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Reza Navaei-Bonab, Majid Kazzazi, Moosa Saber, Mohammad Vatanparast
The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Lep: Noctuidae), is an economically important pest of numerous major food crops worldwide. Protease inhibitors from plants, expressed constitutively in transgenic crops, have potential for pest management as an alternative to chemical pesticides. In this study, a protease inhibitor was isolated, purified, and characterized from Datura metel L. seeds. The purity of the isolated inhibitor was confirmed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and activity staining showed one major peak and one clear activity band for the protein...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
X-X Yao, Q-W Meng, G-Q Li
An obvious challenge faced by most terrestrial insects is maintaining water homeostasis in an arid environment. Current research suggests aquaporins may be evolved to meet the challenge. However, up to now, this suggestion has not been verified in any insect that feeds upon solid food with mandibulate mouthparts. In the present paper, nine putative aquaporin genes [Tribolium castaneum big brain, T. castaneum Drosophila integral protein (TcDrip), T. castaneum Pyrocoelia rufa integral protein (TcPrip), T. castaneum aquaporin 12-like, T...
December 13, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
Mahima Sharma, Gagan D Gupta, Vinay Kumar
The activated binary toxin (BinAB) from Lysinibacillus sphaericus binds to surface receptor protein (Cqm1) on the midgut cell membrane and kills Culex quinquefasciatus larvae on internalization. Cqm1 is attached to cells via a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. It has been classified as a member of glycoside hydrolase family 13 of the CAZy database. Here, we report characterization of the ordered domain (residues 23-560) of Cqm1. Gene expressing Cqm1 of BinAB susceptible mosquito was chemically synthesized and the protein was purified using E...
December 8, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Yali Han, Fang Li, Limei Xu, Feng Yang
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen of penaeid shrimp. Here we identified a new WSSV strain, WSSV-CN04, from naturally infected Marsupenaeus japonicus. Whole genomic sequencing results indicate that the WSSV-CN04 genome was 281 054 bp in length, and encoded 157 hypothetic proteins. The genome sequence of WSSV-CN04 was most closely related to the low-virulent strain WSSV-CN03, sharing 97.5% sequence identity. Notably, in WSSV-CN04, the major envelop protein VP24 was not only truncated but also absent in the virions...
December 11, 2017: Veterinary Research
Natalie M D'Silva, Michael J O'Donnell
We report measurements of ion transport across the gastric caecum of larvae of Aedes aegypti, a vector of yellow fever that inhabits a variety of aquatic habitats ranging from freshwater to brackish water. We provide the first measurements of the effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) on transepithelial potential (TEP), luminal ion concentrations and electrochemical potentials, as well as basolateral membrane potential and H+, Na+ and K+ fluxes. TEP, basolateral membrane potential, and H+, K+, and Na+ fluxes across the gastric caeca declined within 3-6 mins after isolation of the entire midgut from the larva...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Scott A Rankin, Kyle W McCracken, David M Luedeke, Lu Han, James M Wells, John M Shannon, Aaron M Zorn
A small number of signaling pathways are used repeatedly during organogenesis, and they can have drastically different effects on the same population of cells depending on the embryonic stage. How cellular competence changes over developmental time is not well understood. Here we used Xenopus, mouse, and human pluripotent stem cells to investigate how the temporal sequence of Wnt, BMP, and retinoic acid (RA) signals regulates endoderm developmental competence and organ induction, focusing on respiratory fate...
December 4, 2017: Developmental Biology
Lingling Zhang, Guohui Zhao, Xiaohua Hu, Jiannan Liu, Mingwei Li, Khadija Batool, Mingfeng Chen, Junxiang Wang, Jin Xu, Tianpei Huang, Xiaohong Pan, Lei Xu, Xiao-Qiang Yu, Xiong Guan
Cry11Aa displays high toxicity to the larvae of several mosquito species, including Aedes, Culex, and Anopheles. To study its binding characterization against Culex quinquefasciatus, Cry11Aa was purified and western blot results showed that Cry11Aa could bind successfully to the brush border membrane vesicles. To identify Cry11Aa-binding proteins in C. quinquefasciatus, a biotin-based protein pull-down experiment was performed and seven Cry11Aa-binding proteins were isolated from the midgut of C. quinquefasciatus larvae...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Rui Guo, Guangli Cao, Renyu Xue, Dhiraj Kumar, Fei Chen, Wei Liu, Yue Jiang, Yahong Lu, Liyuan Zhu, Zi Liang, Sulan Kuang, Xiaolong Hu, Chengliang Gong
Bombyx mori cypovirus (BmCPV) is one of the major viral pathogen for silkworm, and the genome of BmCPV is composed of 10 dsRNA segments. As construction system of recombinant BmCPV (rBmCPV) is scanty, researchers achieved little progress in studying gene function of BmCPV in recent decades. Here, 10 recombinant plasmids with a full-length cDNA of viral genome segments S1-S10 containing T7 promoter were constructed. After cotransfecting the BmN cells with the mixture of 10 in vitro-transcribed RNAs, pathological changes were observed...
December 6, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Yingying Wang, Jiwen Zhang, Mingxing Feng, Wenjun Wu, Zhaonong Hu
Celangulin V (CV) is the main insecticidal constituent of Celastrus angulatus. The V-ATPase H subunit of the midgut cells of lepidopteran larvae is the putative target protein of CV. Here, we compared the effects of CV on the midgut membrane potentials of Mythimna separata and Agrotis ipsilon larvae with those of the Cry1Ab toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis and with those of inactive CV-MIA, a synthetic derivative of CV. We investigated the changes in the apical membrane potentials (Vam) and basolateral membrane potentials (Vbm) of the midguts of sixth-instar larvae force-fed with the test toxins...
December 6, 2017: Toxins
Murad Ghanim, Diann Achor, Saptarshi Ghosh, Svetlana Kontsedalov, Galina Lebedev, Amit Levy
Citrus greening disease known also as Huanglongbing (HLB) caused by the phloem-limited bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas) has resulted in tremendous losses and the death of millions of trees worldwide. CLas is transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri. The closely-related bacteria 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' (CLso), associated with vegetative disorders in carrots, is transmitted by the carrot psyllid Bactericera trigonica. A promising approach to prevent the transmission of these pathogens is to interfere with the vector-pathogen interactions, but our understanding of these processes is limited...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yesseinia I Angleró-Rodríguez, Octavio Ac Talyuli, Benjamin J Blumberg, Seokyoung Kang, Celia Demby, Alicia Shields, Jenny Carlson, Natapong Jupatanakul, George Dimopoulos
Transmission of dengue virus (DENV) requires successful completion of the infection cycle in the Aedes aegypti vector, which is initiated in the midgut tissue after ingestion of an infectious blood meal. While certain Ae. aegypti midgut-associated bacteria influence virus infection, little is known about the midgut-associated fungi (mycobiota), and how its members might influence susceptibility to DENV infection. We show that a Talaromyces (Tsp_PR) fungus, isolated from field-caught Ae. aegypti, render the mosquito more permissive to DENV infection...
December 5, 2017: ELife
Cts Silva, V Wanderley-Teixeira, F M Cunha, J V Oliveira, K A Dutra, Dma Ferraz Navarro, Aac Teixeira
The armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, is the principal pest of corn in Brazil. Control is achieved primarily by synthetic insecticides, which cause problems for the agro-ecosystem. Alternative methods of control are under investigation and citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) essential oil appears to be a promising agent. We investigated the effects of citronella oil using histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. The midgut of larvae treated with citronella exhibited altered epithelium including cytoplasmic protrusions, columnar cell extrusion, pyknotic nuclei, and increased periodic acid-Schiff positive granules...
December 5, 2017: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
Haidong Wang, Ivan Meeus, Niels Piot, Guy Smagghe
Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) can cause a systemic infection, resulting in mortality in both Apis and Bombus spp. bees. However, little is known about the virus infection dynamics within bee tissues. Here, we established systemic IAPV infections in reared bumblebee Bombus terrestris workers through feeding and injection and investigated the mortality, tissue tropism and viral localization. Injection of approximately 500 IAPV (IAPVinj stock) particles resulted in acute infection, viral loads within tissues that were relatively stable from bee to bee, and a distinctive tissue tropism, making this method suitable for studying systemic IAPV infection in bumblebees...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Huawei He, Yejing Wang, Kai Song, Jiao Wang, Shuguang Wei, Peng Zhao, Ping Zhao
Protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP, EC specifically catalyzes the removal of phosphate groups from phosphorylated tyrosine residues, resulting in protein dephosphorylation, thus regulates life activities such as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation and immunization. Protein tyrosine phosphatase h of Bombyx mori (BmPTP-h) is involved in the replication of nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) in Bombyx mori, but the structure and properties of BmPTP-h are little known so far. In this study, the coding sequence of BmPTP-h gene was cloned from the midgut of Bombyx mori, and its genomic structure, mRNA structure, sequence signature, secondary structure and the state in solution were analyzed...
November 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
Hakan Kavur, Hüseyin Arikan, Yusuf Ozbel
Leishmaniasis is a one of the vector-borne diseases and has two clinical forms in Turkey: cutaneous and visceral. The aim of this study was to determine the sand fly fauna in Afyon and Nigde provinces where endemic foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Turkey. In Afyon, 2,259 sand flies were collected in 73 locations in August 2009 and August 2010, using CDC light traps. In total, eight Phlebotomus species were identified; Phlebotomus halepensis (47.41%), Phlebotomus papatasi (31.42%), Phlebotomus neglectus/syriacus (9...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
Fang Zhang, Jun Wang, Kiran Thakur, Fei Hu, Jian-Guo Zhang, Xing-Fu Jiang, Shi-Hen An, Hongbo Jiang, Li Jiang, Zhao-Jun Wei
Insect allatotropin (AT) plays multi-functions including regulation of juvenile hormone synthesis, growth, development and reproduction. In the present study, the full-length cDNA encoding the AT receptor was cloned from the brain of Helicoverpa armigera (Helar-ATR). The ORF of Helar-ATR exhibited the characteristic seven transmembrane domains of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and was close to the ATR of Manduca sexta in the phylogenetic tree. The Helar-ATR expressed in vertebrate cell lines can be activated by Helar-AT and each Helar-ATL in a dose-responsive manner, in the following order: Helar-ATLI>Helar-ATLII>Helar-AT>Helar-ATLIII...
November 30, 2017: Peptides
Marcos Pereira Lopes, Kenner Morais Fernandes, Hudson Vaner Ventura Tomé, Wagner Gonzaga Gonçalves, Franciane Rosa Miranda, José Eduardo Serrão, Gustavo Ferreira Martins
BACKGROUND: The global decline in Apis mellifera colonies is attributed to multiple factors, including pesticides. The bioinsecticide spinosad was initially recognized as safe for non-target organisms; however, its toxicity has been changing this concept. Here, we investigated the survival, behavioral changes, and structural changes in the midgut and Malpighian tubules of A. mellifera treated orally with a spinosad formulation. RESULTS: The field-recommended concentration of spinosad killed 100% of the bees...
December 1, 2017: Pest Management Science
M Vazeille, J-S Dehecq, A-B Failloux
La Réunion Island has been the scene of unusually large epidemics of dengue and chikungunya viruses with Aedes albopictus as the sole vector. After experimental oral infection, Ae. albopictus from La Réunion Island can disseminate both dengue and chikungunya viruses but not the Asian genotype of Zika virus, suggesting a strong midgut barrier to dissemination. Autochthonous transmission of the Asian genotype of Zika virus is improbable on La Réunion Island.
November 30, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Luiz C P Almeida Filho, Pedro M S Tabosa, Denise C Hissa, Ilka M Vasconcelos, Ana F U Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Arboviroses such as dengue, zika and chikungunya represent a serious issue in public health due to the absence of approved vaccine or specific antiviral drugs. One way to prevent these diseases is by combating the vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera), which has serine proteases in the midgut. Protease inhibitors are molecules that can block enzyme activity impairing digestion and nutrition that can lead to death. Thus, we purified and characterized a novel chymotrypsin- trypsin inhibitor from Lonchocarpus sericeus (LsCTI) seeds and investigated its effect upon Ae...
November 28, 2017: Pest Management Science
Saima Kausar, Muhammad Nadeem Abbas, Cen Qian, Baojian Zhu, Jin Gao, Yu Sun, Lei Wang, Guoqing Wei, Chaoliang Liu
Serine protease inhibitors play a key role in the immune system of invertebrates by controlling proteolytic cascades. Besides its importance, the knowledge on immune functions of serpins in most of insects is fragmentary. In the present study, we identified serpin-12 from Antheraea pernyi encoding a predicted 402 amino acid residue protein (Apserpin-12). We expressed the recombinant protein in Escherichia coli and the purified protein was used for the synthesis of rabbit anti-Apserpin-12 polyclonal antibodies and functional studies...
November 29, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
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