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Xiaopeng Guo, Lu Gao, Xiaodong Shi, Hailong Li, Qiang Wang, Zihao Wang, Wei Chen, Bing Xing
Objective: To investigate the preoperative body composition, metabolic characteristics, and postoperative changes in patients with active acromegaly and analyze the effects of gender and age. Methods: We included 36 patients with untreated acromegaly and 37 patients with nonfunctional pituitary adenomas. Adipose tissue (AT), the visceral fat index (VFI), sclerotin, protein, skeletal muscle, total body water (TBW), intracellular water (ICW), and extracellular water (ECW) were measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA)...
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
Gaurav Mathur, Narottama Sindhu, Deependra Vikram Singh, Gurpreet Singh Garcha
PURPOSE: To present a unique case of decompression retinochoroidopathy presenting with intraretinal, subretinal and preretinal hemorrhages. METHODS: A 65-year-old hypertensive female presented with diminution of vision in right eye of 1-week duration. She had been a known case of primary open-angle glaucoma and had undergone trabeculectomy with mitomycin C in right eye 1 week back. Her day 1 postoperative intraocular pressure was 6 mmHg. Her left eye had undergone Ahmed glaucoma valve surgery for the same 2 years back...
March 10, 2018: International Ophthalmology
Yi Xu, Ho Jung Ju, S DeBlasio, Elizabeth J Carino, R Johnson, M MacCoss, M Cilia Heck, W Allen Miller, S M Gray
Translational readthrough of the stop codon of the capsid protein (CP) open reading frame (ORF) is used by members of the Luteoviridae to produce their minor capsid protein as a readthrough protein (RTP). The elements regulating RTP expression are not well understood, but involve long-distance interactions between RNA domains. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry, glutamine and tyrosine were identified as the primary amino acids inserted at the stop codon of Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) CP ORF. We characterized the contributions of a cytidine-rich domain immediately downstream, and a branched stem-loop structure 600-700 nucleotides downstream of the CP stop codon...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Virology
Nicolas Golse, Nicola Guglielmo, Albert El Metni, Fabio Frosio, Cyril Cosse, Salima Naili, Philippe Ichaï, Oriana Ciacio, Gabriella Pittau, Marc-Antoine Allard, Denis Castaing, Antonio S A Cunha, Daniel Cherqui, René Adam, Eric Vibert
BACKGROUND: Although many prognostic factors of primary graft dysfunction after liver transplantation (LT) are available, it remains difficult to predict failure in a given recipient. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether the intraoperative assay of arterial lactate concentration at the end of LT (LCEOT) might constitute a reliable biological test to predict early outcomes [primary nonfunction (PNF), early graft dysfunction (EAD)]. METHODS: We reviewed data from a prospective database in a single center concerning patients transplanted between January 2015 and December 2016 (n = 296)...
March 5, 2018: Annals of Surgery
Peter A Larson, John B Moldovan, Naveen Jasti, Jeffrey M Kidd, Christine R Beck, John V Moran
Human Long interspersed element-1 (L1) retrotransposons contain an internal RNA polymerase II promoter within their 5' untranslated region (UTR) and encode two proteins, (ORF1p and ORF2p) required for their mobilization (i.e., retrotransposition). The evolutionary success of L1 relies on the continuous retrotransposition of full-length L1 mRNAs. Previous studies identified functional splice donor (SD), splice acceptor (SA), and polyadenylation sequences in L1 mRNA and provided evidence that a small number of spliced L1 mRNAs retrotransposed in the human genome...
March 5, 2018: PLoS Biology
Iwona Pranke, Laure Bidou, Natacha Martin, Sandra Blanchet, Aurélie Hatton, Sabrina Karri, David Cornu, Bruno Costes, Benoit Chevalier, Danielle Tondelier, Emmanuelle Girodon, Matthieu Coupet, Aleksander Edelman, Pascale Fanen, Olivier Namy, Isabelle Sermet-Gaudelus, Alexandre Hinzpeter
Premature termination codons (PTCs) are generally associated with severe forms of genetic diseases. Readthrough of in-frame PTCs using small molecules is a promising therapeutic approach. Nonetheless, the outcome of preclinical studies has been low and variable. Treatment efficacy depends on: 1) the level of drug-induced readthrough, 2) the amount of target transcripts, and 3) the activity of the recoded protein. The aim of the present study was to identify, in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) model, recoded channels from readthrough therapy that may be enhanced using CFTR modulators...
January 2018: ERJ Open Research
Agathocles Tsatsoulis
Thyroid follicular cells, as well as adrenocortical cells, are endowed by an intrinsic heterogeneity regarding their growth potential, in response to various stimuli. This heterogeneity appears to constitute the underlying cause for the focal cell hyperplasia and eventually the formation of thyroid and adrenal nodules, under the influence of growth stimulatory factors. Among the main stimulatory factors are the pituitary tropic hormones, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) or thyrotropin and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which regulate the growth and function of their respective target cells, and the insulin/insulin-like growth factor system, that, through its mitogenic effects, can stimulate the proliferation of these cells...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Lucie Aumailley, Florence Roux-Dalvai, Isabelle Kelly, Arnaud Droit, Michel Lebel
Werner syndrome (WS) is a premature aging disorder caused by mutations in a protein containing both a DNA exonuclease and DNA helicase domain. Mice lacking the helicase domain of the Wrn protein orthologue exhibit transcriptomic and metabolic alterations, some of which are reversed by vitamin C. Recent studies on these animals indicated that the mutant protein is associated with enriched endoplasmic reticulum (ER) fractions of tissues resulting in an ER stress response. In this study, we identified proteins that exhibit actual level differences in the ER enriched fraction between the liver of wild type and Wrn mutant mice using quantitative proteomic profiling with label-free Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
2018: PloS One
Kara Lauren Barnes, Gena Dunivan, Ashley Jaramillo-Huff, Tessa Krantz, Jennifer Thompson, Peter Jeppson
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify smartphone Kegel and pelvic floor exercise applications (apps) and identify those with superior functionality, features, and accuracy. METHODS: We identified a complete list of Kegel and pelvic floor exercise applications by searching iTunes and Google Play stores for "pelvic floor," "pelvic floor exercises," "Kegel," and "Kegel exercises." We used a modified APPLICATIONS scoring system to evaluate all identified apps...
February 27, 2018: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
Azza A Elgendy, William MacDonald, Joseph Whitnah, Daniel Malone, Brandon Johnson, Nadia Huq
Primary neuroendocrine tumors of the colon are usually very rare and difficult to spot on a nonfunctional imaging. Metastatic lesions are mostly hypervascular, with only a small percentage appearing as cystic or hypovascular lesions. We present a case of a 34-year-old Hispanic female with a history of dull aching upper abdominal pain lasting for a few months. Initial abdominal ultrasound revealed multiple cystic lesions replacing the hepatic parenchyma concerning for a hydatid disease. Liver biopsy was obtained due to negative serology for hydatid disease, which surprisingly revealed a metastatic neuroendocrine tumor of unknown etiology...
February 2018: Radiology Case Reports
Levent Soydan, Ali Aslan Demir, Elif Sayman, Burcu Onomay Celik, Bala Basak Oven Ustaalioglu
Ewing sarcoma and peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor belong to the Ewing sarcoma (ES) family of tumors originating from a primitive neural tube. We report a 31-year-old man who was admitted to the urology clinic with complaints of fever, nausea, and dysuria. A right-sided adrenal mass was detected during ultrasonography. The lesion was then evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging, which showed areas of necrosis amid heterogeneous solid areas. Whole body scan with 2-deoxy-2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-D-glucose integrated with computed tomography and bone scan studies showed pulmonary and osseous metastatic foci...
December 2017: Radiology Case Reports
Rui Miguel Martins, João Soeiro Teodoro, Emanuel Furtado, Anabela Pinto Rolo, Carlos Marques Palmeira, José Guilherme Tralhão
Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in liver transplantation can disrupt the normal activity of mitochondria in the hepatic parenchyma. This potential dysfunction of mitochondria after I/R injury could be responsible for the initial poor graft function or primary nonfunction observed after liver transplantation. Thus, determining the mechanisms that lead to human hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction might contribute to improving the outcome of liver transplantation. Furthermore, early identification of novel prognostic factors involved in I/R injury could serve as a key endpoint to predict the outcome of liver grafts and also to promote the early adoption of novel strategies that protect against I/R injury...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Roberta Angelico, Undine A Gerlach, Bridget K Gunson, Desley Neil, Hynek Mergental, John Isaac, Paolo Muiesan, Darius Mirza, M Thamara Pr Perera
BACKGROUND: Causes of severe cholestasis following liver transplantation(LT) are multi-factorial; whilst the aetiology is predictable in some, others culminate in graft/patient loss without a definitive cause identified. Severe cholestasis is usually associated with overlapped histological findings of rejection and biliary features, and diagnostic interpretation may pose a challenge. METHODS: This is 10-year retrospective analysis of patients with unexplained severe cholestasis resulting in death/graft loss within 90-days of LT...
February 20, 2018: Transplantation
Catherine E Gilbert, Elizabeth Sztul, Carolyn E Machamer
ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) proteins are key regulators of the secretory pathway. ARF1, through interacting with its effectors, regulates protein trafficking by facilitating numerous events at the Golgi. One unique ARF1 effector is golgin-160, which promotes the trafficking of only a specific subset of cargo proteins through the Golgi. While studying this role of golgin-160, we discovered that commonly used cold temperature blocks utilized to synchronize cargo trafficking (20°C and 16°C) caused golgin-160 dispersal from Golgi membranes...
February 21, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Vaishali I Parekh, Sita D Modali, James Welch, William Simonds, Lee Scott Weinstein, Electron Kebebew, Sunita K Agarwal
Extract: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs/pNETs/p-NETs/PanNETs) are rare endocrine neoplasms that can be either functioning tumors that secrete hormones characteristic of their endocrine cell of origin, or nonfunctioning tumors. The most common functioning PNETs are the insulin-secreting b-cell tumors (insulinomas) that are mainly sporadic, but may also occur in 10% of patients with the hereditary tumor syndrome multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) (OMIM ID: 131100). Patients with the MEN1 syndrome carry a heterozygous germline inactivating mutation in the MEN1 tumor suppressor gene and specific somatic loss of the normal MEN1 allele, leading to endocrine tumors mainly of the parathyroids, pituitary and pancreas (PNETs)...
February 21, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
D Nikoleishvili, G Koberidze, M Kutateladze, G Zumbadze, A Mariamidze
Adrenocortical carcinoma is a very rare and aggressive endocrinological malignancy arising from the adrenal cortex. The estimated incidence is 1 per million people, with an estimated 5-year survival rate of 16-47%. It can be bilateral in roughly 2-10% of cases, but the data is scarce and there is no conclusive evidence whether the contralateral mass is an independent tumor or a metastasis from the other adrenal gland cancer. Radical surgical excision is the only curative treatment. Therefore, careful pre- and intraoperative surgical planning is critically important...
January 2018: Georgian Medical News
Mohamed Zahran, Ahmed Othman, Abd-Elaty Saker, Mohamed Wagih, Mohamed Soliman, Mona Badr
We report a case of very early postoperative iatrogenic dissection of common iliac artery (CIA), external iliac artery (EIA) causing acute ischemia of the right lower limb, and impairing the perfusion of a renal allograft. This was managed successfully by graft nephrectomy and interposition polytetrafluoroethylene grafting of the CIA and EIA with re-implantation of the kidney allograft and restoration of its perfusion and function, together with restoration of the lower limb circulation.
January 2018: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Carmelina Gurrieri, James J Butz, Toby N Weingarten, Irina Bancos, William F Young, Stephen D Cassivi, Sameh M Said, Travis J McKenzie, David W Barbara, Juraj Sprung
BACKGROUND: Intrathoracic paragangliomas (PGLs) are rare tumors. Approximately 50% originate from and around cardiac structures. METHODS: A retrospective review was made of the perioperative course of patients with intrathoracic PGL resection from 2000 through 2015 at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients underwent PGL resection. Sixteen patients (73%) had functioning tumors (11, noradrenergic; 4, mixed noradrenergic and dopaminergic; 1, dopaminergic)...
February 13, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Lucie Aumailley, Marie Julie Dubois, Tracy A Brennan, Chantal Garand, Eric R Paquet, Robert J Pignolo, André Marette, Michel Lebel
Werner syndrome (WS) is a premature aging disorder caused by mutations in a RecQ-family DNA helicase (WRN). Mice lacking part of the helicase domain of the WRN ortholog exhibit several phenotypic features of WS. In this study, we generated a Wrn mutant line that, like humans, relies entirely on dietary sources of vitamin C (ascorbate) to survive, by crossing them to mice that lack the gulonolactone oxidase enzyme required for ascorbate synthesis. In the presence of 0.01% ascorbate (w/v) in drinking water, double-mutant mice exhibited a severe reduction in lifespan, small size, sterility, osteopenia, and metabolic profiles different from wild-type (WT) mice...
February 8, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Stephanie Le, Umer Ansari, Aisha Mumtaz, Kunal Malik, Parth Patel, Amanda Doyle, Amor Khachemoune
Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC), also known as Lynch Syndrome, is an autosomal dominant, tumor predisposing disorder usuallycaused by germline mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes. A subset of HNPCC, Muir-Torre Syndrome (MTS) also involves MMR gene defects and is generally accepted as a variant of HNPCC. MTS is typicallycharacterized by at least one visceral malignancy and one cutaneous neoplasm of sebaceous differentiation, with or without keratoacanthomas. In either version of the disorder, nonfunctional MMR systems lead tothe loss of genomic integrity, marked commonly by mismatches in repetitive DNA sequences, resulting in microsatellite instabilities...
November 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
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