwent the measurement of pain-threshold, pain-intolerance, tonic suprathreshold pain and conditioned pain modulation (CPM) before and during exposure to the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST)...
September 23, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642618/infodemiological-data-of-ironman-triathlon-in-the-study-period-2004-2013
#6
Sofiane Mnadla, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Mehdi Rouissi, Anis Chaalali, Anna Siri, Johnny Padulo, Luca Paolo Ardigò, Francesco Brigo, Karim Chamari, Beat Knechtle
This article reports data concerning the Internet-related activities and interest for Ironman Triathlon competition. Google Trends (GT) was used and mined from 2004 onwards. The interest for Ironman Triathlon was found to be cyclic over time. The Triathlon-related Internet activities negatively correlated with the number of finishers per year (Pearson׳s correlation r=-0.690, p-value<0.05), while an increasing participation of female athletes who were less likely to surf the Internet could be noticed (r=-0...
December 2016: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604138/performance-and-sex-differences-in-isklar-norseman-xtreme-triathlon
#7
Beat Knechtle, Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis, Michael Stiefel, Thomas Rosemann, Christoph Alexander Rüst
The performance and sex differences of long-distance triathletes competing in 'Ironman Hawaii' are well investigated. However, less information is available with regards to triathlon races of the Ironman distance held under extreme environmental conditions (e.g. extreme cold) such as the 'Isklar Norseman Xtreme Triathlon' which started in 2003. In 'Isklar Norseman Xtreme Triathlon', athletes swim at a water temperature of ~13-15°C, cycle at temperatures of ~5-20°C and run at temperatures of ~12-28°C in the valley and of ~2-12°C at Mt...
October 31, 2016: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27483401/-not-available
#8
Jörg Carlsson, Thony Ragnarsson, Tom Danielsson, Therése Johansson, Hendrik Schreyer, Antonia Breyne, Patrick Bergman
Biochemical changes after strenuous exercise - data from the Kalmar Ironman Strenuous and prolonged exercise like marathon, ultra running and triathlon can lead to changes in biomarkers of cardiac, muscle and kidney functional damage. We present the data of 30 (15 men, 15 women) participants of the Kalmar Ironman 2015. Pre-race electrocardiograms and echocardiograms showed a high frequency of abnormalities. Post race elevations of troponin T, creatine kinase, myoglobin, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide, and creatinine returned to normal in almost all cases within 5-8 days...
2016: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27451841/hyponatremia-in-a-marathoner
#9
P B Nelson, A G Robinson, W Kapoor, J Rinaldo
In brief: Hyponatremia is known to occur in athletes competing in endurance running events greater than marathon distances; it has also stricken participants in the Ironman Triathalon. This article describes a case of hyponatremia associated with altered mental status, increased intracranial pressure, and pulmonary edema in a 21-year-old man who had completed his first marathon. Salt loss from sweat and retention of hypotonic fluids are the most likely causes. This is the first reported case of this syndrome occurring at a marathon distance...
October 1988: Physician and Sportsmedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27416348/iron-status-in-ultraendurance-triathletes
#10
M L O'Toole, H Iwane, P S Douglas, E A Applegate, W D Hiller
In brief: Using several hematologic indexes, researchers examined the iron status of 50 ultraendurance athletes participating in the 1988 Ironman Triathlon in Hawaii. Fifteen (30%) of the 50 triathletes had at least one suboptimal iron index: Two exhibited stage 2 iron deficiency in the presence of normal hemoglobin levels; eight had normal ferritin levels but subnormal levels of transferrin saturation and iron; three had abnormal levels of total iron-binding capacity; and two had low hemoglobin levels with all other iron indices normal, which indicated dilutional anemia...
December 1989: Physician and Sportsmedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27360838/core-temperature-in-triathletes-during-the-ironman-world-championship-kailua-kona-hawaii-2013-board-165-june-2-2-00-pm-3-30-pm
#11
Guillermo Olcina, Julio Calleja-González, Carmen Crespo, Rafael Timón, Braulio Sánchez-Ureña, Jeffrey M Mjaanes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27329709/-ironman-triathlon
#12
REVIEW
Beat Knechtle, Pantelis T Nikolaidis, Thomas Rosemann, Christoph A Rüst
Every year, thousands of triathletes try to qualify for the «Ironman Hawaii» (3,8 km swimming, 180 km cycling and 42,195 km running), the World Championship of long-distance triathletes. In this overview, we present the recent findings in literature with the most important variables with an influence on Ironman triathlon performance. The most important performance-influencing factors for a fast Ironman race time for both women and men are a large training volume and a high intensity in training, a large volume being more important than a high intensity, a low percentage of body fat, an ideal age of 30–35 years, a fast personal best in the Olympic distance triathlon (1,5 km swimming, 40 km cycling and 10 km running), a fast personal best in marathon running and origin from the United States of America...
June 22, 2016: Praxis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27207600/left-ventricular-function-and-physiological-performance-in-female-ironman-athletes-and-female-police-officers
#13
Roman Leischik, Peter Foshag, Markus Strauss, Norman Spelsberg
Data about physiological performance of female ironman triathletes are rare. However, some studies have reported this endurance sport may cause damage to the right or left ventricles, even in females. The goal of this study was to assess prospectively the right/left ventricular function and physiological performance in female athletes (middle- and long ironman distance) and to compare the findings to female federal police officers. A total of 33 female triathletes and 37 female police officers were examined using spiro-ergometry and echocardiography...
June 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27176786/many-non-elite-multisport-endurance-athletes-do-not-meet-sports-nutrition-recommendations-for-carbohydrates
#14
Geneviève Masson, Benoît Lamarche
Little is known regarding the dietary intake of non-elite athletes involved in multisport endurance events. The primary objective of this observational study was to characterize the dietary intake of non-elite athletes participating in winter triathlon (snowshoeing, skating, and cross-country skiing), winter pentathlon (winter triathlon sports + cycling and running), Ironman (IM: swimming, cycling, running), and half-distance Ironman (IM 70.3) in relation with current sports nutrition recommendations. A total of 116 non-elite athletes (32 women and 84 men) who had participated in one of those events in 2014 were included in the analyses...
July 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27139796/blood-markers-of-recovery-from-ironman-distance-races-in-an-elite-triathlete
#15
Iñigo Mujika, Felipe Pereira DA Silveira, Kazunori Nosaka
To understand the recovery of a top triathlete from Ironman distance triathlon races and the timing of training resumption, this study followed an elite male triathlete for 4 years and examined blood parameters after 6 Ironman triathlon races, in which he finished either first (3 races) or second (3 races), with finishing times of 8:00:21 to 8:49:38 (hours:minutes:seconds). The blood was taken either 5, 6 or 8 days after each triathlon race without any training sessions or recovery interventions after the race until the blood sampling...
May 3, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27134213/a-case-report-of-a-completely-displaced-stress-fracture-of-the-femoral-shaft-in-a-middle-aged-male-athlete-a-precursor-of-things-to-come
#16
Peter Larsen, Rasmus Elsoe, Michael S Rathleff
BACKGROUND: Displaced stress fractures of the femoral shaft are very uncommon. The proportion of middle-aged and older age groups participating in long-distance running, triathlon and other high intensity sports is increasing. As a consequence stress fracture of the femoral shaft may be on the rise in the future. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient was 43 years old male caucasian triathlete. The authors met the patient after he was admitted with a displaced femoral shaft fracture...
May 2016: Physical Therapy in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27025688/massage-therapy-decreases-pain-and-perceived-fatigue-after-long-distance-ironman-triathlon-a-randomised-trial
#17
Guilherme S Nunes, Paula Urio Bender, Fábio Sprada de Menezes, Igor Yamashitafuji, Valentine Zimermann Vargas, Bruna Wageck
QUESTION: Can massage therapy reduce pain and perceived fatigue in the quadriceps of athletes after a long-distance triathlon race (Ironman)? DESIGN: Randomised, controlled trial with concealed allocation, intention-to-treat analysis and blinded outcome assessors. PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-four triathlon athletes who completed an entire Ironman triathlon race and whose main complaint was pain in the anterior portion of the thigh. INTERVENTION: The experimental group received massage to the quadriceps, which was aimed at recovery after competition, and the control group rested in sitting...
April 2016: Journal of Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26892521/metabolic-characteristics-of-keto-adapted-ultra-endurance-runners
#18
Jeff S Volek, Daniel J Freidenreich, Catherine Saenz, Laura J Kunces, Brent C Creighton, Jenna M Bartley, Patrick M Davitt, Colleen X Munoz, Jeffrey M Anderson, Carl M Maresh, Elaine C Lee, Mark D Schuenke, Giselle Aerni, William J Kraemer, Stephen D Phinney
BACKGROUND: Many successful ultra-endurance athletes have switched from a high-carbohydrate to a low-carbohydrate diet, but they have not previously been studied to determine the extent of metabolic adaptations. METHODS: Twenty elite ultra-marathoners and ironman distance triathletes performed a maximal graded exercise test and a 180 min submaximal run at 64% VO2max on a treadmill to determine metabolic responses. One group habitually consumed a traditional high-carbohydrate (HC: n=10, %carbohydrate:protein:fat=59:14:25) diet, and the other a low-carbohydrate (LC; n=10, 10:19:70) diet for an average of 20 months (range 9 to 36 months)...
March 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26808853/changes-in-contributions-of-swimming-cycling-and-running-performances-on-overall-triathlon-performance-over-a-26-year-period
#19
Pedro Figueiredo, Elisa A Marques, Romuald Lepers
Figueiredo, P, Marques, EA, and Lepers, R. Changes in contributions of swimming, cycling, and running performances on overall triathlon performance over a 26-year period. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2406-2415, 2016-This study examined the changes in the individual contribution of each discipline to the overall performance of Olympic and Ironman distance triathlons among men and women. Between 1989 and 2014, overall performances and their component disciplines (swimming, cycling and running) were analyzed from the top 50 overall male and female finishers...
September 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26716680/evaluation-of-a-7-gene-genetic-profile-for-athletic-endurance-phenotype-in-ironman-championship-triathletes
#20
Rebecca Grealy, Jasper Herruer, Carl L E Smith, Doug Hiller, Luke J Haseler, Lyn R Griffiths
Polygenic profiling has been proposed for elite endurance performance, using an additive model determining the proportion of optimal alleles in endurance athletes. To investigate this model's utility for elite triathletes, we genotyped seven polymorphisms previously associated with an endurance polygenic profile (ACE Ins/Del, ACTN3 Arg577Ter, AMPD1 Gln12Ter, CKMM 1170bp/985+185bp, HFE His63Asp, GDF8 Lys153Arg and PPARGC1A Gly482Ser) in a cohort of 196 elite athletes who participated in the 2008 Kona Ironman championship triathlon...
2015: PloS One
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