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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924350/proteolytic-activity-in-the-midgut-of-helicoverpa-armigera-noctuidae-lepidoptera-larvae-fed-on-wild-relatives-of-chickpea-cicer-arietinum
#1
Siva Kumar Golla, P Rajasekhar, S M D Akbar, H C Sharma
Wild relatives of crops are an important source of resistance genes against insect pests. However, it is important to identify the accessions of wild relatives with different mechanisms of resistance to broaden the basis and increase the levels of resistance to insect pests. Therefore, we evaluated 15 accessions of wild relatives of chickpea belonging to seven species and five genotypes of cultivated chickpea for their resistance to pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera, which is the most damaging pest of chickpea...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920766/characterization-of-cadmium-and-calcium-fluxes-along-the-gut-malpighian-tubules-and-anal-papillae-of-the-dipteran-chironomus-riparius
#2
Erin M Leonard, Ryan Belowitz, Pieter Agema, Michael J O'Donnell
Chironomids are often one of the dominant organisms in significantly polluted freshwater. Many invertebrate studies have characterized whole organism mechanisms of toxicity, for example, assessing cadmium (Cd) uptake via calcium (Ca) channels. However, with the use of the Scanning Ion-selective Electrode Technique (SIET) and the use of an innovative Cd-selective microelectrode, we analyze this relationship at the organ level using a realistic concentration of Cd and Ca in the hemolymph (blood). Generally, Cd fluxes follow the same directional pattern as Ca, although Ca fluxes are ∼5x higher than those of Cd...
June 19, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909274/molecular-and-functional-analyses-of-novel-anti-lipopolysaccharide-factors-in-giant-river-prawn-macrobrachium-rosenbergii-de-man-and-their-expression-responses-under-pathogen-and-temperature-exposure
#3
Prapansak Srisapoome, Nawanith Klongklaew, Nontawith Areechon, Ratree Wongpanya
Anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) is an immune-related protein that is crucially involved in immune defense mechanisms against invading pathogens in crustaceans. In the current study, three different ALFs of giant river prawn (Mr-ALF3, Mr-ALF8 and Mr-ALF9) were discovered. Based on sequence analysis, Mr-ALF3 and Mr-ALF9 were identified as new members of ALFs in crustaceans (groups F and G, respectively). Structurally, each newly identified Mr-ALF contained three α-helices packed against a four-stranded β-sheet bearing the LPS-binding motif, which usually binds to the cell wall components of bacteria...
June 14, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902708/enhanced-antiviral-immunity-against-bombyx-mori-cytoplasmic-polyhedrosis-virus-via-overexpression-of-peptidoglycan-recognition-protein-s2-in-transgenic-silkworms
#4
Ping Zhao, Fei Xia, Liang Jiang, Huizhen Guo, Guowen Xu, Qiang Sun, Bingbing Wang, Yumei Wang, Zhongyan Lu, Qingyou Xia
In insect innate immunity, peptidoglycan recognition proteins act as pattern recognition receptors, helping hosts combat invasive microorganisms. Bombyx mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV) is the main silkworm pathogen that invades the midgut columnar cell layer. We previously reported that B. mori peptidoglycan recognition protein S2 (BmPGRP-S2) was upregulated in silkworm larvae after BmCPV infection. Here, we constructed a transgenic vector overexpressing BmPGRP-S2 under the control of a midgut-specific promoter...
May 30, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892978/the-functions-of-caspase-in-whitefly-bemisia-tabaci-apoptosis-in-response-to-uv-irradiation
#5
Xin-Ru Wang, Chao Wang, Xing-Wei Wang, Li-Xin Qian, Yao Chi, Shu-Sheng Liu, Yin-Quan Liu, Xiao-Wei Wang
Whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) are phloem feeders, and some invasive species are composed of cryptic species complexes that cause extensive crop damage, particularly via the direct transmission of plant viruses. Apoptosis is a type of programmed cell death essential for organismal development and tissue homeostasis. The caspases belong to a family of cysteine proteases that play a central role in the initiation of apoptosis in many organisms. Here, we employed a comprehensive genomics approach to identity caspases in B...
June 11, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885502/comparisons-of-microsomal-cytochrome-p450-content-and-enzymatic-activity-towards-selected-model-substrates-and-insecticides-in-different-tissues-from-the-migratory-locust-locusta-migratoria
#6
Jiao Liu, Xueyao Zhang, Haihua Wu, Yue Gao, Kristopher Silver, Enbo Ma, Jianzhen Zhang, Kun Yan Zhu
Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are important enzymes for biotransformations of various endogenous and xenobiotic substances in various organisms. In this study, we examined microsomal P450 protein content and enzymatic activity in four major detoxification tissues dissected from fifth-instar nymphs of the migratory locust (Locusta migratoria). The highest microsomal P450 protein content was found in the gastric caeca (a part of the midgut), followed by the midgut, Malpighian tubules and fat bodies. Microsomal P450s showed the highest aromatic hydroxylation, O-dealkylation and O-dearylation activities towards six of the seven model substrates examined in the fat bodies...
May 30, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883660/morphogenesis-and-motility-of-the-astyanax-mexicanus-gastrointestinal-tract
#7
Misty R Riddle, Werend Boesmans, Olivya Caballero, Youcef Kazwiny, Clifford J Tabin
Through the course of evolution, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract has been modified to maximize nutrient absorption, forming specialized segments that are morphologically and functionally distinct. Here we show that the GI tract of the Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus, has distinct regions, exhibiting differences in morphology, motility, and absorption. We found that A. mexicanus populations adapted for life in subterranean caves exhibit differences in the GI segments compared to those adapted to surface rivers...
June 5, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879572/biocontrol-and-non-target-effect-of-fractions-and-compound-isolated-from-streptomyces-rimosus-on-the-immature-stages-of-filarial-vector-culex-quinquefasciatus-say-diptera-culicidae-and-the-compound-interaction-with-acetylcholinesterase-ache1
#8
Pathalam Ganesan, Antony Stalin, Micheal Gabriel Paulraj, Kedike Balakrishna, Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi
The present study was aimed to check the mosquitocidal activity of intracellular methanol extract fractions and the compound di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate isolated from Streptomyces rimosus. The isolated compound was also analyzed for its interaction with Acetylcholinesterase (AChE1). The larvae and eggs of Culex quinquefasciatus were exposed to four different concentrations such as 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 ppm for fractions and 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 ppm for compound. After 24 and 120 h post treatment, the larval mortality and ovicidal activity were recorded...
June 4, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878866/health-related-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-progressive-midgut-neuroendocrine-tumors-treated-with-177-lu-dotatate-in-the-phase-iii-netter-1-trial
#9
Jonathan Strosberg, Edward Wolin, Beth Chasen, Matthew Kulke, David Bushnell, Martyn Caplin, Richard P Baum, Pamela Kunz, Timothy Hobday, Andrew Hendifar, Kjell Oberg, Maribel Lopera Sierra, Thomas Thevenet, Ines Margalet, Philippe Ruszniewski, Eric Krenning
Purpose Neuroendocrine tumor (NET) progression is associated with deterioration in quality of life (QoL). We assessed the impact of 177 Lu-Dotatate treatment on time to deterioration in health-related QoL. Methods The NETTER-1 trial is an international phase III study in patients with midgut NETs. Patients were randomly assigned to treatment with 177 Lu-Dotatate versus high-dose octreotide. European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality-of-life questionnaires QLQ C-30 and G.I.NET-21 were assessed during the trial to determine the impact of treatment on health-related QoL...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875821/epistasis-confers-resistance-to-bt-toxin-cry1ac-in-the-cotton-bollworm
#10
Meijing Gao, Ximeng Wang, Yihua Yang, Bruce E Tabashnik, Yidong Wu
Evolution of resistance by insect pests reduces the benefits of extensively cultivated transgenic crops that produce insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Previous work showed that resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac, which is produced by transgenic cotton, can be conferred by mutations disrupting a cadherin protein that binds this Bt toxin in the larval midgut. However, the potential for epistatic interactions between the cadherin gene and other genes has received little attention. Here, we report evidence of epistasis conferring resistance to Cry1Ac in the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera , one of the world's most devastating crop pests...
June 2018: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873127/plasmodium-falciparum-subtilisin-like-ookinete-protein-sopt-plays-an-important-and-conserved-role-during-ookinete-infection-of-the-anopheles-stephensi-midgut
#11
Jennifer S Armistead, Charlie Jennison, Matthew T O'Neill, Sash Lopaticki, Peter Liehl, Kirsten K Hanson, Takeshi Annoura, Pravin Rajasekaran, Sara M Erickson, Christopher J Tonkin, Shahid M Khan, Maria M Mota, Justin A Boddey
Transmission of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum involves infection of Anopheles mosquitoes. Here we characterize SOPT, a protein expressed in P. falciparum ookinetes that facilitates infection of the mosquito midgut. SOPT was identified on the basis that it contains a signal peptide, a PEXEL-like sequence and is expressed in asexual, ookinete and sporozoite stages, suggesting it is involved in infecting the human or mosquito host. SOPT is predicted to contain a subtilisin-like fold with a non-canonical catalytic triad and is orthologous to P...
June 5, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873106/molecular-characterization-of-a-typical-2-cys-thioredoxin-peroxidase-from-the-asiatic-rice-borer-chilo-suppressalis-and-its-role-in-oxidative-stress
#12
Ye Cao, Qing Yang, Xiao-Hui Tu, Shi-Guang Li, Su Liu
In insects, thioredoxin peroxidase (TPX) plays an important role in protecting against oxidative damage. However, studies on the molecular characteristics of TPXs in the Asiatic rice borer, Chilo suppressalis, are limited. In this work, a cDNA sequence (CsTpx3) encoding a TPX was identified from C. suppressalis. The deduced CsTPX3 protein shares high sequence identity and two positionally conserved cysteines with orthologs from other insect species, and was classified as a typical 2-Cys TPX. CsTpx3 was expressed most highly during the fifth-instar larval stage, and transcripts were most abundant in the midgut...
June 5, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872453/not-only-stem-cells-but-also-mature-cells-particularly-neuroendocrine-cells-may-develop-into-tumours-time-for-a-paradigm-shift
#13
REVIEW
Helge L Waldum, Kjell Öberg, Øystein F Sørdal, Arne K Sandvik, Bjørn I Gustafsson, Patricia Mjønes, Reidar Fossmark
Stem cells are considered the origin of neoplasms in general, and malignant tumours in particular, and the stage at which the stem cells stop their differentiation determines the degree of malignancy. However, there is increasing evidence supporting an alternative paradigm. Tumours may develop by dedifferentiation from mature cells able to proliferate. Studies of gastric carcinogenesis demonstrate that mature neuroendocrine (NE) cells upon long-term overstimulation may develop through stages of hyperplasia, dysplasia, and rather benign tumours, into highly malignant carcinomas...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869741/efficiency-of-tinospora-crispa-against-culex-quinquefasciatus-larva
#14
Wannee Jiraungkoorskul
Tinospora crispa stem aqueous extractions for various time durations were determined regarding their total phenolic content and their larvicidal abilities. The results revealed that the total phenolic content in 1-, 3-, 5-, 10-, and 24-h extracts were 8.26, 8.43, 13.57, 12.52, and 12.43 mg/g gallic acid equivalent, respectively. The 5-h extract of T. crispa was evaluated against Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito larva in concentrations 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, and 25 mg/l, by determining the lethal concentration (LC) within 24 h and by histopathological analysis...
June 5, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29863993/three-new-species-of-harpellales-from-mount-tsukuba
#15
Hiroki Sato, Yousuke Degawa
Three new species of Harpellales, collected on Mt. Tsukuba, Kanto Plain on Honshu Island, are described. Stachylina philoricola, derived from midgut of Philorus sp. (Blephariceridae: Diptera), and Lancisporomyces tsukubaensis, derived from the hindgut of Amphinemura sp. (Nemouridae: Plecoptera) nymphs, are described. Blephariceridae is newly added to the host insect families of Harpellales. A new genus, Zygopolaropsis, is proposed to accommodate the new species Z. sphaerica, derived from the hindgut of Baetis thermicus (Baetidae, Ephemeroptera) nymphs...
January 2018: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29862070/a-midgut-digestive-phospholipase-a-2-in-larval-mosquitoes-aedes-albopictus-and-culex-quinquefasciatus
#16
Nor Aliza Abdul Rahim, Marlini Othman, Muna Sabri, David W Stanley
Phospholipase A2 (PLA2 ) is a secretory digestive enzyme that hydrolyzes ester bond at sn-2 position of dietary phospholipids, creating free fatty acid and lysophospholipid. The free fatty acids (arachidonic acid) are absorbed into midgut cells. Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus digestive PLA2 was characterized using a microplate PLA2 assay. The enzyme showed substantial activities at 6 and 8  μ g/ μ l of protein concentration with optimal activity at 20 and 25  μ g/ μ l of substrate concentration in Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus , respectively...
2018: Enzyme Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859286/molecular-and-functional-characterization-of-single-box-high-mobility-group-b-hmgb-chromosomal-protein-from-aedes-aegypti
#17
Isabel Caetano de Abreu da Silva, Amanda Roberta Revoredo Vicentino, Renata Coutinho Dos Santos, Rodrigo Nunes da Fonseca, Anderson de Mendonça Amarante, Vitor Coutinho Carneiro, Marcia de Amorim Pinto, Estefania Anahi Aguilera, Ronaldo Mohana-Borges, Paulo Mascarello Bisch, Mario Alberto Cardoso da Silva-Neto, Marcelo Rosado Fantappié
High-mobility group B (HMGB) proteins have highly conserved, unique DNA-binding domains, HMG boxes, that can bind non-B-type DNA structures, such as bent, kinked and unwound structures, with high affinity. HMGB proteins also promote DNA bending, looping and unwinding. In this study, we determined the role of the Aedes aegypti single HMG-box domain protein AaHMGB; characterized its structure, spatiotemporal expression levels, subcellular localization, and nucleic acid binding activities; and compared these properties with those of its double-HMG-box counterpart protein, AaHMGB1...
May 30, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29850363/a-41-year-old-patient-with-a-rare-cause-of-severe-abdominal-sepsis-misdiagnosed-as-pid
#18
Anastasia Mikuscheva, David Becker, Mark Thompson-Fawcett
Infectious pelvic inflammatory disease is a common condition and a frequent cause of abdominal pain in a young female patient. In a patient who has not completed family planning, the diagnosis is often made with a low threshold and treatment started on a low suspicion of diagnosis to avoid a negative impact on fertility. Here, we present a case of a 41-year-old woman who was misdiagnosed with infectious pelvic inflammatory disease and treated ineffectively with antibiotics when the underlying condition of her persistent abdominal pain was a midgut neuroendocrine tumor that had caused bowel perforation and formation of an abscess in the pouch of Douglas...
2018: Case Reports in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29847781/cloning-of-cdna-sequences-encoding-cowpea-vigna-unguiculata-vicilins-computational-simulations-suggest-a-binding-mode-of-cowpea-vicilins-to-chitin-oligomers
#19
Antônio J Rocha, Bruno L Sousa, Matheus S Girão, Ito L Barroso-Neto, José E Monteiro-Júnior, José T A Oliveira, Celso S Nagano, Rômulo F Carneiro, Ana C O Monteiro-Moreira, Bruno A M Rocha, Valder N Freire, Thalles B Grangeiro
Vicilins are 7S globulins which constitute the major seed storage proteins in leguminous species. Variant vicilins showing differential binding affinities for chitin have been implicated in the resistance and susceptibility of cowpea to the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. These proteins are members of the cupin superfamily, which includes a wide variety of enzymes and non-catalytic seed storage proteins. The cupin fold does not share similarity with any known chitin-biding domain. Therefore, it is poorly understood how these storage proteins bind to chitin...
May 27, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29845101/mapping-anopheles-stephensi-midgut-proteome-using-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#20
Ajeet Kumar Mohanty, Gourav Dey, Manish Kumar, Sreelakshmi K Sreenivasamurthy, Sandeep Garg, T S Keshava Prasad, Ashwani Kumar
Anopheles stephensi Liston is one of the major vectors of malaria in urban areas of India. Midgut plays a central role in the vector life cycle and transmission of malaria. Because gene expression of An. stephensi midgut has not been investigated at protein level, an unbiased mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of midgut tissue was carried out. Midgut tissue proteins from female An. stephensi mosquitoes were extracted using 0.5% SDS and digested with trypsin using two complementary approaches, in-gel and in-solution digestion...
April 2018: Data in Brief
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