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Precision medicine review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538014/precision-medicine-in-pediatric-rheumatology
#1
Joo Guan Yeo, Chin Teck Ng, Salvatore Albani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Precision medicine is the tailoring of medical care to subcategories of disease. In pediatric rheumatology, these subcategories must first be defined by their specific molecular immunological profiles, and then the effects of growth and puberty, developmental immunological changes, and differences in treatment options and adherence considered when designing therapeutic strategies. In the present review, we summarize the unmet needs in pediatric rheumatology before such precision medical care can be effectively delivered to affected patients...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522990/animal-models-for-tuberculosis-in-translational-and-precision-medicine
#2
REVIEW
Lingjun Zhan, Jun Tang, Mengmeng Sun, Chuan Qin
Tuberculosis (TB) is a health threat to the global population. Anti-TB drugs and vaccines are key approaches for TB prevention and control. TB animal models are basic tools for developing biomarkers of diagnosis, drugs for therapy, vaccines for prevention and researching pathogenic mechanisms for identification of targets; thus, they serve as the cornerstone of comparative medicine, translational medicine, and precision medicine. In this review, we discuss the current use of TB animal models and their problems, as well as offering perspectives on the future of these models...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522743/forward-to-the-past-the-case-for-quantitative-pet-imaging
#3
Adriaan A Lammertsma
Positron emission tomography (PET) was developed in the 1970's as an in vivo method to measure regional pathophysiological processes. In the 1990's the focus moved to the detection of local increases in uptake, first in the brain (activation studies) and later in oncology (finding metastases), where (18)F-FDG emerged as a highly sensitive staging technique. This focus on sensitivity has overshadowed the other main characteristic of PET, its quantitative nature. In recent years there has been a new shift. PET is now seen as a promising tool for drug development and precision medicine, i...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522145/wnt-signaling-a-novel-pathway-regulating-blood-pressure-state-of-the-art-review
#4
REVIEW
Maen D Abou Ziki, Arya Mani
Recent antihypertensive trials show conflicting results on blood pressure (BP) targets in patient populations with different metabolic profiles, with lowest benefit from tight BP control observed in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This paradox could arise from the heterogeneity of study populations and underscores the importance of precision medicine initiatives towards understanding and treating hypertension. Wnt signaling pathways and genetic variations in its signaling peptides have been recently associated with metabolic syndrome, hypertension and diabetes, generating a breakthrough for advancement of precision medicine in the field of hypertension...
May 4, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520105/large-scale-computational-models-of-liver-metabolism-how-far-from-the-clinics
#5
REVIEW
Tanja Cvitanović, Matthias C Reichert, Miha Moškon, Miha Mraz, Frank Lammert, Damjana Rozman
Understanding the dynamics of human liver metabolism is fundamental for effective diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases in general and the metabolism of drugs in particular. This knowledge can be obtained with systems biology/medicine approaches that account for the complexity of hepatic responses and their systemic consequences in other organs. Computational modelling can reveal hidden principles of the system by classification of individual components, analysing their interactions and simulating the effects that are difficult to investigate experimentally...
May 18, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516087/dna-sequence-analysis-in-clinical-medicine-proceeding-cautiously
#6
REVIEW
Moyra Smith
Delineation of underlying genomic and genetic factors in a specific disease may be valuable in establishing a definitive diagnosis and may guide patient management and counseling. In addition, genetic information may be useful in identification of at risk family members. Gene mapping and initial genome sequencing data enabled the development of microarrays to analyze genomic variants. The goal of this review is to consider different generations of sequencing techniques and their application to exome sequencing and whole genome sequencing and their clinical applications...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514737/integration-of-phytochemicals-and-phytotherapy-into-cancer-precision-medicine
#7
REVIEW
Thomas Efferth, Mohamed E M Saeed, Elhaj Mirghani, Awadh Alim, Zahir Yassin, Elfatih Saeed, Hassan E Khalid, Salah Daak
Concepts of individualized therapy in the 1970s and 1980s attempted to develop predictive in vitro tests for individual drug responsiveness without reaching clinical routine. Precision medicine attempts to device novel individual cancer therapy strategies. Using bioinformatics, relevant knowledge is extracted from huge data amounts. However, tumor heterogeneity challenges chemotherapy due to genetically and phenotypically different cell subpopulations, which may lead to refractory tumors. Natural products always served as vital resources for cancer therapy (e...
April 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504784/current-clinical-controversies-in-the-management-of-sepsis
#8
J Cohen
Sepsis remains a challenging clinical problem requiring prompt diagnosis and optimal clinical management if the continuing high mortality is to be contained. In this brief review I consider four specific questions that are the subject of ongoing controversy. First, whether the new 'Sepsis-3' definitions will be helpful, in particular in improving diagnosis, or whether the rapid move towards precision medicine will make the definition redundant. Second, should we routinely use combinations of antibiotics for the empiric treatment of sepsis...
December 2016: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497916/emerging-endotypes-of-chronic-rhinosinusitis-and-its-application-to-precision-medicine
#9
REVIEW
Dae Woo Kim, Seong H Cho
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous inflammatory disease with various underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms which translate to endotypes, in contrast to clinical phenotypes or histological subtypes. Defining endotypes can help clinicians predict disease prognosis, select subjects suitable for a specific therapy, and assess risks for comorbid conditions, including asthma. Therefore, with recent advancement of biologicals in CRS clinical trials, endotyping can be a breakthrough in treating recalcitrant CRS...
July 2017: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497027/data-based-radiation-oncology-design-of-clinical-trials-in-the-toxicity-biomarkers-era
#10
REVIEW
David Azria, Ariane Lapierre, Sophie Gourgou, Dirk De Ruysscher, Jacques Colinge, Philippe Lambin, Muriel Brengues, Tim Ward, Søren M Bentzen, Hubert Thierens, Tiziana Rancati, Christopher J Talbot, Ana Vega, Sarah L Kerns, Christian Nicolaj Andreassen, Jenny Chang-Claude, Catharine M L West, Corey M Gill, Barry S Rosenstein
The ability to stratify patients using a set of biomarkers, which predict that toxicity risk would allow for radiotherapy (RT) modulation and serve as a valuable tool for precision medicine and personalized RT. For patients presenting with tumors with a low risk of recurrence, modifying RT schedules to avoid toxicity would be clinically advantageous. Indeed, for the patient at low risk of developing radiation-associated toxicity, use of a hypofractionated protocol could be proposed leading to treatment time reduction and a cost-utility advantage...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493816/sample-types-applied-for-molecular-diagnosis-of-therapeutic-management-of-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-in-the-precision-medicine
#11
Yanxi Han, Jinming Li
In this era of precision medicine, molecular biology is becoming increasingly significant for the diagnosis and therapeutic management of non-small cell lung cancer. The specimen as the primary element of the whole testing flow is particularly important for maintaining the accuracy of gene alteration testing. Presently, the main sample types applied in routine diagnosis are tissue and cytology biopsies. Liquid biopsies are considered as the most promising alternatives when tissue and cytology samples are not available...
May 11, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493287/soft-tissue-sarcoma-nomograms-and-their-incorporation-into-practice
#12
REVIEW
Dario Callegaro, Rosalba Miceli, Luigi Mariani, Chandrajit P Raut, Alessandro Gronchi
The accurate prediction of prognosis in patients with soft tissue sarcoma (STS) is a challenging issue. Extreme variability in the clinical and pathological characteristics of this family of tumors hinders the simple stratification of patients into meaningful prognostic cohorts. Precision medicine tools for the prediction of prognosis, such as nomograms, enable personalized computation of outcome based on clinical and pathological characteristics of both patient and tumor. The eighth edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging manual moved from a "population-based" to a "personalized" approach endorsing high-quality nomograms to improve clinician prediction ability in definite patient subgroups...
May 10, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479371/udp-glucuronosyltransferases-ugts-and-their-related-metabolic-cross-talk-with-internal-homeostasis-a-systematic-review-of-ugt-isoforms-for-precision-medicine
#13
REVIEW
Na Yang, Runbin Sun, Xiaoying Liao, Jiye Aa, Guangji Wang
UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are the primary phase II enzymes catalyzing the conjugation of glucuronic acid to the xenobiotics with polar groups for facilitating their clearance. The UGTs belong to a superfamily that consists of diverse isoforms possessing distinct but overlapping metabolic activity. The abnormality or deficiency of UGTs in vivo is highly associated with some diseases, efficacy and toxicity of drugs, and precisely therapeutic personality. Despite the great effects and fruitful results achieved, to date, the expression and functions of individual UGTs have not been well clarified, the inconsistency of UGTs is often observed in human and experimental animals, and the complex regulation factors affecting UGTs have not been systematically summarized...
May 4, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475856/international-cooperation-to-enable-the-diagnosis-of-all-rare-genetic-diseases
#14
Kym M Boycott, Ana Rath, Jessica X Chong, Taila Hartley, Fowzan S Alkuraya, Gareth Baynam, Anthony J Brookes, Michael Brudno, Angel Carracedo, Johan T den Dunnen, Stephanie O M Dyke, Xavier Estivill, Jack Goldblatt, Catherine Gonthier, Stephen C Groft, Ivo Gut, Ada Hamosh, Philip Hieter, Sophie Höhn, Matthew E Hurles, Petra Kaufmann, Bartha M Knoppers, Jeffrey P Krischer, Milan Macek, Gert Matthijs, Annie Olry, Samantha Parker, Justin Paschall, Anthony A Philippakis, Heidi L Rehm, Peter N Robinson, Pak-Chung Sham, Rumen Stefanov, Domenica Taruscio, Divya Unni, Megan R Vanstone, Feng Zhang, Han Brunner, Michael J Bamshad, Hanns Lochmüller
Provision of a molecularly confirmed diagnosis in a timely manner for children and adults with rare genetic diseases shortens their "diagnostic odyssey," improves disease management, and fosters genetic counseling with respect to recurrence risks while assuring reproductive choices. In a general clinical genetics setting, the current diagnostic rate is approximately 50%, but for those who do not receive a molecular diagnosis after the initial genetics evaluation, that rate is much lower. Diagnostic success for these more challenging affected individuals depends to a large extent on progress in the discovery of genes associated with, and mechanisms underlying, rare diseases...
May 4, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471419/mitochondrial-deficiencies-in-the-predisposition-to-paraganglioma
#15
REVIEW
Charlotte Lussey-Lepoutre, Alexandre Buffet, Anne-Paule Gimenez-Roqueplo, Judith Favier
Paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas are rare neuroendocrine tumours with a very strong genetic component. It is estimated that around 40% of all cases are caused by a germline mutation in one of the 13 predisposing genes identified so far. Half of these inherited cases are intriguingly caused by mutations in genes encoding tricarboxylic acid enzymes, namely SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, and SDHAF2 genes, encoding succinate dehydrogenase and its assembly protein, FH encoding fumarate hydratase, and MDH2 encoding malate dehydrogenase...
May 4, 2017: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470451/precision-reproductive-medicine-multigene-panel-testing-for-infertility-risk-assessment
#16
REVIEW
Stephen C Collins
The concept of precision medicine relies on a thorough understanding of the consequences of unique features of individual patients, such as environmental exposures and genetic profiles. A key component of implementing individualized care in this paradigm will be improved assessment of genetic risk. Compared with single gene tests, multigene panel testing-which has recently become commercially available for female infertility-offers the possibility of a more comprehensive and efficient risk evaluation. However, as the use of multigene panel testing for breast cancer risk has shown, this approach must be used judiciously to ensure its usefulness in a clinical setting...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469389/roadmap-to-a-comprehensive-clinical-data-warehouse-for-precision-medicine-applications-in-oncology
#17
David J Foran, Wenjin Chen, Huiqi Chu, Evita Sadimin, Doreen Loh, Gregory Riedlinger, Lauri A Goodell, Shridar Ganesan, Kim Hirshfield, Lorna Rodriguez, Robert S DiPaola
Leading institutions throughout the country have established Precision Medicine programs to support personalized treatment of patients. A cornerstone for these programs is the establishment of enterprise-wide Clinical Data Warehouses. Working shoulder-to-shoulder, a team of physicians, systems biologists, engineers, and scientists at Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey have designed, developed, and implemented the Warehouse with information originating from data sources, including Electronic Medical Records, Clinical Trial Management Systems, Tumor Registries, Biospecimen Repositories, Radiology and Pathology archives, and Next Generation Sequencing services...
2017: Cancer Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463612/augmented-reality-integrated-robotics-in-neurosurgery-are-we-there-yet
#18
Karthik Madhavan, John Paul G Kolcun, Lee Onn Chieng, Michael Y Wang
Surgical robots have captured the interest-if not the widespread acceptance-of spinal neurosurgeons. But successful innovation, scientific or commercial, requires the majority to adopt a new practice. "Faster, better, cheaper" products should in theory conquer the market, but often fail. The psychology of change is complex, and the "follow the leader" mentality, common in the field today, lends little trust to the process of disseminating new technology. Beyond product quality, timing has proven to be a key factor in the inception, design, and execution of new technologies...
May 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463538/targeted-radionuclide-therapy-an-evolution-toward-precision-cancer-treatment
#19
Hossein Jadvar
OBJECTIVE: This article reviews recent developments in targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) approaches directed to malignant liver lesions, bone metastases, neuroendocrine tumors, and castrate-resistant metastatic prostate cancer and discusses challenges and opportunities in this field. CONCLUSION: TRT has been employed since the first radioiodine thyroid treatment almost 75 years ago. Progress in the understanding of the complex underlying biology of cancer and advances in radiochemistry science, multimodal imaging techniques including the concept of "see and treat" within the framework of theranostics, and universal traction with the notion of precision medicine have all contributed to a resurgence of TRT...
May 2, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457175/tissue-engineering-and-regenerative-medicine-new-trends-and-directions-a-year-in-review
#20
Manuela E Gomes, Márcia T Rodrigues, Rui M A Domingues, Rui L Reis
Tissue Engineering (TE) is continuously evolving assimilating inputs from adjacent scientific areas and their technological advances, including nanotechnology developments that have been spawning the range of available options for the precise manipulation and control of cells and cellular environments. Simultaneously, with the maturation of the field, TE is having a growing and marked impact in other fields, such as cancer and other diseases research, enabling tri-dimensional (3D) tumor/tissue models of increased complexity that more closely resemble living tissue dynamics, playing a decisive role in the development of new and improved therapies...
April 29, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
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