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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433752/serotonergic-transmission-and-gap-junctional-coupling-in-proventricular-muscle-cells-in-the-american-cockroach-periplaneta-americana
#1
Ryoichi Yoshimura, Taeko Suetsugu, Yasuhisa Endo
The visceral muscle tissues of insects consist of striated muscle cells. The mechanisms responsible for delivering signals to the contractile muscles in the insect digestive tract remain unclear. We found that serotonergic nerves innervate the hemocoel surfaces of foregut and midgut muscles in the American cockroach. Electron microscopy of the neuromuscular junctions in the proventriculus (gizzard) revealed typical synaptic structures, the accumulation of large core/cored vesicles (neuropeptides) and small clear vesicle (neurotransmitter) at presynapses, and synaptic clefts...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432154/identification-of-the-septate-junction-protein-gliotactin-in-the-mosquito-aedes-aegypti-evidence-for-a-role-in-increased-paracellular-permeability-in-larvae
#2
Sima Jonusaite, Scott P Kelly, Andrew Donini
Septate junctions (SJs) regulate paracellular permeability across invertebrate epithelia. However, little is known about the function of SJ proteins in aquatic invertebrates. In this study, a role for the transmembrane SJ protein gliotactin (Gli) in the osmoregulatory strategies of larval mosquito (Aedes aegypti) was examined. Differences in gli transcript abundance were observed between the midgut, Malpighian tubules (MT), hindgut and anal papillae (AP) of A. aegypti, which are epithelia that participate in larval mosquito osmoregulation...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431281/dengue-virus-replicates-and-accumulates-in-aedes-aegypti-salivary-glands
#3
Vincent Raquin, Louis Lambrechts
Dengue virus (DENV) is an RNA virus transmitted among humans by mosquito vectors, mainly Aedes aegypti. DENV transmission requires viral dissemination from the mosquito midgut to the salivary glands. During this process the virus undergoes several population bottlenecks, which are stochastic reductions in population size that restrict intra-host viral genetic diversity and limit the efficiency of natural selection. Despite the implications for virus transmission and evolution, DENV replication in salivary glands has not been directly demonstrated...
April 18, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430778/a-no-film-slot-blot-for-the-detection-of-developing-p-falciparum-oocysts-in-mosquitoes
#4
Bryan Grabias, Nitin Verma, Hong Zheng, Abhai K Tripathi, Godfree Mlambo, Merribeth J Morin, Emily Locke, Sanjai Kumar
Non-microscopy-based assays for sensitive and rapid detection of Plasmodium infection in mosquitoes are needed to allow rapid and high throughput measurement of transmission intensity and malaria control program effectiveness. Here, we report on a modified enhanced chemiluminescence-based slot blot assay for detection of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) circumsporozite protein (PfCSP) expressed on parasite oocysts developing inside the mosquito midgut. This modified assay has several novel features that include eliminating the need for exposure to autoradiography (AR) film, as well as utilizing a novel high affinity anti-CSP antibody, and optimizing assay procedures resulting in significant reduction in the time required to perform the assay...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428611/transcription-factor-antagonism-controls-enteroendocrine-cell-specification-from-intestinal-stem-cells
#5
Yumei Li, Zhimin Pang, Huanwei Huang, Chenhui Wang, Tao Cai, Rongwen Xi
The balanced maintenance and differentiation of local stem cells is required for Homeostatic renewal of tissues. In the Drosophila midgut, the transcription factor Escargot (Esg) maintains undifferentiated states in intestinal stem cells, whereas the transcription factors Scute (Sc) and Prospero (Pros) promote enteroendocrine cell specification. However, the mechanism through which Esg and Sc/Pros coordinately regulate stem cell differentiation is unknown. Here, by combining chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis with genetic studies, we show that both Esg and Sc bind to a common promoter region of pros...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427347/comparative-transcriptomics-of-mountain-pine-beetle-pheromone-biosynthetic-tissues-and-functional-analysis-of-cyp6de3
#6
J A Nadeau, J Petereit, R L Tillett, K Jung, M Fotoohi, M MacLean, S Young, K Schlauch, G J Blomquist, C Tittiger
BACKGROUND: The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is a highly destructive pest of pine forests in western North America. During flight to a new host tree and initiation of feeding, mountain pine beetles release aggregation pheromones. The biosynthetic pathways of these pheromones are sex-specific and localized in the midgut and fat body, but the enzymes involved have not all been identified or characterized. RESULTS: We used a comparative RNA-Seq analysis between fed and unfed male and female MPB midguts and fat bodies to identify candidate genes involved in pheromone biosynthesis...
April 20, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425258/assessment-of-developmental-and-radiological-long-term-outcomeof-children-with-surgically-treated-midgut-volvulus
#7
Ahmet Murat Çakmak, Özlem Boybeyi Türer, Gülnur Göllü Bahadir, Bilge Türedi, Ufuk Ateş, Adalet Elçin Yildiz, Gönül Küçük, Ömer Suat Fitöz, Betül Ulukol, Mustafa Kemal Aslan, Tutku Soyer, Hüseyin Dindar
BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim is to evaluate the long-term outcome of asymptomatic patients who underwent surgical correction for midgut volvulus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven patients managed surgically for midgut volvulus in the last 3 years were included. Demographic features, symptoms at presentation, diagnoses, surgical procedures, and complications were recorded. Patients were then contacted for follow-up and evaluation of long-term outcomes. General physical conditions, anthropometric parameters, feeding habits, and defecation histories were evaluated...
April 18, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421044/comparative-genomics-of-glossina-palpalis-gambiensis-and-g-morsitans-morsitans-to-reveal-gene-orthologs-involved-in-infection-by-trypanosoma-brucei-gambiense
#8
Illiassou Hamidou Soumana, Bernadette Tchicaya, Stéphanie Rialle, Hugues Parrinello, Anne Geiger
Blood-feeding Glossina palpalis gambiense (Gpg) fly transmits the single-celled eukaryotic parasite Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (Tbg), the second Glossina fly African trypanosome pair being Glossina morsitans/T.brucei rhodesiense. Whatever the T. brucei subspecies, whereas the onset of their developmental program in the zoo-anthropophilic blood feeding flies does unfold in the fly midgut, its completion is taking place in the fly salivary gland where does emerge a low size metacyclic trypomastigote population displaying features that account for its establishment in mammals-human individuals included...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420446/immune-resistance-and-tolerance-strategies-in-malaria-vector-and-non-vector-mosquitoes
#9
Tibebu Habtewold, Zoe Groom, George K Christophides
BACKGROUND: The Anopheles gambiae complex consists of species that vary greatly in their capacity to transmit malaria. The mosquito immune system has been identified as a key factor that can influence whether Plasmodium infection establishes within the mosquito vector. This study was designed to investigate the immune responses of An. coluzzii, An. arabiensis and An. quadriannulatus mosquitoes. The first two mosquito species are major vectors of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa, while the third is thought to be a non-vector...
April 18, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416387/differential-regulation-of-the-lipoxygenase-pathway-in-shrimp-hepatopancreases-and-ovaries-during-ovarian-development-in-the-black-tiger-shrimp-penaeus-monodon
#10
Wananit Wimuttisuk, Punsa Tobwor, Pacharawan Deenarn, Chakapong Intaraudom, Thapanee Pruksatrakul, Sutichai Nithithanasilp, Somjai Wongtripop, Suwanchai Phomklad, Panomkorn Chaithongsakul, Vanicha Vichai
Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are critical to the success of ovarian development in marine crustaceans, especially for domesticated species such as the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. These fatty acids are stored in a midgut gland called the hepatopancreas and subsequently serve as an energy source or are incorporated in yolk during ovarian development. PUFAs are known precursors of hydroxy fatty acids, including hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (HEPE), which are catalyzed by lipoxygenases (LOX)...
April 14, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414724/serine-protease-bm-sp142-was-differentially-expressed-in-resistant-and-susceptible-bombyx-mori-strains-involving-in-the-defence-response-to-viral-infection
#11
Guohui Li, Qian Zhou, Lipeng Qiu, Qin Yao, Keping Chen, Qi Tang, Zhaoyang Hu
Bm-SP142 is a 35 kDa protease in the silkworm, but its exact functions remain unknown. In this study, sequence alignment revealed that the His-Asp-Ser catalytic triad is embedded in the TAAHC-DIAL-GDSGGP sequence motif, establishing Bm-SP142 as a serine protease. Soluble recombinant GST-BmSP142 was expressed and purified, and serine protease activity was confirmed in vitro. RT-qPCR results indicated that Bm-SP142 was mainly expressed in the middle part of the silkworm midgut, and Bm-SP142 transcripts were significantly up-regulated at 24 hours post infection (hpi) in BmBDV-resistant strains (798) inoculated with BmBDV and BmNPV-resistant strains (NB) inoculated with BmNPV, but not in BmBDV-susceptible strains (306)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408334/the-transcription-factor-relish-controls-anaplasma-marginale-infection-in-the-bovine-tick-rhipicephalus-microplus
#12
J Capelli-Peixoto, Danielle D Carvalho, Wendell C Johnson, Glen A Scoles, Andrea C Fogaça, Sirlei Daffre, Massaro W Ueti
Rhipicephalus microplus is an important biological vector of Anaplasma marginale, the etiological agent of bovine anaplasmosis. The knowledge of tick immune responses to control bacterial infections remains limited. In this study, we demonstrate that transcription factor Relish from the IMD signaling pathway has an important role in the control of A. marginale infection in ticks. We found that RNA-mediated silencing of Relish caused a significant increase in the number of A. marginale in the midgut and salivary glands of R...
April 10, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400441/neuralized-regulates-crumbs-endocytosis-and-epithelium-morphogenesis-via-specific-stardust-isoforms
#13
Gantas Perez-Mockus, Vanessa Roca, Khalil Mazouni, François Schweisguth
Crumbs (Crb) is a conserved determinant of apical membrane identity that regulates epithelial morphogenesis in many developmental contexts. In this study, we identify the Crb complex protein Stardust (Sdt) as a target of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Neuralized (Neur) in Drosophila melanogaster Neur interacts with and down-regulates specific Sdt isoforms containing a Neur binding motif (NBM). Using a CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-induced deletion of the NBM-encoding exon, we found that Sdt is a key Neur target and that Neur acts via Sdt to down-regulate Crb...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399198/functional-validation-of-apoptosis-genes-iap1-and-dronc-in-midgut-tissue-of-the-biting-midge-culicoides-sonorensis-diptera-ceratopogonidae-by-rnai
#14
M K Mills, D Nayduch, D S McVey, K Michel
Culicoides biting midges transmit multiple ruminant viruses, including bluetongue virus and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, causing significant economic burden worldwide. To further enhance current control techniques, understanding vector-virus interactions within the midge is critical. We developed previously a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) delivery method to induce RNA interference (RNAi) for targeted gene knockdown in adult Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones. Here, we confirm the C. sonorensis inhibitor of apoptosis 1 (CsIAP1) as an anti-apoptotic functional ortholog of IAP1 in Drosophila, identify the ortholog of the Drosophila initiator caspase DRONC (CsDRONC), and demonstrate that injection of dsRNA into the hemocoel can be used for targeted knockdown in the midgut in C...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390932/20-hydroxyecdysone-positively-regulates-the-transcription-of-the-antimicrobial-peptide-lebocin-via-bmets-and-bmbr-c-z4-in-the-midgut-of-bombyx-mori-during-metamorphosis
#15
Taoyi Mai, Shuna Chen, Xianyu Lin, Xiaojuan Zhang, Xiaopeng Zou, Qili Feng, Sichun Zheng
Metamorphosis is an essential physiological process in insects. This process is triggered by 20-hydroxyecydsone (20E). Lebocin, an antimicrobial peptide of Lepidoptera insects, was significantly up-regulated in the midgut, but not in the fat body of Bombyx mori during metamorphosis. In this study, the expression regulation of lebocin in B. mori midgut was studied. The results showed that B. mori lebocin and its activator BmEts were not responsive to bacterial infection in the midgut, instead, the expression of both genes was up-regulated by 20E treatment...
April 6, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390875/effect-of-non-nutritive-sugars-to-decrease-the-survivorship-of-spotted-wing-drosophila-drosophila-suzukii
#16
Man-Yeon Choi, Siew Bee Tang, Seung-Joon Ahn, Kaushalya G Amarasekare, Peter Shearer, Jana C Lee
In this study, we investigated the effects of non-nutritive sugars and sugar alcohols on the survivorship of spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, and found erythritol and erythrose as potentially insecticidal to the fly. In a dose-dependent study, erythritol and erythrose significantly reduced fly longevity, with 100% mortality with 1, 0.5, 0.1 & 0.05M doses after feeding for 7days. When sucrose and erythritol solutions were provided separately to flies for 7days, there was no effect on survivorship regardless of erythritol concentrations...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389549/identification-of-holotrichia-oblita-midgut-proteins-that-bind-to-cry8-like-toxin-from-bacillus-thuringiensis-and-assembling-of-h-oblita-midgut-tissue-transcriptome
#17
Jian Jiang, Ying Huang, Changlong Shu, Mario Soberón, Alejandra Bravo, Chunqing Liu, Fuping Song, Jinsheng Lai, Jie Zhang
The Bacillus thuringiensis strain HBF-18 (CGMCC2070), containing two cry genes (cry8-like and cry8Ga), is toxic to Holotrichia oblita larvae. Both Cry8-like and Cry8Ga proteins are active against this insect pest, while Cry8-like is the more toxic protein. To analyze the binding characteristics of Cry8-like and Cry8Ga proteins to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) in H. oblita larvae, binding assays were conducted with a fluorescent DyLight488-labeled Cry8-like toxin. Results of binding saturation assays demonstrated that Cry8-like binds specifically to binding sites on BBMV from H...
April 7, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389401/expression-in-escherichia-coli-of-cysteine-protease-inhibitors-from-cowpea-vigna-unguiculata-the-crystal-structure-of-a-single-domain-cystatin-gives-insights-on-its-thermal-and-ph-stability
#18
José Edvar Monteiro Júnior, Napoleão Fonseca Valadares, Humberto D'Muniz Pereira, Fábio Henrique Dyszy, Antônio José da Costa Filho, Adriana Ferreira Uchôa, Adeliana Silva de Oliveira, Cristina Paiva da Silveira Carvalho, Thalles Barbosa Grangeiro
Two cysteine proteinase inhibitors from cowpea, VuCys1 and VuCys2, were produced in E. coli ArcticExpress (DE3). The recombinant products strongly inhibited papain and chymopapain as well as the midgut proteases from Callosobruchus maculatus larvae, a bruchid that uses cysteine proteases as major digestive enzymes. Heat treatment at 100°C for up to 60min or incubation at various pH values caused little reduction in the papain inhibitory activity of both inhibitors. Moreover, minor conformational variations, as probed by circular dichroism spectroscopy, were observed after VuCys1 and VuCys2 were subjected to these treatments...
April 4, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387713/insights-into-the-structure-of-the-vip3aa-insecticidal-protein-by-protease-digestion-analysis
#19
Yolanda Bel, Núria Banyuls, Maissa Chakroun, Baltasar Escriche, Juan Ferré
Vip3 proteins are secretable proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis whose mode of action is still poorly understood. In this study, the activation process for Vip3 proteins was closely examined in order to better understand the Vip3Aa protein stability and to shed light on its structure. The Vip3Aa protoxin (of 89 kDa) was treated with trypsin at concentrations from 1:100 to 120:100 (trypsin:Vip3A, w:w). If the action of trypsin was not properly neutralized, the results of SDS-PAGE analysis (as well as those with Agrotis ipsilon midgut juice) equivocally indicated that the protoxin could be completely processed...
April 7, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386743/anomalous-inferior-mesenteric-artery-supplying-the-ascending-transverse-descending-and-sigmoid-colons
#20
Tamami Abe, Ayako Ujiie, Yuya Taguchi, Shun Satoh, Takahiro Shibuya, Yan Jun, Sumio Isogai, Yoh-Ichi Satoh
We have encountered in our anatomical practice the first case and an extremely rare second case in which the ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid colons were supplied by the inferior mesenteric artery. The causes of colic artery anomalies are generally explained in conjunction with the development of the superior mesenteric artery, which is intimately related to embryonic elongation and midgut rotation. However, this embryological model was inapplicable to both cases. This difficulty motivated us to seek possible relationships with reported anomalous inferior mesenteric arteries in adults as well as their embryological causes...
April 6, 2017: Anatomical Science International
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