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Precision medicine review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920719/bile-acids-in-neurodegenerative-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Hayley D Ackerman, Glenn S Gerhard
Bile acids, a structurally related group of molecules derived from cholesterol, have a long history as therapeutic agents in medicine, from treatment for primarily ocular diseases in ancient Chinese medicine to modern day use as approved drugs for certain liver diseases. Despite evidence supporting a neuroprotective role in a diverse spectrum of age-related neurodegenerative disorders, including several small pilot clinical trials, little is known about their molecular mechanisms or their physiological roles in the nervous system...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920501/three-generations-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-developed-to-revolutionize-the-therapy-of-lung-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Haijun Zhang
Lung cancer, ~80%-85% of which is non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Sensitizing mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene (EGFRm(+)), such as exon 19 deletions and exon 21 L858R point mutations, are the most important drivers in NSCLC patients. In this respect, small-molecule EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been designed and developed, which launched the era of targeted, personalized and precise medicine for lung cancer...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919057/principles-of-precision-medicine-in-stroke
#3
REVIEW
Jason D Hinman, Natalia S Rost, Thomas W Leung, Joan Montaner, Keith W Muir, Scott Brown, Juan F Arenillas, Edward Feldmann, David S Liebeskind
The era of precision medicine has arrived and conveys tremendous potential, particularly for stroke neurology. The diagnosis of stroke, its underlying aetiology, theranostic strategies, recurrence risk and path to recovery are populated by a series of highly individualised questions. Moreover, the phenotypic complexity of a clinical diagnosis of stroke makes a simple genetic risk assessment only partially informative on an individual basis. The guiding principles of precision medicine in stroke underscore the need to identify, value, organise and analyse the multitude of variables obtained from each individual to generate a precise approach to optimise cerebrovascular health...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915479/trends-in-next-generation-sequencing-and-a-new-era-for-whole-genome-sequencing
#4
REVIEW
Sang Tae Park, Jayoung Kim
This article is a mini-review that provides a general overview for next-generation sequencing (NGS) and introduces one of the most popular NGS applications, whole genome sequencing (WGS), developed from the expansion of human genomics. NGS technology has brought massively high throughput sequencing data to bear on research questions, enabling a new era of genomic research. Development of bioinformatic software for NGS has provided more opportunities for researchers to use various applications in genomic fields...
November 2016: International Neurourology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915476/translational-research-for-pediatric-lower-urinary-tract-dysfunction
#5
REVIEW
Akihiro Kanematsu
This review provides a comprehensive view of translational research aimed at elucidating the pathophysiology of pediatric lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD). A web search was conducted according to combinations of keywords, and the significance of each article was defined by the author. The dramatic evolution of the mass analysis method of genomes, transcripts, and proteins has enabled a comprehensive analysis of molecular events underlying diseases, and these methodologies have also been applied to pediatric LUTD...
November 2016: International Neurourology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904930/micrornas-in-bone-diseases
#6
REVIEW
L Gennari, S Bianciardi, D Merlotti
MicroRNAs are small, noncoding single-stranded RNAs that have emerged as important posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression, with an essential role in vertebrate development and different biological processes. This review highlights the recent advances in the function of miRNAs and their roles in bone remodeling and bone diseases. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small (∼22 nt), noncoding single-stranded RNAs that have emerged as important posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. They are essential for vertebrate development and play critical roles in different biological processes related to cell differentiation, activity, metabolism, and apoptosis...
November 30, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901647/a-decade-of-age-related-macular-degeneration-risk-models-what-have-we-learned-from-them-and-where-are-we-going
#7
Michael Zhang, Paul N Baird
The genomic revolution has revealed the complexity of multifactorial diseases, making the development of effective diagnostics extremely challenging. In turn, the prospect of precision medicine as applied through targeted therapeutic treatments continues to remain largely elusive. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) as a complex disease falls under this category, despite it being one of the most well characterized multifactorial diseases. This reflects both the extent of identified genetic components and known environmental risk factors...
November 30, 2016: Ophthalmic Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899776/-new-classification-for-advanced-colorectal-cancer-using-cancerplex%C3%A2-genomic-tests
#8
Hitoshi Kameyama, Yoshifumi Shimada, Hiroshi Ichikawa, Masayuki Nagahashi, Jun Sakata, Takashi Kobayashi, Hitoshi Nogami, Satoshi Maruyama, Yasumasa Takii, Shujiro Okuda, Yiwei Ling, Hiroshi Izutsu, Keisuke Kodama, Mitsutaka Nakada, Toshifumi Wakai
Recently, targeted drugs have been developed for the treatment of colorectal cancer(CRC). Among targets, it is well known that KRAS mutations are associated with resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR)monoclonal antibodies. However, response rates using anti-EGFR monotherapy for CRC were less than 20-30% in previous clinical studies. Thus, because the RAS/MAP2K/MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathways are associated with CRC resistance to chemotherapy, we analyzed gene mutations in Stage IV CRC patients using a genomic test(CancerPlex®)...
November 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899774/-a-review-multigene-assays-for-clinical-utility-in-breast-cancer
#9
Kazuhiro Araki, Yoshinori Ito
Multigene assays that simultaneously measure the expression of various breast cancer genes have been developed to guide the use of adjuvant chemotherapy in early breast cancer. The efficacy of adjuvant therapies depends on the recurrence risk for an individual patient. As a result, accurate prediction of the recurrence risk is vital for precise adjuvant chemotherapy in individual breast cancer patients. The recurrence risk as typically assessed by conventional examination of histological data of immuno-histological biomarkers(ER, PR, HER2, and Ki-67)is not sufficient to select subsets of patients...
November 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899602/the-human-phenotype-ontology-in-2017
#10
Sebastian Köhler, Nicole A Vasilevsky, Mark Engelstad, Erin Foster, Julie McMurry, Ségolène Aymé, Gareth Baynam, Susan M Bello, Cornelius F Boerkoel, Kym M Boycott, Michael Brudno, Orion J Buske, Patrick F Chinnery, Valentina Cipriani, Laureen E Connell, Hugh J S Dawkins, Laura E DeMare, Andrew D Devereau, Bert B A de Vries, Helen V Firth, Kathleen Freson, Daniel Greene, Ada Hamosh, Ingo Helbig, Courtney Hum, Johanna A Jähn, Roger James, Roland Krause, Stanley J F Laulederkind, Hanns Lochmüller, Gholson J Lyon, Soichi Ogishima, Annie Olry, Willem H Ouwehand, Nikolas Pontikos, Ana Rath, Franz Schaefer, Richard H Scott, Michael Segal, Panagiotis I Sergouniotis, Richard Sever, Cynthia L Smith, Volker Straub, Rachel Thompson, Catherine Turner, Ernest Turro, Marijcke W M Veltman, Tom Vulliamy, Jing Yu, Julie von Ziegenweidt, Andreas Zankl, Stephan Züchner, Tomasz Zemojtel, Julius O B Jacobsen, Tudor Groza, Damian Smedley, Christopher J Mungall, Melissa Haendel, Peter N Robinson
Deep phenotyping has been defined as the precise and comprehensive analysis of phenotypic abnormalities in which the individual components of the phenotype are observed and described. The three components of the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO; www.human-phenotype-ontology.org) project are the phenotype vocabulary, disease-phenotype annotations and the algorithms that operate on these. These components are being used for computational deep phenotyping and precision medicine as well as integration of clinical data into translational research...
November 28, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896485/biomarkers-for-precision-medicine-in-bladder-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Takahiro Kojima, Koji Kawai, Jun Miyazaki, Hiroyuki Nishiyama
Bladder cancer (BC) is classified as non-muscle-invasive BC (NMIBC) or muscle-invasive BC (MIBC). Because the recurrence and mortality rates of BC are high, suitable biomarkers for early detection, evaluation of prognosis, and surveillance of drug responses are needed. Urinary markers simplify surveillance schedules and improve early detection of tumors, especially in NMIBC. Various markers have been identified at DNA, RNA, and protein levels with different sensitivities and specificities. Several biomarkers show a higher sensitivity than urinary cytology, but they are not accurate enough to replace it...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895219/primer-in-genetics-and-genomics-article-1-dna-genes-and-chromosomes
#12
Janice S Dorman, Mandy J Schmella, Susan W Wesmiller
Precision medicine refers to the practice of determining a patient's unique genetic, biomarker, and other characteristics for the purpose of improving his or her clinical outcomes. Not all patients with the same clinical diagnosis respond equally to identical treatment regimens. By examining patients at the molecular level, health-care providers will be better able to apply the most effective therapies that each individual requires. To understand precision medicine, nurses must have a solid understanding of genomics and proteomics...
November 28, 2016: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888622/quantification-and-expert-evaluation-of-evidence-for-chemopredictive-biomarkers-to-personalize-cancer-treatment
#13
Shruti Rao, Robert A Beckman, Shahla Riazi, Cinthya S Yabar, Simina M Boca, John L Marshall, Michael J Pishvaian, Jonathan R Brody, Subha Madhavan
Predictive biomarkers have the potential to facilitate cancer precision medicine by guiding the optimal choice of therapies for patients. However, clinicians are faced with an enormous volume of often-contradictory evidence regarding the therapeutic context of chemopredictive biomarkers.We extensively surveyed public literature to systematically review the predictive effect of 7 biomarkers claimed to predict response to various chemotherapy drugs: ERCC1-platinums, RRM1-gemcitabine, TYMS-5-fluorouracil/Capecitabine, TUBB3-taxanes, MGMT-temozolomide, TOP1-irinotecan/topotecan, and TOP2A-anthracyclines...
November 24, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887938/molecular-profiles-in-foregut-oncology
#14
REVIEW
Prashant Sukharamwala, Daniel Hennessey, Thomas Wood, Shelly Singh, Carrie Ryan, Alexander Rosemurgy
Oncology is and will continue to evolve resulting from a better understanding of the biology and intrinsic genetic profile of each cancer. Tumor biomarkers and targeted therapies are the new face of precision medicine, so it is essential for all physicians caring for cancer patients to understand and assist patients in understanding the role and importance of such markers and strategies to target them. This review was initiated in an attempt to identify, characterize, and discuss literature supporting clinically relevant molecular markers and interventions...
October 29, 2016: Cancer Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882345/institutional-implementation-of-clinical-tumor-profiling-on-an-unselected-cancer-population
#15
Lynette M Sholl, Khanh Do, Priyanka Shivdasani, Ethan Cerami, Adrian M Dubuc, Frank C Kuo, Elizabeth P Garcia, Yonghui Jia, Phani Davineni, Ryan P Abo, Trevor J Pugh, Paul van Hummelen, Aaron R Thorner, Matthew Ducar, Alice H Berger, Mizuki Nishino, Katherine A Janeway, Alanna Church, Marian Harris, Lauren L Ritterhouse, Joshua D Campbell, Vanesa Rojas-Rudilla, Azra H Ligon, Shakti Ramkissoon, James M Cleary, Ursula Matulonis, Geoffrey R Oxnard, Richard Chao, Vanessa Tassell, James Christensen, William C Hahn, Philip W Kantoff, David J Kwiatkowski, Bruce E Johnson, Matthew Meyerson, Levi A Garraway, Geoffrey I Shapiro, Barrett J Rollins, Neal I Lindeman, Laura E MacConaill
BACKGROUND. Comprehensive genomic profiling of a patient's cancer can be used to diagnose, monitor, and recommend treatment. Clinical implementation of tumor profiling in an enterprise-wide, unselected cancer patient population has yet to be reported. METHODS. We deployed a hybrid-capture and massively parallel sequencing assay (OncoPanel) for all adult and pediatric patients at our combined cancer centers. Results were categorized by pathologists based on actionability. We report the results for the first 3,727 patients tested...
November 17, 2016: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882306/personalized-proteomics-the-future-of-precision-medicine
#16
Trevor T Duarte, Charles T Spencer
Medical diagnostics and treatment has advanced from a one size fits all science to treatment of the patient as a unique individual. Currently, this is limited solely to genetic analysis. However, epigenetic, transcriptional, proteomic, posttranslational modifications, metabolic, and environmental factors influence a patient's response to disease and treatment. As more analytical and diagnostic techniques are incorporated into medical practice, the personalized medicine initiative transitions to precision medicine giving a holistic view of the patient's condition...
2016: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881428/genome-transcriptome-and-proteome-the-rise-of-omics-data-and-their-integration-in-biomedical-sciences
#17
Claudia Manzoni, Demis A Kia, Jana Vandrovcova, John Hardy, Nicholas W Wood, Patrick A Lewis, Raffaele Ferrari
Advances in the technologies and informatics used to generate and process large biological data sets (omics data) are promoting a critical shift in the study of biomedical sciences. While genomics, transcriptomics and proteinomics, coupled with bioinformatics and biostatistics, are gaining momentum, they are still, for the most part, assessed individually with distinct approaches generating monothematic rather than integrated knowledge. As other areas of biomedical sciences, including metabolomics, epigenomics and pharmacogenomics, are moving towards the omics scale, we are witnessing the rise of inter-disciplinary data integration strategies to support a better understanding of biological systems and eventually the development of successful precision medicine...
November 22, 2016: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881067/emerging-nanocarriers-based-approaches-to-diagnose-and-reduce-vascular-inflammation-in-atherosclerosis
#18
Manuela Calin, Ileana Manduteanu
Exploitation of nanotechnology advances in the cardiovascular medicine has led to new approaches for diagnosis and therapy of vascular inflammation associated to cardiovascular diseases. Innovative nanoparticles targeted to the main players in the arterial wall inflammation in atherosclerosis (i.e. inflammatory molecules, immune or resident cells) have been already developed to diagnose and/or reduce excessive vascular inflammation and is eagerly awaited that promising preclinical and early clinical results to boost the approval of the first nanocarrier in this field...
November 22, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875979/self-assembled-nucleic-acid-nanostructures-for-cancer-theranostic-medicines
#19
Jinglin Fu, Gabriele Stankeviciute, Sung Won Oh, John Collins, Yinghui Zhong, Ting Zhang
Theranostic medicine has become more promising in cancer treatment, where the cancer diagnosis and chemotherapy are combined for early diagnosis and precise treatment with improved efficacy and reduced side effects. Nanotechnology has played a critical role in developing various nanomaterials with engendered smart functions and targeted delivery. The rapid development of structural DNA nanotechnology has enabled the design and fabrication of complex nanostructures with prescribed 1D, 2D and 3D patterns in vitro and in vivo...
November 22, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872195/estrogen-receptors-and-signaling-in-fibroids-role-in-pathobiology-and-therapeutic-implications
#20
Mostafa A Borahay, Mehmet R Asoglu, Aymara Mas, Sarah Adam, Gokhan S Kilic, Ayman Al-Hendy
Uterine fibroids are the most common gynecologic tumors with a significant medical and financial burden. Several genetic, hormonal, and biological factors have been shown to contribute to the development and growth of fibroid tumors. Of these factors, estrogen is particularly critical since fibroids are considered estrogen dependent because no prepubertal cases have been described in the literature and tumors tend to regress after menopause. Understanding the role of estrogen in fibroids is not only important for understanding the pathobiology of fibroids but also for the development of successful therapeutics...
November 20, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
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