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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549454/genomic-adaptation-to-agricultural-environments-cabbage-white-butterflies-pieris-rapae-as-a-case-study
#1
Kristin L Sikkink, Megan E Kobiela, Emilie C Snell-Rood
BACKGROUND: Agricultural environments have long presented an opportunity to study evolution in action, and genomic approaches are opening doors for testing hypotheses about adaptation to crops, pesticides, and fertilizers. Here, we begin to develop the cabbage white butterfly (Pieris rapae) as a system to test questions about adaptation to novel, agricultural environments. We focus on a population in the north central United States as a unique case study: here, canola, a host plant, has been grown during the entire flight period of the butterfly over the last three decades...
May 26, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545568/symbiont-dynamics-of-the-tibetan-tick-haemaphysalis-tibetensis-acari-ixodidae
#2
Rongrong Wang, Ningxin Li, Jiannan Liu, Tuo Li, Ming Liu, Zhijun Yu, Jingze Liu
BACKGROUND: Characterization of the microbial diversity and symbiont dynamics of ticks may help to understand the development of ticks and reveal new strategies to control tick-transmitted pathogens, which has not yet been explored in the Tibetan tick Haemaphysalis tibetensis. This tick species is widely distributed in the Tibetan Plateau, and is recognized as one of the primary parasites affecting domestic and wild animals. METHODS: In the present study, the endosymbionts of H...
May 25, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545131/major-changes-in-microbial-diversity-and-community-composition-across-gut-sections-of-a-juvenile-panchlora-cockroach
#3
Erin A Gontang, Frank O Aylward, Camila Carlos, Tijana Glavina Del Rio, Mansi Chovatia, Alison Fern, Chien-Chi Lo, Stephanie A Malfatti, Susannah G Tringe, Cameron R Currie, Roberto Kolter
Investigations of gut microbiomes have shed light on the diversity and genetic content of these communities, and helped shape our understanding of how host-associated microorganisms influence host physiology, behavior, and health. Despite the importance of gut microbes to metazoans, our understanding of the changes in diversity and composition across the alimentary tract, and the source of the resident community are limited. Here, using community metagenomics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we assess microbial community diversity and coding potential in the foregut, midgut, and hindgut of a juvenile Panchlora cockroach, which resides in the refuse piles of the leaf-cutter ant species Atta colombica...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545061/microbiota-induced-peritrophic-matrix-regulates-midgut-homeostasis-and-prevents-systemic-infection-of-malaria-vector-mosquitoes
#4
Faye H Rodgers, Mathilde Gendrin, Claudia A S Wyer, George K Christophides
Manipulation of the mosquito gut microbiota can lay the foundations for novel methods for disease transmission control. Mosquito blood feeding triggers a significant, transient increase of the gut microbiota, but little is known about the mechanisms by which the mosquito controls this bacterial growth whilst limiting inflammation of the gut epithelium. Here, we investigate the gut epithelial response to the changing microbiota load upon blood feeding in the malaria vector Anopheles coluzzii. We show that the synthesis and integrity of the peritrophic matrix, which physically separates the gut epithelium from its luminal contents, is microbiota dependent...
May 17, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543984/cycle-affects-imidacloprid-efficiency-by-mediating-cytochrome-p450-expression-in-the-brown-planthopper-nilaparvata-lugens
#5
K Kang, P Yang, R Pang, L Yue, W Zhang
Circadian clocks influence most behaviours and physiological activities in animals, including daily fluctuations in metabolism. However, how the clock gene cycle influences insects' responses to pesticides has rarely been reported. Here, we provide evidence that cycle affects imidacloprid efficacy by mediating the expression of cytochrome P450 genes in the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens, a serious insect pest of rice. Survival bioassays showed that the susceptibility of BPH adults to imidacloprid differed significantly between the two time points tested [Zeitgeber Time 8 (ZT8) and ZT4]...
May 23, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542240/wmel-limits-zika-and-chikungunya-virus-infection-in-a-singapore-wolbachia-introgressed-ae-aegypti-strain-wmel-sg
#6
Cheong Huat Tan, PeiSze Jeslyn Wong, Meizhi Irene Li, HuiTing Yang, Lee Ching Ng, Scott Leslie O'Neill
BACKGROUND: Zika (ZIKV) and Chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses are emerging Aedes-borne viruses that are spreading outside their known geographic range and causing wide-scale epidemics. It has been reported that these viruses can be transmitted efficiently by Ae. aegypti. Recent studies have shown that Ae. aegypti when transinfected with certain Wolbachia strains shows a reduced replication and dissemination of dengue (DENV), Chikungunya (CHIKV), and Yellow Fever (YFV) viruses. The aim of this study was to determine whether the wMel strain of Wolbachia introgressed onto a Singapore Ae...
May 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533966/microbiome-patterns-across-the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-the-rabbitfish-siganus-fuscescens
#7
Shaun Nielsen, Jackson Wilkes Walburn, Adriana Vergés, Torsten Thomas, Suhelen Egan
Most of our knowledge regarding the biodiversity of gut microbes comes from terrestrial organisms or marine species of economic value, with less emphasis on ecologically important species. Here we investigate the bacterial composition associated with the gut of Siganus fuscescens, a rabbitfish that plays an important ecological role in coastal ecosystems by consuming seaweeds. Members of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and delta-Proteobacteria were among the dominant taxa across samples taken from the contents and the walls (sites) of the midgut and hindgut (location)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533429/fibrinogen-domain-of-frep1-is-a-broad-spectrum-malaria-transmission-blocking-vaccine-antigen
#8
Guodong Niu, Caio Franca, Genwei Zhang, Wanlapa Roobsoong, Wang Nguitragool, Xiaohong Wang, Jetsumon Prachumsri, Noah S Butler, Jun Li
FREP1 in mosquito midguts facilitates P. falciparum parasite transmission. Fibrinogen-like (FBG) domain of FREP1 is highly conserved (>90% identical) among Anopheles species from different continents, suggesting that anti-FBG antibodies may block malaria transmission to all anopheline mosquitoes. Using standard membrane-feeding assays, anti-FREP1 polyclonal antibodies significantly blocked transmission of P. berghei and P. vivax to An. gambiae and An. dirus respectively. Furthermore, in vivo studies of mice immunized with FBG achieved >75% blocking efficacy of P...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533370/insect-pathogenic-fungus-interacts-with-the-gut-microbiota-to-accelerate-mosquito-mortality
#9
Ge Wei, Yiling Lai, Guandong Wang, Huan Chen, Fang Li, Sibao Wang
The insect gut microbiota plays crucial roles in modulating the interactions between the host and intestinal pathogens. Unlike viruses, bacteria, and parasites, which need to be ingested to cause disease, entomopathogenic fungi infect insects through the cuticle and proliferate in the hemolymph. However, interactions between the gut microbiota and entomopathogenic fungi are unknown. Here we show that the pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana interacts with the gut microbiota to accelerate mosquito death. After topical fungal infection, mosquitoes with gut microbiota die significantly faster than mosquitoes without microbiota...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533229/intrinsic-regulation-of-enteroendocrine-fate-by-numb
#10
Jérémy Sallé, Louis Gervais, Benjamin Boumard, Marine Stefanutti, Katarzyna Siudeja, Allison J Bardin
How terminal cell fates are specified in dynamically renewing adult tissues is not well understood. Here we explore terminal cell fate establishment during homeostasis using the enteroendocrine cells (EEs) of the adult Drosophila midgut as a paradigm. Our data argue against the existence of local feedback signals, and we identify Numb as an intrinsic regulator of EE fate. Our data further indicate that Numb, with alpha-adaptin, acts upstream or in parallel of known regulators of EE fate to limit Notch signaling, thereby facilitating EE fate acquisition...
May 22, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528879/functional-annotation-and-analysis-of-the-ornithodoros-moubata-midgut-genes-differentially-expressed-after-blood-feeding
#11
Ana Oleaga, Prosper Obolo-Mvoulouga, Raúl Manzano-Román, Ricardo Pérez-Sánchez
The argasid tick Ornithodoros moubata is the main vector of the African swine fever and the human relapsing fever in Africa. As part of the host-parasite-pathogen interface, the tick midgut expresses key proteins for tick survival and tick-borne pathogen transmission. Accordingly, midgut proteins are potential targets for the development of new drugs and vaccines aimed at tick control, and obtaining proteomic and transcriptomic data from the O. moubata midgut would facilitate the identification of such target candidates...
May 13, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526153/pharmacology-of-octreotide-clinical-implications-for-anesthesiologists-and-associated-risks
#12
REVIEW
Reza M Borna, Jonathan S Jahr, Susanna Kmiecik, Ken F Mancuso, Alan D Kaye
Many patients presenting with a history of foregut, midgut neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) or carcinoid syndrome can experience life-threatening carcinoid crises during anesthesia or surgery. Clinicians should understand the pharmacology of octreotide and appreciate the use of continuous infusions of high-dose octreotide, which can minimize intraoperative carcinoid crises. We administer a prophylactic 500-μg bolus of octreotide intravenously (IV) and begin a continuous infusion of 500 μg/h for all NET patients...
June 2017: Anesthesiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522347/functional-analysis-of-tcctlp-5c2-a-chymotrypsin-like-serine-protease-needed-for-molting-in-tribolium-castaneum
#13
Daniel Albaum, Gunnar Broehan, Subbaratnam Muthukrishnan, Hans Merzendorfer
In a previous study, we have characterized a gene family encoding chymotrypsin-like proteases from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (TcCTLPs). We identified 14 TcCTLP genes that were predominantly expressed in the midgut, where they presumably function in digestion. Two genes (TcCTLP-6C and TcCTLP-5C2), however, additionally showed considerable expression in the carcass, and RNAi studies demonstrated that they are required for molting (Broehan et al., 2010; Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol 40, 274-83). Thus, the enzyme has distinct functions in different physiological environments...
May 15, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516221/small-bowel-obstruction-due-to-ingestion-of-rubber-balls
#14
Alaa N Alsharief, Christopher Blackmore, Pierre Schmit
We report a case of a 10-month-old girl who presented with a 10-day history of emesis that became bilious on the last day. The initial evaluation suggested small bowel obstruction. An upper gastrointestinal study confirmed the normal location of the duodenojejunal junction with normal rotation and no evidence of midgut volvulus. Ultrasound (US) evaluation demonstrated two intraluminal lesions that do not follow the typical features of solid or cystic lesions. Two rubber balls were found at surgery to be responsible for the small bowel obstruction...
May 17, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512315/midgut-bacteria-in-deltamethrin-resistant-deltamethrin-susceptible-and-field-caught-populations-of-plutella-xylostella-and-phenomics-of-the-predominant-midgut-bacterium-enterococcus-mundtii
#15
Wenhong Li, Daochao Jin, Caihua Shi, Fengliang Li
Gut bacteria play a significant role in host insect. This study evaluated detail difference of midgut bacteria in deltamethrin-resistant, deltamethrin-susceptible and field-caught populations of diamondback moth, and studied phenomics of the predominant midgut bacterium Enterococcus mundtii. Cultivable bacteria revealed that E. mundtii and Carnobacterium maltaromaticum dominated the bacterial populations from deltamethrin-resistant and deltamethrin-susceptible larval midguts, whereas E. mundtii was predominant in field-caught population...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512299/transgenic-bt-rice-lines-producing-cry1ac-cry2aa-or-cry1ca-have-no-detrimental-effects-on-brown-planthopper-and-pond-wolf-spider
#16
Lin Niu, Amani Mannakkara, Lin Qiu, Xiaoping Wang, Hongxia Hua, Chaoliang Lei, Juan Luis Jurat-Fuentes, Weihua Ma
Transgenic rice expressing cry genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt rice) is highly resistant to lepidopteran pests. The brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens) is the main non-target sap-sucking insect pest of Bt transgenic rice. The pond wolf spider (PWS, Pardosa pseudoannulata) is one of the most dominant predators of BPH in rice fields. Consequently, the safety evaluation of Bt rice on BPH and PWS should be conducted before commercialization. In the current study, two experiments were performed to assess the potential ecological effects of Bt rice on BPH and PWS: (1) a tritrophic experiment to evaluate the transmission of Cry1Ac, Cry2Aa and Cry1Ca protein in the food chain; and (2) binding assays of Cry1Ac, Cry2Aa and Cry1Ca to midgut brush border membrane proteins from BPH and PWS...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506207/the-midgut-transcriptome-of-aedes-aegypti-fed-with-saline-or-protein-meals-containing-chikungunya-virus-reveals-genes-potentially-involved-in-viral-midgut-escape
#17
Shengzhang Dong, Susanta K Behura, Alexander W E Franz
BACKGROUND: The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the primary vector for medically important arthropod-borne viruses, including chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Following oral acquisition, an arbovirus has to persistently infect several organs in the mosquito before becoming transmissible to another vertebrate host. A major obstacle an arbovirus has to overcome during its infection cycle inside the mosquito is the midgut escape barrier, representing the exit mechanism arboviruses utilize when disseminating from the midgut...
May 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503490/the-distinct-transcriptional-response-of-the-midgut-of-amblyomma-sculptum-and-amblyomma-aureolatum-ticks-to-rickettsia-rickettsii-correlates-to-their-differences-in-susceptibility-to-infection
#18
Larissa A Martins, Maria F B de Melo Galletti, José M Ribeiro, André Fujita, Francisco B Costa, Marcelo B Labruna, Sirlei Daffre, Andréa C Fogaça
Rickettsia rickettsii is a tick-borne obligate intracellular bacterium that causes Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF). In Brazil, two species of ticks in the genus Amblyomma, A. sculptum and A. aureolatum, are incriminated as vectors of this bacterium. Importantly, these two species present remarkable differences in susceptibility to R. rickettsii infection, where A. aureolatum is more susceptible than A. sculptum. In the current study, A. aureolatum and A. sculptum ticks were fed on suitable hosts previously inoculated with R...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501979/endocrine-cells-producing-peptide-hormones-in-the-intestine-of-nile-tilapia-distribution-and-effects-of-feeding-and-fasting-on-the-cell-density
#19
Raquel Tatiane Pereira, Thaiza Rodrigues de Freitas, Izabela Regina Cardoso de Oliveira, Leandro Santos Costa, Fabricio Andrés Vigliano, Priscila Vieira Rosa
Endocrine cells (ECs) act as a luminal surveillance system responding to either the presence or absence of food in the gut through the secretion of peptide hormones. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of feeding and fasting on the EC peptide-specific distribution along the intestine of Nile tilapia. We assessed the density of ECs producing gastrin (GAS), cholecystokinin-8 (CCK-8), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in nine segments of the intestine using immunohistochemistry...
May 13, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501730/larvicidal-activity-of-vegetable-oils-and-esterified-compounds-against-culex-quinquefasciatus-diptera-culicidae
#20
José A Ribeiro-Neto, Maria Eduarda A Pinto, Vanessa V Ferreira, Jacqueline D Tibúrcio, Fernando P Varotti, Dihego O Azevedo, Ezequias P Siqueira-Filho, José E Serrão, Luciana A Santos Lima, Stenio Nunes Alves
Control of Culex quinquefasciatus using chemical insecticides may result in the selection of resistant mosquito strains. Thus, the use of plant-derived products has been studied as alternative for the mosquito control. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) obtained by transesterification of vegetable oils may result in compounds with larvicidal potential against C. quinquefasciatus. However, little is known about the morphological, physiological or biochemical effects that these FAMEs may have on mosquito larvae...
May 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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