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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645315/role-of-inhibitors-of-serine-peptidases-in-protecting-leishmania-donovani-against-the-hydrolytic-peptidases-of-sand-fly-midgut
#1
Sudha Verma, Sushmita Das, Abhishek Mandal, Md Yousuf Ansari, Sujata Kumari, Rani Mansuri, Ajay Kumar, Ruby Singh, Savita Saini, Kumar Abhishek, Vijay Kumar, Ganesh Chandra Sahoo, Pradeep Das
BACKGROUND: In vector-borne diseases such as leishmaniasis, the sand fly midgut is considered to be an important site for vector-parasite interaction. Digestive enzymes including serine peptidases such as trypsin and chymotrypsin, which are secreted in the midgut are one of the obstacles for Leishmania in establishing a successful infection. The presence of some natural inhibitors of serine peptidases (ISPs) has recently been reported in Leishmania. In the present study, we deciphered the role of these ISPs in the survival of Leishmania donovani in the hostile sand fly midgut environment...
June 23, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636800/molecular-dissection-of-smooth-septate-junctions-understanding-their-roles-in-arthropod-physiology
#2
REVIEW
Mikio Furuse, Yasushi Izumi
Smooth septate junctions (sSJs) are cell-cell junctions that are thought to regulate the paracellular pathway of the intestine and renal system in arthropods. The detailed mechanism of action of sSJs is not well understood, because their molecular organization has remained elusive for a long time. Recently, two sSJ-specific membrane proteins, Ssk and Mesh, were identified by screening monoclonal antibodies raised against sSJ-containing membrane fractions isolated from the silkworm midgut. Furthermore, a genetic screen in Drosophila based on microscopic observation of sSJ formation identified Tsp2A as a novel sSJ-specific membrane protein...
June 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631341/evaluation-of-flubendiamide-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-metabolic-changes-in-helicoverpa-armigera-hubner
#3
Bharat Nareshkumar, Shaik Mohammad Akbar, Hari Chand Sharma, Senigala K Jayalakshmi, Kuruba Sreeramulu
Phthalic acid diamide insecticides are the most effective insecticides used against most of the lepidopteran pests including Helicoverpa armigera, a polyphagous pest posing threat to several crops worldwide. The present studies were undertaken to understand different target sites and their interaction with insect ryanodine receptors (RyR). Bioassays indicated that flubendiamide inhibited the larval growth in dose-dependent manner with LD50 value of 0.72 μM, and at 0.8 μM larval growth decreased by about 88%...
June 20, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631312/the-flow-and-fate-of-digestive-enzymes-in-the-field-cricket-gryllus-bimaculatus
#4
Joseph Woodring
The flow of enzymes, the ratio of bound to unbound enzymes, and their inactivation in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus was studied. The digestive enzymes are forced forward into the crop by caecal contraction and then they are mixed with freshly chewed food and saliva, forming a crop-chyme. This chyme is blended by crop peristalsis, and periodic opening of the preproventricular valve (PPV) allows posterior movement into the proventriculus and further into the midgut. The contraction of the crop is modulated by Grybi-AST and Grybi-SK peptides, which are partially secreted by the caecal endocrine cells...
June 20, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630299/bacteria-mediated-hypoxia-functions-as-a-signal-for-mosquito-development
#5
Kerri L Coon, Luca Valzania, David A McKinney, Kevin J Vogel, Mark R Brown, Michael R Strand
Mosquitoes host communities of microbes in their digestive tract that consist primarily of bacteria. We previously reported that several mosquito species, including Aedes aegypti, do not develop beyond the first instar when fed a nutritionally complete diet in the absence of a gut microbiota. In contrast, several species of bacteria, including Escherichia coli, rescue development of axenic larvae into adults. The molecular mechanisms underlying bacteria-dependent growth are unknown. Here, we designed a genetic screen around E...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630013/receptor-mediated-endocytosis-of-vicilin-in-callosobruchus-maculatus-coleoptera-chrysomelidae-larval-midgut-epithelial-cells
#6
Daniele Kunz, Gabriel B Oliveira, Adriana F Uchôa, Richard I Samuels, Maria Lígia R Macedo, Carlos P Silva
The transport of proteins across the intestinal epithelium of insects is still not well understood. There is evidence that vicilin, a major storage protein of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata), is internalized in larvae of the seed-beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. It has been reported that this vicilin interacts with proteins present in the microvillar membranes of columnar cells along the digestive tract of the larvae. In the present work, we studied the cellular pathway involved in endocytosis of vicilin in larval C...
June 17, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624519/itraq-based-quantitative-proteomics-analysis-of-molecular-mechanisms-associated-with-bombyx-mori-lepidoptera-larval-midgut-response-to-bmnpv-in-susceptible-and-near-isogenic-strains
#7
Haizhong Yu, Xueyang Wang, Jiaping Xu, Yan Ma, Shangzhi Zhang, Dong Yu, Dongqiong Fei, Azharuddin Muhammad
Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) has been identified as a major pathogen responsible for severe economic loss. Most silkworm strains are susceptible to BmNPV, with only a few highly resistant strains thus far identified. Here we investigated the molecular basis of silkworm resistance to BmNPV using susceptible (the recurrent parent P50) and resistant (near-isogenic line BC9) strains and a combination of iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics, reverse-transcription quantitative PCR and Western blotting...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624121/leptin-like-immunoreactivity-in-the-central-nervous-system-digestive-organs-and-gonads-of-the-giant-freshwater-prawn-macrobrachium-rosenbergii
#8
Jaruwan Poljaroen, Yotsawan Tinikul, Ruchanok Tinikul, Panat Anurucpreeda, Prasert Sobhon
Leptin, a highly conserved adipocyte-derived hormone, plays important roles in a variety of physiological processes, including the control of fat storage and metabolic status which are linked to food intake, energy homeostasis, and reproduction in all vertebrates. In the present study, we hypothesize that leptin is also present in various organs of the fresh water prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The existence and distribution of a leptin-like peptide in prawn tissues were verified by using Western blotting (WB) and immunohistochemical detection (ID) using primary antibody against human leptin...
June 14, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623959/the-impact-of-wolbachia-infection-on-the-rate-of-vertical-transmission-of-dengue-virus-in-brazilian-aedes-aegypti
#9
Etiene Casagrande Pacidônio, Eric Pearce Caragata, Debora Magalhães Alves, João Trindade Marques, Luciano Andrade Moreira
BACKGROUND: Wolbachia pipientis is a common endosymbiotic bacterium of arthropods that strongly inhibits dengue virus (DENV) infection and transmission in the primary vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti. For that reason, Wolbachia-infected Ae. aegypti are currently being released into the field as part of a novel strategy to reduce DENV transmission. However, there is evidence that DENV can be transmitted vertically from mother to progeny, and this may help the virus persist in nature in the absence of regular human transmission...
June 17, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623797/phenotypic-defects-in-newborn-gammarus-fossarum-amphipoda-following-embryonic-exposure-to-fenoxycarb
#10
Hélène Arambourou, Arnaud Chaumot, Emmanuelle Vulliet, Gaëlle Daniele, Nicolas Delorme, Khédidja Abbaci, Vincent Debat
During morphogenesis numerous morphogenetic factors ensure the production of a target phenotype. By disrupting these processes, a toxic exposure during this period could cause an increase of phenotypic defects. In the present study, embryos of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus fossarum were exposed throughout the embryogenesis to increasing concentrations of fenoxycarb (0, 0.5µgL(-1), 5µgL(-1) and 50µgL(-1)), a growth regulator insecticide analog of the insect juvenile hormone. In addition, to identify morphogenesis' sensitive period, embryos were exposed during either early or late embryonic development to 5µgL(-1) of fenoxycarb...
June 14, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623231/cry6aa1-a-bacillus-thuringiensis-nematocidal-and-insecticidal-toxin-forms-pores-in-planar-lipid-bilayers-at-extremely-low-concentrations-and-without-the-need-of-proteolytic-processing
#11
Eva Fortea, Vincent Lemieux, Léna Potvin, Vimbai Chikwana, Samantha Griffin, Thimothy Hey, David McCaskill, Kenneth Narva, Sek Yee Tan, Xiaoping Xu, Vincent Vachon, Jean-Louis Schwartz
Cry6Aa1 is a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin active against nematodes and corn rootworm insects. Its 3-D molecular structure, which has been recently elucidated, is unique among those known for other Bt toxins. Typical three-domain Bt toxins permeabilise receptor-free planar lipid bilayers (PLBs) by forming pores at doses in the 1-50 μg/ml range. Solubilisation and proteolytic activation are necessary steps for PLB permeabilisation. In contrast to other Bt toxins, Cry6Aa1 formed pores in receptor-free bilayers at doses as low as 200 pg/ml in a wide range of pH (5...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620217/secretory-laccase-1-in-bemisia-tabaci-med-is-involved-in-whitefly-plant-interaction
#12
Chun-Hong Yang, Jian-Yang Guo, Dong Chu, Tian-Bo Ding, Ke-Ke Wei, Deng-Fa Cheng, Fang-Hao Wan
The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a phloem-feeding pest that lives predominantly on herbaceous species and causes serious damage to hosts. Whitefly saliva is thought to contain proteins that modulate plant defences and facilitate feeding. A predicted secreted protein, laccase 1 (LAC1), was found in the salivary gland transcriptome of B. tabaci and might be existed in the watery saliva of B. tabaci. As LAC1 has a potential role in detoxification of secondary plant compounds in insects, we speculated that it may participate in the insect's response to plant defences...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618362/exposure-of-larvae-to-thiamethoxam-affects-the-survival-and-physiology-of-the-honey-bee-at-post-embryonic-stages
#13
Daiana Antonia Tavares, Claudia Dussaubat, André Kretzschmar, Stephan Malfitano Carvalho, Elaine C M Silva-Zacarin, Osmar Malaspina, Géraldine Bérail, Jean-Luc Brunet, Luc P Belzunces
Under laboratory conditions, the effects of thiamethoxam were investigated in larvae, pupae and emerging honey bees after exposure at larval stages with different concentrations in the food (0.00001 ng/μL, 0.001 ng/μL and 1.44 ng/μL). Thiamethoxam reduced the survival of larvae and pupae and consequently decreased the percentage of emerging honey bees. Thiamethoxam induced important physiological disturbances. It increased acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity at all developmental stages and increased glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and carboxylesterase para (CaEp) activities at the pupal stages...
June 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618068/molecular-cloning-and-analysis-of-a-c-type-lectin-from-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#14
Toufeeq Shahzad, Ming-Yue Zhan, Pei-Jin Yang, Xiao-Qiang Yu, Xiang-Jun Rao
C-type lectins (CTLs) play a variety of roles in plants and animals. They are involved in animal development, pathogen recognition, and the activation of immune responses. CTLs carry one or more non-catalytic carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) to bind specific carbohydrates reversibly. Here, we report the molecular cloning and functional analysis of a single-CRD CTL, named C-type lectin-S2 (BmCTL-S2) from the domesticated silkmoth Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). The ORF of CTL-S2 is 666 bp, which encodes a putative protein of 221 amino acids...
June 15, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613144/paenibacillus-apis-sp-nov-and-paenibacillus-intestini-sp-nov-isolated-from-the-intestine-of-the-honey-bee-apis-mellifera
#15
Ji-Hyun Yun, June-Young Lee, Pil Soo Kim, Mi-Ja Jung, Jin-Woo Bae
Three strains, CBM1T, CBH23 and LAH16T, belonging to the genus Paenibacillus were isolated from the midgut and hindgut of Apis mellifera. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses and phenotypic characteristics, the three strains represent two novel species. Strains CBM1T and CBH23 formed a group with Paenibacillus puldeungensis CAU 9324T, and strain LAH16T belonged to the Paenibacillusamylolyticus NRRL NRS-290T subgroup of the genus Paenibacillus. The DNA G+C contents of strains CBM1T, CBH23 and LAH16T were 47...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612274/fine-structure-of-the-midgut-epithelium-in-the-millipede-telodeinopus-aoutii-myriapoda-diplopoda-with-special-emphasis-on-epithelial-regeneration
#16
M M Rost-Roszkowska, M Kszuk-Jendrysik, A Marchewka, I Poprawa
The midgut of millipedes is composed of a simple epithelium that rests on a basal lamina, which is surrounded by visceral muscles and hepatic cells. As the material for our studies, we chose Telodeinopus aoutii (Demange, 1971) (Kenyan millipede) (Diplopoda, Spirostreptida), which lives in the rain forests of Central Africa. This commonly reared species is easy to obtain from local breeders and easy to culture in the laboratory. During our studies, we used transmission and scanning electron microscopes and light and fluorescent microscopes...
June 14, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609356/the-north-american-neuroendocrine-tumor-society-consensus-guidelines-for-surveillance-and-medical-management-of-midgut-neuroendocrine-tumors
#17
Jonathan R Strosberg, Thorvardur R Halfdanarson, Andrew M Bellizzi, Jennifer A Chan, Joseph S Dillon, Anthony P Heaney, Pamela L Kunz, Thomas M O'Dorisio, Riad Salem, Eva Segelov, James R Howe, Rodney F Pommier, Kari Brendtro, Mohammad A Bashir, Simron Singh, Michael C Soulen, Laura Tang, Jerome S Zacks, James C Yao, Emily K Bergsland
There have been significant developments in diagnostic and therapeutic options for patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Key phase 3 studies include the CLARINET trial, which evaluated lanreotide in patients with nonfunctioning enteropancreatic NETs; the RADIANT-2 and RADIANT-4 studies, which evaluated everolimus in functioning and nonfunctioning NETs of the gastrointestinal tract and lungs; the TELESTAR study, which evaluated telotristat ethyl in patients with refractory carcinoid syndrome; and the NETTER-1 trial, which evaluated Lu-DOTATATE in NETs of the small intestine and proximal colon (midgut)...
July 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606328/influence-of-physical-and-chemical-factors-on-the-embryonation-hatching-and-infectivity-of-spirocerca-lupi
#18
Alicia Rojas, Niva Freedberg, Alex Markovics, Yuval Gottlieb, Gad Baneth
Spirocerca lupi is a parasitic nematode which causes spirocercosis, a severe disease of dogs. Its life cycle involves dung beetles as intermediate hosts and canids as definitive hosts. The effect of different physical conditions and chemical factors on the embryonation and hatching of S. lupi eggs were investigated in this study in order to understand the triggers for progression in the early development of this parasite. Exposure to potassium dichromate significantly enhanced the embryonation of eggs compared to formaldehyde and controls (p<0...
August 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603698/crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-tick-host-virus-interactions
#19
REVIEW
Anna Papa, Katerina Tsergouli, Katerina Tsioka, Ali Mirazimi
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is transmitted to humans by bite of infected ticks or by direct contact with blood or tissues of viremic patients or animals. It causes to humans a severe disease with fatality up to 30%. The current knowledge about the vector-host-CCHFV interactions is very limited due to the high-level containment required for CCHFV studies. Among ticks, Hyalomma spp. are considered the most competent virus vectors. CCHFV evades the tick immune response, and following its replication in the lining of the tick's midgut, it is disseminated by the hemolymph in the salivary glands and reproductive organs...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600180/de-novo-transcriptome-sequencing-and-comparative-analysis-of-midgut-tissues-of-four-non-model-insects-pertaining-to-hemiptera-coleoptera-diptera-and-lepidoptera
#20
Rajesh K Gazara, Christiane Cardoso, Daniel Bellieny-Rabelo, Clélia Ferreira, Walter R Terra, Thiago M Venancio
Despite the great morphological diversity of insects, there is a regularity in their digestive functions, which is apparently related to their physiology. In the present work we report the de novo midgut transcriptomes of four non-model insects from four distinct orders: Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera), Musca domestica (Diptera), Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera) and Dysdercus peruvianus (Hemiptera). We employed a computational strategy to merge assemblies obtained with two different algorithms, which substantially increased the quality of the final transcriptomes...
June 6, 2017: Gene
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