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Precision medicine review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025360/best-practice-of-identification-and-proteomic-analysis-of-extracellular-vesicles-in-human-health-and-disease
#1
Barbara W Sódar, Árpád Kovács, Tamás Visnovitz, Éva Pállinger, Károly Vékey, Gabriella Pocsfalvi, Lilla Turiák, Edit I Buzás
Extracellular vesicles are emerging sources of biomarkers for modern preventive and precision medicine. Extracellular vesicles in body fluids offer a unique opportunity for integrative biomarker approaches due to their complex biocargo that includes proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and metabolites. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics data suggest that a significant portion of human proteins are sorted into extracellular vesicles and amenable for biomarker discovery schemes. Areas covered: this review focuses on key aspects of isolation, quality control and subsequent analysis of blood plasma- and conditioned medium-derived extracellular vesicle proteins, and summarizes the current state-of-the-art in the field...
October 13, 2017: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025354/cell-bound-complement-activation-products-as-lupus-biomarkers-diagnosis-monitoring-and-stratification
#2
Joseph M Ahearn, Chau-Ching Liu, Susan Manzi
Cell-bound complement activation products (CB-CAPs) were first reported in 2004, since which time multiple laboratories have demonstrated their value as biomarkers for diagnosis, monitoring, and stratification of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Areas Covered: This review summarizes the highlights of these 14 years of CB-CAPs discovery and validation, concluding with a view toward their future potential for precision medicine. Expert Commentary: The practice of medicine is both art and science and each physician can be considered both artist and scientist with a variable blend of the two skill sets...
October 13, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025326/onco-proteogenomics-multi-omics-level-data-integration-for-accurate-phenotype-prediction
#3
Lampros Dimitrakopoulos, Ioannis Prassas, Eleftherios P Diamandis, George S Charames
The overall goal of translational oncology is to identify molecular alterations indicative of cancer or of responsiveness to specific therapeutic regimens. While next-generation sequencing has played a pioneering role in this quest, the latest advances in proteomic technologies promise to provide a holistic approach to the further elucidation of tumor biology. Genetic information may be written in DNA and flow from DNA to RNA to protein, according to the central dogma of molecular biology, but the observed phenotype is dictated predominantly by the DNA protein coding region-derived proteotype...
October 12, 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024838/organ-on-chip-models-of-cancer-metastasis-for-future-personalized-medicine-from-chip-to-the-patient
#4
REVIEW
D Caballero, S Kaushik, V M Correlo, J M Oliveira, R L Reis, S C Kundu
Most cancer patients do not die from the primary tumor but from its metastasis. Current in vitro and in vivo cancer models are incapable of satisfactorily predicting the outcome of various clinical treatments on patients. This is seen as a serious limitation and efforts are underway to develop a new generation of highly predictive cancer models with advanced capabilities. In this regard, organ-on-chip models of cancer metastasis emerge as powerful predictors of disease progression. They offer physiological-like conditions where the (hypothesized) mechanistic determinants of the disease can be assessed with ease...
October 3, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024555/concise-review-tissue-engineering-of-urinary-bladder-we-still-have-a-long-way-to-go
#5
REVIEW
Jan Adamowicz, Marta Pokrywczynska, Shane Vontelin Van Breda, Tomasz Kloskowski, Tomasz Drewa
Regenerative medicine is a new branch of medicine based on tissue engineering technology. This rapidly developing field of science offers revolutionary treatment strategy aimed at urinary bladder regeneration. Despite many promising announcements of experimental urinary bladder reconstruction, there has been a lack in commercialization of therapies based on current investigations. This is due to numerous obstacles that are slowly being identified and precisely overcome. The goal of this review is to present the current status of research on urinary bladder regeneration and highlight further challenges that need to be gradually addressed...
October 10, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024544/squamous-cell-carcinoma-in-serous-effusions-avoiding-pitfalls-in-this-rare-encounter
#6
Christopher LePhong, Elizabeth W Hubbard, Stuart Van Meter, Laurentia Nodit
BACKGROUND: With advent of personalized medicine, precise classification of malignant tumors becomes essential. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is rarely found in serous effusions and has morphologic and immunohistochemical (IHC) overlap with other neoplasms. METHODS: 17-year review identified 49 fluids from 26 patients where SCC was recognized. RESULTS: SCC was more frequent in pleural fluid (84%) and rare in other effusions. Lung SCC was common (65%), followed by head and neck (16%), with other origins less represented...
October 11, 2017: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023671/genetics-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-in-a-large-homogeneous-japanese-population
#7
REVIEW
Shinobu Gamou, Masaharu Kataoka, Yuki Aimi, Tomohiro Chiba, Yuichi Momose, Sarasa Isobe, Tomomi Hirayama, Hideaki Yoshino, Keiichi Fukuda, Toru Satoh
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare but serious disease with a grave prognosis. Bone morphogenetic protein type 2 receptor (BMPR2) gene is a strong pathogenic factor for PAH. As a collaborative team from Kyorin University and Keio University in Japan, we have analyzed the BMPR2 gene in 356 probands and more than 50 family members, including secondary patients. Importantly, the study population is a racially, ethnically, and socially homogeneous population. In PAH patients, there is a high incidence of unique mutations in BMPR2, and several mutations are frequently observed in the Japanese population, suggesting that these common and recurring mutations may be highly pathogenic or have high penetrance, explaining why they are found frequently throughout the world...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022501/nanotechnology-in-personalized-medicine-a-promising-tool-for-alzheimer-s-disease-treatment
#8
Laura de Matteis, Rafael Martin-Rapun, Jesus M De la Fuente
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a public health priority all over the world. The difficulty of fighting the disease consists mostly in the complexity of symptoms and causes, in the still poor knowledge of its mechanisms and in the existence of a latent, asymptomatic, preclinical stage. Although many drugs are continuously screened in clinical studies for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, the unexpected lack of patient response and sometimes the important adverse effects make it a potential field of application for personalized medicine...
October 12, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022217/sepsis-a-review-of-advances-in-management
#9
REVIEW
Jordi Rello, Francisco Valenzuela-Sánchez, Maria Ruiz-Rodriguez, Silvia Moyano
Infections represent a common health problem in people of all ages. Usually, the response given to them is appropriate and so little treatment is needed. Sometimes, however, the response to the infection is inadequate and may lead to organ dysfunction; this is the condition known as sepsis. Sepsis can be caused by bacteria, fungi or viruses and at present there is no specific treatment; its management basically focuses on containing the infection through source control and antibiotics plus organ function support...
October 11, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020978/precision-medicine-at-the-crossroads
#10
Maynard V Olson
There are bioethical, institutional, economic, legal, and cultural obstacles to creating the robust-precompetitive-data resource that will be required to advance the vision of "precision medicine," the ability to use molecular data to target therapies to patients for whom they offer the most benefit at the least risk. Creation of such an "information commons" was the central recommendation of the 2011 report Toward Precision Medicine issued by a committee of the National Research Council of the USA (Committee on a Framework for Development of a New Taxonomy of Disease; National Research Council...
October 11, 2017: Human Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019032/nanotechnology-as-a-delivery-tool-for-precision-cancer-therapies
#11
Bhawna Sharma, Rachael M Crist, Pavan P Adiseshaiah
Genomic analyses from patients with cancer have improved the understanding of the genetic elements that drive the disease, provided new targets for treating this relentless disease, and offered criteria for stratifying patient populations that will benefit most from treatments. In the last decade, several new targeted therapies have been approved by the FDA based on these omics findings, leading to significantly improved survival and quality of life for select patient populations. However, many of these precision medicines, e...
October 10, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994423/cholangiocarcinoma-evolving-concepts-and-therapeutic-strategies
#12
REVIEW
Sumera Rizvi, Shahid A Khan, Christopher L Hallemeier, Robin K Kelley, Gregory J Gores
Cholangiocarcinoma is a disease entity comprising diverse epithelial tumours with features of cholangiocyte differentiation: cholangiocarcinomas are categorized according to anatomical location as intrahepatic (iCCA), perihilar (pCCA), or distal (dCCA). Each subtype has a distinct epidemiology, biology, prognosis, and strategy for clinical management. The incidence of cholangiocarcinoma, particularly iCCA, has increased globally over the past few decades. Surgical resection remains the mainstay of potentially curative treatment for all three disease subtypes, whereas liver transplantation after neoadjuvant chemoradiation is restricted to a subset of patients with early stage pCCA...
October 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993799/genetic-characterization-of-brain-metastases-in-the-era-of-targeted-therapy
#13
REVIEW
Catherine H Han, Priscilla K Brastianos
In the current era of molecularly targeted therapies and precision medicine, choice of cancer treatment has been increasingly tailored according to the molecular or genomic characterization of the cancer the individual has. Previously, the clinical observation of inadequate control of brain metastases was widely attributed to a lack of central nervous system (CNS) penetration of the anticancer drugs. However, more recent data have suggested that there are genetic explanations for such observations. Genomic analyses of brain metastases and matching primary tumor and other extracranial metastases have revealed that brain metastases can harbor potentially actionable driver mutations that are unique to them...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989987/towards-a-better-cancer-precision-medicine-systems-biology-meets-immunotherapy
#14
Bhavneet Bhinder, Olivier Elemento
Systems biology approaches that embrace the complexity of cancer are starting to gain traction in the development of new anticancer therapeutic strategies. In this review we describe how genomic analyses are helping improve our understanding of response to immunotherapy, a front-runner in cancer treatment. We argue that systems-level approaches are needed to help understand the concerted impact of tumor-specific and immune-specific molecular features on clinical outcomes, predict responders and unravel the complexity of tumor ecosystems...
April 2017: Current opinion in systems biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989699/the-status-of-transarterial-chemoembolization-treatment-in-the-era-of-precision-oncology
#15
REVIEW
Valerie Fako, Xin Wei Wang
Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the gold standard of therapy for patients with unresectable intermediate stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and is also commonly used as postresection adjuvant therapy in Asia. The delivery of TACE is highly variable from center to center, and clinical decision making for patients is based primarily on tumor staging guidelines, with very little focus on individualized tumor features. This review will discuss recent efforts for improving patient outcomes with TACE treatment through personalized medicine advances, including ongoing clinical trials investigating the combination of targeted therapy with TACE and the discovery of prognostic biomarkers for predicting TACE response...
April 2017: Hepatic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989174/new-treatment-paradigms-for-adpkd-moving-towards-precision-medicine
#16
REVIEW
Matthew B Lanktree, Arlene B Chapman
The natural history of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by a variable rate of cyst development and increase in total kidney volume (TKV), variable kidney function decline and age of onset of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and variable presentation of renal and extrarenal manifestations. Precision medicine is proposed to improve patient outcomes by tailoring therapy to the specific genetic background, pathophysiology, disease burden, prognosis and status of each individual...
October 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987512/genes-linking-mitochondrial-function-cognitive-impairment-and-depression-are-associated-with-endophenotypes-serving-precision-medicine
#17
Peter Petschner, Xenia Gonda, Daniel Baksa, Nora Eszlari, Michael Trivaks, Gabriella Juhasz, Gyorgy Bagdy
Mitochondria densely populate cells in central nervous system providing essential energy for neurons and influencing synaptic plasticity. Harm to these organelles can impair cognitive performance through damaged neurotransmission and altered Ca(2+) homeostasis. Impaired cognition could be one underlying factor which can characterize major depressive disorder, a huge burden for society marked by depressed mood and anhedonia. A growing body of evidence binds mitochondrial dysfunctions with the disease. Cognitive disturbances with different severity are also observable in several patients, suggesting that damage or inherited alterations of mitochondria may have an important role in depression...
October 5, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982488/twenty-first-century-precision-medicine-in-oncology-genomic-profiling-in-patients-with-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Mitesh J Borad, Patricia M LoRusso
The advent of next-generation sequencing has accelerated the implementation of genomic profiling in the care and management of patients with cancer. Initial efforts have focused on target identification in patients with advanced cancer. Prognostication, resistance detection, disease monitoring, and early detection efforts are also underway. This review highlights some of the challenges in this evolving space. This includes choosing between gene-panel and comprehensive approaches, DNA and transcriptome data integration, reduction of false-positive variants, addressing tumor heterogeneity, establishment of workflows to address unsolicited findings, and data sharing and privacy concerns...
October 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981626/mathematical-modeling-and-computational-prediction-of-cancer-drug-resistance
#19
Xiaoqiang Sun, Bin Hu
Diverse forms of resistance to anticancer drugs can lead to the failure of chemotherapy. Drug resistance is one of the most intractable issues for successfully treating cancer in current clinical practice. Effective clinical approaches that could counter drug resistance by restoring the sensitivity of tumors to the targeted agents are urgently needed. As numerous experimental results on resistance mechanisms have been obtained and a mass of high-throughput data has been accumulated, mathematical modeling and computational predictions using systematic and quantitative approaches have become increasingly important, as they can potentially provide deeper insights into resistance mechanisms, generate novel hypotheses or suggest promising treatment strategies for future testing...
June 23, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980455/clinical-proteomics-for-precision-medicine-the-bladder-cancer-case
#20
REVIEW
Agnieszka Latosinska, Maria Frantzi, Antonia Vlahou, Axel S Merseburger, Harald Mischak
Precision medicine can improve patient management by guiding therapeutic decision based on molecular characteristics. The concept has been extensively addressed through the application of -omics based approaches. Proteomics attract high interest, as proteins reflect a "real-time" dynamic molecular phenotype. Focusing on proteomics applications for personalized medicine, a literature search was conducted to cover: a) disease prevention, b) monitoring/ prediction of treatment response, c) stratification to guide intervention and d) identification of drug targets...
October 5, 2017: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
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