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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350975/long-lasting-postoperative-ileus-after-surgery-for-intestinal-obstruction-due-to-left-paraduodenal-hernia-lpdh-case-report
#1
A Volpi, P Ialongo, A Panebianco, R Lozito, A Prestera, R Laforgia, C Punzo, N Palasciano
Left paraduodenal hernia is a rare congenital anomaly which arises from an error of rotation of the midgut; sometimes can be responsible for intestinal occlusion, that require surgery. In many cases of literature a prompt diagnosis and therapy reduced morbidity and mortality and almost all patients were discharged on 4th or 5th postoperative day (POD). We report a case of a 59 years old patient who underwent surgery for intestinal obstruction due to a massive left paraduodeneal hernia, that had a very long period (20 days) of postoperative ileus...
November 2016: Il Giornale di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344664/current-understanding-and-approach-to-well-differentiated-lung-neuroendocrine-tumors-an-update-on-classification-and-management
#2
REVIEW
Talal Hilal
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are rare neoplasms that can arise from any tissue. They are classified based on embryonic gut derivative (i.e. foregut, midgut and hindgut) with midgut tumors being the most common (e.g. gastrointestinal NET). The second most common category of NETs is that which arises from the lung. In fact, 25% of primary lung cancers are NETs, including small cell lung cancer (SCLC), which comprises 20% of all lung cancers. The remaining 5% are large cell neuroendocrine cancer (LCNEC, 3%), typical carcinoids (TCs, 1...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344121/brevibacillus-laterosporus-pathogenesis-and-local-immune-response-regulation-in-the-house-fly-midgut
#3
Maria Elena Mura, Luca Ruiu
The insect midgut represents the primary site of action of the entompathogenic bacterium Brevibacillus laterosporus. Whilst most studies on this microorganism focus on the identification and characterization of possible virulence factors and toxins, little is known about the insect immune defense mechanisms that are activated against this pathogen. In this study we have investigated the local immune response of different house fly stages to B. laterosporus at the transcriptional level, and we tested the hypothesis that an improvement in entomopathogenicity can be achieved by impairing host innate immunity...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343984/amitosis-of-polyploid-cells-regenerates-functional-stem-cells-in-the-drosophila-intestine
#4
Elena M Lucchetta, Benjamin Ohlstein
Organ fitness depends on appropriate maintenance of stem cell populations, and aberrations in functional stem cell numbers are associated with malignancies and aging. Symmetrical division is the best characterized mechanism of stem cell replacement, but other mechanisms could also be deployed, particularly in situations of high stress. Here, we show that after severe depletion, intestinal stem cells (ISCs) in the Drosophila midgut are replaced by spindle-independent ploidy reduction of cells in the enterocyte lineage through a process known as amitosis...
March 18, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343031/assessing-the-genotoxic-effects-of-two-lipid-peroxidation-products-4-oxo-2-nonenal-and-4-hydroxy-hexenal-in-haemocytes-and-midgut-cells-of-drosophila-melanogaster-larvae
#5
Eşref Demir, Ricard Marcos
Lipid peroxidation products can induce tissue damage and are implicated in diverse pathological conditions, including aging, atherosclerosis, brain disorders, cancer, lung and various liver disorders. Since in vivo studies produce relevant information, we have selected Drosophila melanogaster as a suitable in vivo model to characterise the potential risks associated to two lipid peroxidation products namely 4-oxo-2-nonenal (4-ONE) and 4-hydroxy-hexenal (4-HHE). Toxicity, intracellular reactive oxygen species production, and genotoxicity were the end-points evaluated...
March 22, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342565/mini-review-new-pathogen-profiles-elizabethkingia-anophelis
#6
REVIEW
J Michael Janda, Denise L Lopez
Within a little more than 5 years since its taxonomic description in 2011, from the midgut of mosquitoes, Elizabethkingia anophelis has emerged as an important causes of sepsis in adults and children and in cases of neonatal meningitis. At least 3 moderate- to large-scale outbreaks of disease have been caused by this bacterium, the largest 2 occurring in the Midwest United States in 2015-2016. Several studies suggest that E. anophelis, and not E. meningoseptica, is the predominant human pathogen of this genus; identification to species is difficult...
March 16, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341680/phar-a-negative-regulatory-protein-of-phap-modulates-the-colonization-of-burkholderia-gut-symbiont-in-the-midgut-of-the-host-insect-riptortus-pedestris
#7
Seong Han Jang, Ho Am Jang, Jun Beom Lee, Jong Uk Kim, Seung Ah Lee, Kyoung-Eun Park, Byung Hyun Kim, Yong Hun Jo, Bok Luel Lee
Five genes encoding PhaP family proteins and one phaR gene have been identified in the genome of Burkholderia RPE75. PhaP proteins function as the surface proteins of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) granules, and PhaR protein acts as a negative regulator of PhaP biosynthesis. Recently, we characterized one phaP gene to understand the molecular cross-talk between Riptortus insects and Burkholderia gut symbionts. In this study, we constructed four other phaP gene-depleted mutants (ΔphaP1, ΔphaP2, ΔphaP3, ΔphaP4), one phaR gene-depleted mutant (ΔphaR) and a phaR-complemented mutant (ΔphaR/phaR)...
March 24, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341416/a-physiologically-oriented-transcriptomic-analysis-of-the-midgut-of-tenebrio-molitor
#8
Nathalia R Moreira, Christiane Cardoso, Renata O Dias, Clelia Ferreira, Walter R Terra
Physiological data showed that T. molitor midgut is buffered at pH 5.6 at the two anterior thirds and at 7.9 at the posterior third. Furthermore, water is absorbed and secreted at the anterior and posterior midgut, respectively, driving a midgut counter flux of fluid. To look for the molecular mechanisms underlying these phenomena and nutrient absorption as well, a transcriptomic approach was used. For this, 11 types of transporters were chosen from the midgut transcriptome obtained by pyrosequencing (Roche 454)...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341392/novel-synthesis-of-gold-nanoparticles-using-artemisia-vulgaris-l-leaf-extract-and-their-efficacy-of-larvicidal-activity-against-dengue-fever-vector-aedes-aegypti-l
#9
B Sundararajan, B D Ranjitha Kumari
The Aedes aegypti L. mosquito transmits dengue and yellow fever, which cause millions of death every year. Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that has rapidly spread worldwide particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates areas. The present study denotes a simple and eco-friendly biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using Artemisia vulgaris L. leaf extract as reducing agent. The synthesized gold nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Visible Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Zeta Potential (ZP), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX)...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337184/the-maternally-inheritable-wolbachia-walbb-induces-refractoriness-to-plasmodium-berghei-in-anopheles-stephensi
#10
Deepak Joshi, Xiaoling Pan, Michael J McFadden, David Bevins, Xiao Liang, Peng Lu, Suzanne Thiem, Zhiyong Xi
The endosymbiont Wolbachia wAlbB induces refractoriness to Plasmodium falciparum in Anopheles stephensi, the primary mosquito vector of human malaria in the Middle East and South Asia. However, it remains unknown whether such refractoriness can be extended to other malaria species. In particular, it was reported that under very specific conditions, wAlbB can enhance Plasmodium infection in some hosts. Here, we measured the impact of wAlbB on the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei in A. stephensi by comparing the load of oocysts and sporozoites in midguts and salivary glands, respectively, between wAlbB-infected and -uninfected mosquitoes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337032/drosophila-dyskerin-is-required-for-somatic-stem-cell-homeostasis
#11
Rosario Vicidomini, Arianna Petrizzo, Annamaria di Giovanni, Laura Cassese, Antonella Anna Lombardi, Caterina Pragliola, Maria Furia
Drosophila represents an excellent model to dissect the roles played by the evolutionary conserved family of eukaryotic dyskerins. These multifunctional proteins are involved in the formation of H/ACA snoRNP and telomerase complexes, both involved in essential cellular tasks. Since fly telomere integrity is guaranteed by a different mechanism, we used this organism to investigate the specific role played by dyskerin in somatic stem cell maintenance. To this aim, we focussed on Drosophila midgut, a hierarchically organized and well characterized model for stemness analysis...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335800/a-new-method-for-in-vitro-feeding-of-rhipicephalus-australis-formerly-rhipicephalus-microplus-larvae-a-valuable-tool-for-tick-vaccine-development
#12
Jos J A Trentelman, Jos A G M Kleuskens, Jos van de Crommert, Theo P M Schetters
BACKGROUND: Rhipicephalus microplus is a hard tick that has a major impact on cattle health in tropical and subtropical regions because it feeds on cattle and is implicated in the transmission of pathogens that cause diseases such as bovine anaplasmosis and babesiosis. Presently, acaricides are used to control tick infestation but this is becoming increasingly less effective due to the emergence of tick strains that are resistant to one or more classes of acaricides. Anti-tick vaccines are a promising alternative to control tick infestation in cattle...
March 23, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334388/bacterial-endosymbionts-of-the-psyllid-cacopsylla-pyricola-hemiptera-psyllidae-in-the-pacific-northwestern-united-states
#13
W Rodney Cooper, Stephen F Garczynski, David R Horton, Thomas R Unruh, Elizabeth H Beers, W Shearer Peter, Richard J Hilton
Insects often have facultative associations with bacterial endosymbionts, which can alter the insects' susceptibility to parasitism, pathogens, plant defenses, and certain classes of insecticides. We collected pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), from pear orchards in Washington and Oregon, and surveyed them for the presence of bacterial endosymbionts. Adult psyllids were collected on multiple dates to allow us to assay specimens of both the summer ("summerform") and the overwintering ("winterform") morphotypes...
March 3, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334017/genome-wide-rnai-selection-identifies-a-regulator-of-transmission-stage-enriched-gene-families-and-cell-type-differentiation-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#14
Eva Rico, Alasdair Ivens, Lucy Glover, David Horn, Keith R Matthews
Trypanosoma brucei, causing African sleeping-sickness, exploits quorum-sensing (QS) to generate the 'stumpy forms' necessary for the parasite's transmission to tsetse-flies. These quiescent cells are generated by differentiation in the bloodstream from proliferative slender forms. Using genome-wide RNAi selection we screened for repressors of transmission stage-enriched mRNAs in slender forms, using the stumpy-elevated ESAG9 transcript as a model. This identified REG9.1, whose RNAi-silencing alleviated ESAG9 repression in slender forms and tsetse-midgut procyclic forms...
March 23, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331183/differential-expression-of-chemosensory-protein-genes-in-midguts-in-response-to-diet-of-spodoptera-litura
#15
Xin Yi, Jiangwei Qi, Xiaofan Zhou, Mei Ying Hu, Guo Hua Zhong
While it has been well characterized that chemosensory receptors in guts of mammals have great influence on food preference, much remains elusive in insects. Insect chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are soluble proteins that could deliver chemicals to olfactory and gustatory receptors. Recent studies have identified a number of CSPs expressed in midgut in Lepidoptera insects, which started to reveal their roles in chemical recognition and stimulating appetite in midgut. In this study, we examined expression patterns in midgut of 21 Spodoptera litura CSPs (SlitCSPs) characterized from a previously reported transcriptome, and three CSPs were identified to be expressed highly in midgut...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330502/a-repertoire-of-protease-inhibitor-families-in-amblyomma-americanum-and-other-tick-species-inter-species-comparative-analyses
#16
Lindsay M Porter, Željko M Radulović, Albert Mulenga
BACKGROUND: Protease inhibitors (PIs) are important regulators of physiology and represent anti-parasitic druggable and vaccine targets. We conducted bioinformatic analyses of genome and transcriptome data to determine the protease inhibitor (PI) repertoire in Amblyomma americanum and in 25 other ixodid tick species. For A. americanum, we compared the PI repertoires in fed and unfed, male and female A. americanum ticks. We also analyzed PI repertoires of female 48, 96 and 120 h-fed midgut (MG) and salivary gland (SG) tissues...
March 22, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327568/aminopeptidase-n1-is-involved-in-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry1ac-toxicity-in-the-beet-armyworm-spodoptera-exigua
#17
Lin Qiu, Songhe Cui, Lang Liu, Boyao Zhang, Weihua Ma, Xiaoping Wang, Chaoliang Lei, Lizhen Chen
Understanding how insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) interact with their hosts is crucial to fully explain the molecular bases of Bt specificity and insecticidal activity. Previous studies support ATP binding cassette transporters (ABCC2/3) and one cadherin-like protein are Cry1Ac functional receptors in the beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua). In this study, a combined one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting approach identified aminopeptidase N (APNs) as putative Cry1Ac binding proteins in the midgut brush border membrane of S...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321527/effects-of-site-mutations-within-the-22%C3%A2-kda-no-core-fragment-of-the-vip3aa11-insecticidal-toxin-of-bacillus-thuringiensis
#18
Ming Liu, Rongmei Liu, Guoxing Luo, Haitao Li, Jiguo Gao
Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal proteins (VIPs) are not homologous to other known Cry proteins, and they act against lepidopteran larvae via a unique process. All reported studies on the mode of action of Vip3 proteins have been performed on the Vip3A family, mostly on the Vip3Aa subfamily. Vip3Aa proteins are activated by midgut proteases, and they cross the peritrophic membrane and bind specific proteins in apical membrane epithelial midgut cells, which results in pore formation and, eventually, death to the insects...
March 20, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306665/molecular-mechanisms-that-mediate-invasion-and-egress-of-malaria-parasites-from-red-blood-cells
#19
Aditi Alaganan, Pallavi Singh, Chetan E Chitnis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Malaria parasites invade and multiply in diverse host cells during their complex life cycle. Some blood stage parasites transform into male and female gametocytes that are transmitted by female anopheline mosquitoes. The gametocytes are activated in the mosquito midgut to form male and female gametes, which egress from RBCs to mate and form a zygote. Here, we will review our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms that mediate invasion and egress by malaria parasites at different life cycle stages...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302632/midgut-volvulus
#20
Takeshi Kondo, Kazuhiko Terada
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
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