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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906430/recurrent-acute-pancreatitis-in-bowel-malrotation
#1
G Alessandri, A Amodio, L Landoni, N De' Liguori Carino, C Bassi
OBJECTIVE: Recurrent acute pancreatitis is an uncommon diagnosis in teenagers. Excluded alcohol and biliary stones, more prevalent aetiologies in these group of patients are genetic pancreatitis, pancreatic duct system abnormalities, neoplasia, traumas and congenital abnormalities of the duodenum such as duodenal duplication or diverticulum. Two reported cases of recurrent pancreatitis associated to midgut malrotation were described in English literature. Bowel malrotation is a difficult diagnosis in a teenager or a young adult and a common delay is documented...
November 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906129/the-evolutionary-origin-of-bilaterian-smooth-and-striated-myocytes
#2
Thibaut Brunet, Antje Hl Fischer, Patrick Rh Steinmetz, Antonella Lauri, Paola Bertucci, Detlev Arendt
The dichotomy between smooth and striated myocytes is fundamental for bilaterian musculature, but its evolutionary origin is unsolved. In particular, interrelationships of visceral smooth muscles remain unclear. Absent in fly and nematode, they have not yet been characterized molecularly outside vertebrates. Here, we characterize expression profile, ultrastructure, contractility and innervation of the musculature in the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii and identify smooth muscles around the midgut, hindgut and heart that resemble their vertebrate counterparts in molecular fingerprint, contraction speed, and nervous control...
December 1, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895657/implication-of-the-whitefly-bemisia-tabaci-cyclophilin-b-protein-in-the-transmission-of-tomato-yellow-leaf-curl-virus
#3
Surapathrudu Kanakala, Murad Ghanim
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a single-stranded (ssDNA) begomoviruses that causes severe damage to tomato and several other crops worldwide. TYLCV is exclusively transmitted by the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci in a persistent circulative and propagative manner. Previous studies have shown that the transmission, retention, and circulation of TYLCV in its vector involves interaction with insect and endosymbiont proteins, which aid in the transmission of the virus, or have a protective role in response to the presence of the virus in the insect body...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894424/intestinal-rotation-abnormalities-and-midgut-volvulus
#4
REVIEW
Jacob C Langer
Rotation abnormalities may be asymptomatic or may be associated with obstruction caused by bands, midgut volvulus, or associated atresia or web. The most important goal of clinicians is to determine whether the patient has midgut volvulus with intestinal ischemia, in which case an emergency laparotomy should be done. If the patient is not acutely ill, the next goal is to determine whether the patient has a narrow-based small bowel mesentery. In general, the outcomes for children with a rotation abnormality are excellent, unless there has been midgut volvulus with significant intestinal ischemia...
February 2017: Surgical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893747/analysis-of-the-function-of-apoptosis-during-imaginal-wing-disc-regeneration-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#5
Sandra Diaz-Garcia, Sara Ahmed, Antonio Baonza
Regeneration is the ability that allows organisms to replace missing organs or lost tissue after injuries. This ability requires the coordinated activity of different cellular processes, including programmed cell death. Apoptosis plays a key role as a source of signals necessary for regeneration in different organisms. The imaginal discs of Drosophila melanogaster provide a particularly well-characterised model system for studying the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying regeneration. Although it has been shown that signals produced by apoptotic cells are needed for homeostasis and regeneration of some tissues of this organism, such as the adult midgut, the contribution of apoptosis to disc regeneration remains unclear...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892529/a-peptidoglycan-recognition-protein-acts-in-whitefly-bemisia-tabaci-immunity-and-involves-in-begomovirus-acquisition
#6
Zhi-Zhi Wang, Min Shi, Yi-Cun Huang, Xiao-Wei Wang, David Stanley, Xue-Xin Chen
Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are multifunctional pattern recognition proteins. Here, we report that a PGRP gene, BtPGRP, encodes a PGRP from the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (MEAM1) that binds and kills bacteria in vitro. We analyzed BtPGRP transcriptional profiling, and the distribution of the cognate protein within the midgut. Fungal infection and wasp parasitization induced expression of BtPGRP. Silencing BtPGRP with artificial media amended with dsRNA led to reduced expression of a gene encoding an antimicrobial peptide, B...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888599/a-rare-anomaly-of-duodenum-a-case-report
#7
Rekha Lalwani, Sunita Athavale, Sheetal Kotgirwar
 Anatomical variations of duodenum such as atresia, stenosis, and variations in shape have been described by various authors, but the existence of a gross anomaly in shape and position of midgut segment of the duodenum is rare. Few reported cases of duodenal anomalies date back to early twentieth century. In the wake of advancement of imaging techniques and minimal access surgeries, authors report a case of a rare duodenal anomaly. The reported case assumes significance because of thepossibility of misinterpretation of radiological images which has been discussed while citing such references...
October 2016: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888216/drosophila-sulf1-is-required-for-the-termination-of-intestinal-stem-cell-division-during-regeneration
#8
Masahiko Takemura, Hiroshi Nakato
Stem cell division is activated to trigger regeneration in response to tissue damage. The molecular mechanisms by which this stem cell mitotic activity is properly repressed at the end of regeneration are poorly understood. Here we show that a specific modification of heparan sulfate (HS) is critical in regulating Drosophila intestinal stem cell (ISC) division during normal midgut homeostasis and regeneration. Loss of the extracellular HS endosulfatase Sulf1 results in increased ISC division during normal homeostasis, which is caused by upregulation of mitogenic signaling including the JAK/STAT, EGFR, and Hedgehog pathways...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888039/total-midgut-volvulus-in-adults-with-intestinal-malrotation-report-of-eleven-patients
#9
H Kotobi, V Tan, J Lefèvre, F Duramé, G Audry, Y Parc
OBJECTIVE: Total small-intestinal volvulus with malrotation (TSIVM) classically presents in the neonatal period; it occurs much less frequently in the adult and is often misdiagnosed. Prognosis is directly related to the degree and duration of intestinal ischemia. Our goal is to describe our experience with TSIVM in the adult, to identify any specific findings and to discuss its management. METHOD: Eleven patients who had undergone surgery for TSIVM at three centers between 1992 and 2012 were included...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Visceral Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884110/tsetse-fly-tolerance-to-t-brucei-infection-transcriptome-analysis-of-trypanosome-associated-changes-in-the-tsetse-fly-salivary-gland
#10
Irina Matetovici, Guy Caljon, Jan Van Den Abbeele
BACKGROUND: For their transmission, African trypanosomes rely on their blood feeding insect vector, the tsetse fly (Glossina sp.). The ingested Trypanosoma brucei parasites have to overcome a series of barriers in the tsetse fly alimentary tract to finally develop into the infective metacyclic forms in the salivary glands that are transmitted to a mammalian host by the tsetse bite. The parasite population in the salivary gland is dense with a significant number of trypanosomes tightly attached to the epithelial cells...
November 25, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880869/the-impact-of-metagenomic-interplay-on-the-mosquito-redox-homeostasis
#11
REVIEW
Cody J Champion, Jiannong Xu
Mosquitoes are exposed to oxidative challenges throughout their life cycle. The primary challenge comes from a blood meal. The blood digestion turns the midgut into an oxidative environment, which imposes pressure not only on mosquito fecundity and other physiological traits but also on the microbiota in the midgut. During evolution, mosquitoes have developed numerous oxidative defense mechanisms to maintain redox homeostasis in the midgut. In addition to antioxidants, SOD, catalase, and glutathione system, sufficient supply of the reducing agent, NADPH, is vital for a successful defense against oxidative stress...
November 20, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877084/rna-interference-of-chitin-synthase-genes-inhibits-chitin-biosynthesis-and-affects-larval-performance-in-leptinotarsa-decemlineata-say
#12
Ji-Feng Shi, Li-Li Mu, Xu Chen, Wen-Chao Guo, Guo-Qing Li
Dietary introduction of bacterially expressed double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) has great potential for management of Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Identification of the most attractive candidate genes for RNA interference (RNAi) is the first step. In the present paper, three complete chitin synthase cDNA sequences (LdChSAa, LdChSAb and LdChSB) were cloned. LdChSAa and LdChSAb, two splicing variants of LdChSA gene, were highly expressed in ectodermally-derived epidermal cells forming epidermis, trachea, foregut and hindgut, whereas LdChSB was mainly transcribed in midgut cells...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876960/characterization-and-control-of-symbiotic-bacillus-cereus-isolated-from-the-mid-gut-of-anopheles-subpictus-grassi
#13
Priyanka Mukhopadhyay, Soumendranath Chatterjee
An investigation was done to find out the role of gut bacterium on the larval development and survival of Anopheles subpictus, the vector responsible for the transmission of malaria. An. subpictus mosquitoes breed exclusively in stagnant water, including shrimp/fish ponds with high nutrient level. One bacterial strain (CX2) was isolated from the midgut of late third instar of mosquito larvae. The bacterial isolate was sensitive to recommended doses of tetracyclin (30 µg/disc), doxycycline (30 µg/disc), kanamycin (30 µg/disc), gentamycin (10 µg/disc), streptomycin (10 µg/disc), vancomycin (30 µg/disc), ofloxacin (5 µg/disc), levofloxacin (5 µg/disc), gatifloxacin (10 µg/disc), but resistant to ampicillin (10 µg/disc)...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876644/dinotefuran-induced-morphophysiological-changes-in-semi-engorged-females-rhipicephalus-sanguineus-latreille-1806-acari-ixodidae-ticks-ultra-structural-evaluation
#14
Patrícia Rosa de Oliveira, Luis Adriano Anholeto, Gerváso Henrique Bechara, Maria Izabel Camargo Mathias
The present study demonstrated the effects of dinotefuran (active ingredient of the acaricide Protetor Pet(®)) on the ovary and midgut cells of semi engorged R. sanguineus females exposed to different concentrations of this chemical. For this, 120 semi-engorged females were divided into four treatment groups with 30 individuals each: group I or control (distilled water), group II (5000ppm), groups III (6250ppm) and group IV (8334ppm of dinotefuran). All the ticks were immersed in the different concentrations of dinotefuran or in distilled water for 5min and then dried and kept in BOD incubator for 7days...
November 19, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875519/expression-of-somatostatin-receptors-2-and-5-in-circulating-tumour-cells-from-patients-with-neuroendocrine-tumours
#15
Alexa Childs, Clare Vesely, Leah Ensell, Helen Lowe, Tu Vinh Luong, Martyn E Caplin, Christos Toumpanakis, Christina Thirlwell, John A Hartley, Tim Meyer
BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine tumours (NET) overexpress somatostatin receptors (SSTR) that can be targeted for therapy. Somatostatin receptor expression is routinely measured by molecular imaging but the resolution is insufficient to define heterogeneity. We hypothesised that SSTR expression could be measured on circulating tumour cells (CTCs) and used to investigate heterogeneity of expression and track changes during therapy. METHODS: MCF-7 cells were transfected with SSTR2 or 5 and spiked into donor blood for analysis by CellSearch...
November 22, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867410/closed-gastroschisis-vanishing-midgut-and-extreme-short-bowel-syndrome-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#16
F A Dennison
Gastroschisis alone has excellent survival rates. Occasionally reported is closed gastroschisis, leading to vanishing small bowel and extreme short bowel syndrome. It is believed that the abdominal wall defect can contract or close in utero, which leads to strangulation of the eviscerated bowel and the rare "vanishing gut syndrome." This has a very poor prognosis with mortality as high as 70%. An 18-year-old primigravid patient's 13 week scan diagnosed a large gastroschisis affecting the fetus. After counselling, she decided to continue with the pregnancy...
August 2016: Ultrasound: Journal of the British Medical Ultrasound Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867074/toxicity-of-cry1a-toxins-from-bacillus-thuringiensis-to-cf1-cells-does-not-involve-activation-of-adenylate-cyclase-pka-signaling-pathway
#17
Leivi Portugal, Carlos Muñóz-Garay, Diana L Martínez de Castro, Mario Soberón, Alejandra Bravo
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) bacteria produce Cry toxins that are able to kill insect pests. Different models explaining the mode of action of these toxins have been proposed. The pore formation model proposes that the toxin creates pores in the membrane of the larval midgut cells after interaction with different receptors such as cadherin, aminopeptidase N and alkaline phosphatase and that this pore formation activity is responsible for the toxicity of these proteins. The alternative model proposes that interaction with cadherin receptor triggers an intracellular cascade response involving protein G, adenylate cyclase (AC) and protein kinase A (PKA)...
November 17, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864738/biochemical-and-histological-biomarkers-in-the-midgut-of-apis-mellifera-from-polluted-environment-at-beheira-governorate-egypt
#18
Ahmed M Abu El-Saad, Dalia A Kheirallah, Lamia M El-Samad
The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of organophosphorus (OP) pollutants on oxidative stress and ultrastructural biomarkers in the midgut of the honeybee Apis mellifera collected from three locations that differ in their extent of spraying load with OP insecticides: a weakly anthropised rural site, Bolin which is considered as a reference site; moderately spraying site, El Kaza; and a strongly anthropised urban site, Tiba with a long history of pesticide use. Results showed that high concentrations of chlorpyrifos, malathion, diazinon, chlorpyrifos-methyl, and pirimiphos-methyl were detected in midgut at locations with extensive pesticide spraying...
November 18, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859898/structural-and-ultrastructural-features-of-the-malpighian-tubules-of-dolycoris-baccarum-linnaeus-1758-heteroptera-pentatomidae
#19
Nurcan Özyurt, Damla Amutkan, Irmak Polat, Tenay Kocamaz, Selami Candan, Zekiye Suludere
The morphology and ultrastructure of the Malpighian tubules of Dolycoris baccarum were analyzed by scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy in order to determine their functional organization. The Malpighian tubules are compared with similar structures of other insects based on cell structure and functional organization. The Malpighian tubules of D. baccarum extend from the midgut-hindgut region of the digestive tract. The Malpighian tubules are divided into two regions: the proximal segment is short and flattened and the distal segment is long, stringy in shape and free in hemolymph...
November 11, 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855218/wolbachia-based-dengue-virus-inhibition-is-not-tissue-specific-in-aedes-aegypti
#20
Hilaria E Amuzu, Elizabeth A McGraw
BACKGROUND: Dengue fever, caused by the dengue virus (DENV), is now the most common arbovirus transmitted disease globally. One novel approach to control DENV is to use the endosymbiotic bacterium, Wolbachia pipientis, to limit DENV replication inside the primary mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. Wolbachia that is naturally present in a range of insects reduces the capacity for viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi to replicate inside insects. Wolbachia's mode of action is not well understood but may involve components of immune activation or competition with pathogens for limited host resources...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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