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Drosophila dystroglycan

Jessica Vanderploeg, J Roger Jacobs
Fluid- and gas-transporting tubular organs are critical to metazoan development and homeostasis. Tubulogenesis involves cell polarization and morphogenesis to specify the luminal, adhesive, and basal cell domains and to establish an open lumen. We explore a requirement for Talin, a cytoplasmic integrin adapter, during Drosophila melanogaster embryonic heart tube development. Talin marks the presumptive luminal domain and is required to orient and develop an open luminal space within the heart. Genetic analysis demonstrates that loss of zygotic or maternal-and-zygotic Talin disrupts heart cell migratory dynamics, morphogenesis, and polarity...
September 15, 2015: Developmental Biology
Mitsutaka Ogawa, Shogo Sawaguchi, Koichi Furukawa, Tetsuya Okajima
BACKGROUND: O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification of epidermal growth factor (EGF) domains catalyzed by EGF domain O-GlcNAc transferase (EOGT) is the first example of GlcNAc modification in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). SCOPE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes current knowledge on the EOGT-catalyzed O-GlcNAc modification of EGF domains obtained through biochemical characterization, genetic analysis in Drosophila, and identification of human EOGT mutation...
June 2015: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Andriy S Yatsenko, April K Marrone, Halyna R Shcherbata
Many proteins are expressed dynamically during different stages of cellular life and the accuracy of protein amounts is critical for cell endurance. Therefore, cells should have a perceptive system that notifies about fluctuations in the amounts of certain components and an executive system that efficiently restores their precise levels. At least one mechanism that evolution has employed for this task is regulation of 3'-UTR length for microRNA targeting. Here we show that in Drosophila the microRNA complex miR-310s acts as an executive mechanism to buffer levels of the muscular dystrophy-associated extracellular matrix receptor dystroglycan via its alternative 3'-UTR...
2014: Nature Communications
Jianmeng Cao, Shangqi Li, Ming Shao, Xiaoning Cheng, Zhigang Xu, Deli Shi
Myosin XVIIIA, or MYO18A, is a unique PDZ domain-containing unconventional myosin and is evolutionarily conserved from Drosophila to vertebrates. Although there is evidence indicating its expression in the somites, whether it regulates muscle function remains unclear. We show that the two zebrafish myo18a genes (myo18aa and myo18ab) are predominantly expressed at somite borders during early developmental stages. Knockdown of these genes or overexpression of the MYO18A PDZ domain disrupts myofiber integrity, induces myofiber lesions, and compromises the localization of dystrophin, α-dystroglycan (α-DG) and laminin at the myotome boundaries...
August 20, 2014: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
Andriy S Yatsenko, Halyna R Shcherbata
Establishment of intercellular interactions between various cell types of different origin is vital for organism development and tissue maintenance. Therefore, precise timing, expression pattern, and amounts of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins must be tightly regulated. Particularly, the ECM is important for the development and function of myotendinous junctions (MTJs). We find that precise levels of the ECM receptor Dystroglycan (Dg) are required for MTJ formation in Drosophila and that Dg levels in this process are controlled by miR-9a...
February 10, 2014: Developmental Cell
Timm Haack, Dan T Bergstralh, Daniel St Johnston
The Drosophila follicular epithelium, which surrounds developing egg chambers, is a well-established model for studying epithelial polarity because it is continuously generated from adult stem cells, making it easy to generate homozygous mutant clones in a heterozygous background. Mutant clones are usually marked by the loss of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) expression, which distinguishes them from their green, wild-type neighbours. Here we report that damage to the epithelium during dissection can produce groups of GFP-negative cells that resemble mutant clones...
December 15, 2013: Biology Open
Markus Tögel, Heiko Meyer, Christine Lehmacher, Jürgen J Heinisch, Günther Pass, Achim Paululat
The Hand basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors play an important role in the specification and patterning of various tissues in vertebrates and invertebrates. Here, we have investigated the function of Hand in the development of the Drosophila wing hearts which consist of somatic muscle cells as well as a mesodermally derived epithelium. We found that Hand is essential in both tissues for proper organ formation. Loss of Hand leads to a reduced number of cells in the mature organ and loss of wing heart functionality...
September 15, 2013: Developmental Biology
Bryan Stone, Leah Evans, John Coleman, Daniel Kuebler
There is increasing evidence that alterations in metabolism can affect seizure susceptibility in a wide range of organisms. In order to investigate the link between metabolism and seizures, we took advantage of a group of Drosophila mutants, the Bang-sensitive (BS) paralytics, which are 3-10 times more susceptible to seizure-like activity (SLA) than wild type flies following a variety of stimuli including mechanical shock. To alter metabolism, we introduced the atsugari (atu) mutation into three of the BS mutants, easily shocked (eas), bang senseless (bss), and technical knockout (tko)...
February 16, 2013: Brain Research
April K Marrone, Evgeniia V Edeleva, Mariya M Kucherenko, Nai-Hua Hsiao, Halyna R Shcherbata
BACKGROUND: The Dystrophin Glycoprotein Complex (DGC) is at the center of significant inheritable diseases, such as muscular dystrophies that can be fatal and impair neuronal function in addition to muscle degeneration. Recent evidence has shown that it can control cellular homeostasis and work via Dystrophin signaling to regulate microRNA gene expression which implies that disease phenotypes hide an entourage of regulatory and homeostatic anomalies. Uncovering these hidden processes could shed new light on the importance of proper DGC function for an organism's overall welfare and bring forth new ideas for treatments...
2012: BMC Cell Biology
April K Marrone, Mariya M Kucherenko, Robert Wiek, Martin C Göpfert, Halyna R Shcherbata
In humans, mutations in the Dystrophin Glycoprotein Complex (DGC) cause muscular dystrophies (MDs) that are associated with muscle loss, seizures and brain abnormalities leading to early death. Using Drosophila as a model to study MD we have found that loss of Dystrophin (Dys) during development leads to heat-sensitive abnormal muscle contractions that are repressed by mutations in Dys's binding partner, Dystroglycan (Dg). Hyperthermic seizures are independent from dystrophic muscle degeneration and rely on neurotransmission, which suggests involvement of the DGC in muscle-neuron communication...
2011: Scientific Reports
April K Marrone, Mariya M Kucherenko, Valentyna M Rishko, Halyna R Shcherbata
BACKGROUND: The Dystrophin Glycoprotein Complex (DGC) is a large multi-component complex that is well known for its function in muscle tissue. When the main components of the DGC, Dystrophin (Dys) and Dystroglycan (Dg) are affected cognitive impairment and mental retardation in addition to muscle degeneration can occur. Previously we performed an array of genetic screens using a Drosophila model for muscular dystrophy in order to find novel DGC interactors aiming to elucidate the signaling role(s) in which the complex is involved...
2011: BMC Neuroscience
Mariya M Kucherenko, April K Marrone, Valentyna M Rishko, Helena de Fatima Magliarelli, Halyna R Shcherbata
In Drosophila, like in humans, Dystrophin Glycoprotein Complex (DGC) deficiencies cause a life span shortening disease, associated with muscle dysfunction. We performed the first in vivo genetic interaction screen in ageing dystrophic muscles and identified genes that have not been shown before to have a role in the development of muscular dystrophy and interact with dystrophin and/or dystroglycan. Mutations in many of the found interacting genes cause age-dependent morphological and heat-induced physiological defects in muscles, suggesting their importance in the tissue...
April 15, 2011: Developmental Biology
Yougen Zhan, Nadia Y Melian, Mario Pantoja, Nicola Haines, Hannele Ruohola-Baker, Charles W Bourque, Yong Rao, Salvatore Carbonetto
Mutations that diminish the function of the extracellular matrix receptor Dystroglycan (DG) result in muscular dystrophies, with associated neuronal migration defects in the brain and mental retardation e.g. Muscle Eye Brain Disease. To gain insight into the function of DG in the nervous system we initiated a study to examine its contribution to development of the eye of Drosophila melanogaster. Immuno-histochemistry showed that DG is concentrated on the apical surface of photoreceptors (R) cells during specification of cell-fate in the third instar larva and is maintained at this location through early pupal stages...
May 5, 2010: PloS One
Naosuke Nakamura, Dmitry Lyalin, Vladislav M Panin
Protein O-mannosylation has a profound effect on the development and physiology of mammalian organisms. Mutations in genes affecting O-mannosyl glycan biosynthesis result in congenital muscular dystrophies. The main pathological mechanism triggered by O-mannosylation defects is a compromised interaction of cells with the extracellular matrix due to abnormal glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan. Hypoglycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan impairs its ligand-binding activity and results in muscle degeneration and failure of neuronal migration...
August 2010: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Naosuke Nakamura, Stephanie H Stalnaker, Dmitry Lyalin, Olga Lavrova, Lance Wells, Vladsilav M Panin
Recent studies highlighted an emerging possibility of using Drosophila as a model system for investigating the mechanisms of human congenital muscular dystrophies, called dystroglycanopathies, resulting from the abnormal glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan. Several of these diseases are associated with defects in O-mannosylation, one of the most prominent types of alpha-dystroglycan glycosylation mediated by two protein O-mannosyltransferases. Drosophila appears to possess homologs of all essential components of the mammalian dystroglycan-mediated pathway; however, the glycosylation of Drosophila Dystroglycan (DG) has not yet been explored...
March 2010: Glycobiology
Jane E Hewitt
The dystroglycanopathies are a group of inherited muscular dystrophies that have a common underlying mechanism, hypoglycosylation of the extracellular receptor alpha-dystroglycan. Many of these disorders are also associated with defects in the central nervous system and the eye. Defects in alpha-dystroglycan may also play a role in cancer progression. This review discusses the six dystroglycanopathy genes identified so far, their known or proposed roles in dystroglycan glycosylation and their relevance to human disease, and some of animal models now available for the study of the dystroglycanopathies...
September 2009: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Ken-Ichi Takeuchi, Yoshiro Nakano, Utako Kato, Mizuho Kaneda, Masako Aizu, Wakae Awano, Shigenobu Yonemura, Shigeki Kiyonaka, Yasuo Mori, Daisuke Yamamoto, Masato Umeda
Temperature affects the physiology, behavior, and evolution of organisms. We conducted mutagenesis and screens for mutants with altered temperature preference in Drosophila melanogaster and identified a cryophilic (cold-seeking) mutant, named atsugari (atu). Reduced expression of the Drosophila ortholog of dystroglycan (DmDG) induced tolerance to cold as well as preference for the low temperature. A sustained increase in mitochondrial oxidative metabolism caused by the reduced expression of DmDG accounted for the cryophilic phenotype of the atu mutant...
March 27, 2009: Science
A S Yatsenko, M M Kucherenko, M Pantoja, K A Fischer, J Madeoy, W-M Deng, M Schneider, S Baumgartner, J Akey, H R Shcherbata, H Ruohola-Baker
BACKGROUND: Dystroglycan (Dg) is a transmembrane protein that is a part of the Dystrophin Glycoprotein Complex (DGC) which connects the extracellular matrix to the actin cytoskeleton. The C-terminal end of Dg contains a number of putative SH3, SH2 and WW domain binding sites. The most C-terminal PPXY motif has been established as a binding site for Dystrophin (Dys) WW-domain. However, our previous studies indicate that both Dystroglycan PPXY motives, WWbsI and WWbsII can bind Dystrophin protein in vitro...
2009: BMC Developmental Biology
Vincent Mirouse, Christina P Christoforou, Cornelia Fritsch, Daniel St Johnston, Robert P Ray
Dystroglycan localizes to the basal domain of epithelial cells and has been reported to play a role in apical-basal polarity. Here, we show that Dystroglycan null mutant follicle cells have normal apical-basal polarity, but lose the planar polarity of their basal actin stress fibers, a phenotype it shares with Dystrophin mutants. However, unlike Dystrophin mutants, mutants in Dystroglycan or in its extracellular matrix ligand Perlecan lose polarity under energetic stress. The maintenance of epithelial polarity under energetic stress requires the activation of Myosin II by the cellular energy sensor AMPK...
January 2009: Developmental Cell
Martina Schneider, Stefan Baumgartner
Dystroglycan (DG) is a widely expressed extracellular matrix (ECM) receptor required for muscle viability, synaptogenesis, basement-membrane formation and epithelial development. As an integral component of the Dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex, DG plays a central role in linking the ECM and the cytoskeleton. Disruption of this linkage in skeletal muscle is the underlying cause in various types of muscular dystrophies (MD). One particular type of MD is caused by alterations of O-linked glycosylation in the mucin-like domain of DG, which is required for binding of the ECM molecules Laminin and Perlecan...
January 2008: Fly
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