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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822372/midgut-volvulus-in-adults-with-congenital-intestinal-malrotation
#1
Kayla Smith, Patricia Martinez-Quinones, Michael Hawkins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821771/thermal-acclimation-mitigates-cold-induced-paracellular-leak-from-the-drosophila-gut
#2
Heath A MacMillan, Gil Y Yerushalmi, Sima Jonusaite, Scott P Kelly, Andrew Donini
Chill susceptible insects suffer tissue damage and die at low temperatures. The mechanisms that cause chilling injury are not well understood but a growing body of evidence suggests that a cold-induced loss of ion and water homeostasis leads to hemolymph hyperkalemia that depolarizes cells, leading to cell death. The apparent root of this cascade is the net leak of osmolytes down their concentration gradients in the cold. Many insects, however, are capable of adjusting their thermal physiology, and cold-acclimated Drosophila can maintain homeostasis and avoid injury better than warm-acclimated flies...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819220/nosema-ceranae-fipronil-and-their-combination-compromise-honey-bee-reproduction-via-changes-in-male-physiology
#3
Guillaume Kairo, David G Biron, Faten Ben Abdelkader, Marc Bonnet, Sylvie Tchamitchian, Marianne Cousin, Claudia Dussaubat, Boris Benoit, André Kretzschmar, Luc P Belzunces, Jean-Luc Brunet
The honey bee is threatened by biological agents and pesticides that can act in combination to induce synergistic effects on its physiology and lifespan. The synergistic effects of a parasite/pesticide combination have been demonstrated on workers and queens, but no studies have been performed on drones despite their essential contribution to colony sustainability by providing semen diversity and quality. The effects of the Nosema ceranae/fipronil combination on the life traits and physiology of mature drones were examined following exposure under semi-field conditions...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818110/microbial-community-composition-along-the-digestive-tract-in-forage-and-grain-fed-bison
#4
Gaddy T Bergmann
BACKGROUND: Diversity and composition of microbial communities was compared across the 13 major sections of the digestive tract (esophagus, reticulum, rumen, omasum, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and rectum) in two captive populations of American bison (Bison bison), one of which was finished on forage, the other on grain. RESULTS: Microbial diversity fell to its lowest levels in the small intestine, with Bacteroidetes reaching their lowest relative abundance in that region, while Firmicutes and Euryarchaeota attained their highest relative abundances there...
August 17, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817718/elevated-carboxylesterase-activity-contributes-to-the-lambda-cyhalothrin-insensitivity-in-quercetin-fed-helicoverpa-armigera-h%C3%A3-bner
#5
Chengyu Chen, Ying Liu, Xueyan Shi, Nicolas Desneux, Peng Han, Xiwu Gao
Quercetin as one of the key plant secondary metabolite flavonol is ubiquitous in terrestrial plants. In this study, the decrease in sensitivity to lambda-cyhalothrin was observed in quercetin-fed Helicoverpa armigera larvae. In order to figure out the mechanisms underlying the decreased sensitivity of H. armigera larvae to lambda-cyhalothrin by quercetin induction, the changes in carboxylesterase activity and in-vitro hydrolytic metabolic capacity to lambda-cyhalothrin were examined. The LC50 value of quercetin-fed H...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817086/non-destructive-analysis-of-the-internal-anatomical-structures-of-mosquito-specimens-using-optical-coherence-tomography
#6
Naresh Kumar Ravichandran, Ruchire Eranga Wijesinghe, Seung-Yeol Lee, Kwang Shik Choi, Mansik Jeon, Hee-Young Jung, Jeehyun Kim
The study of mosquitoes and analysis of their behavior are of crucial importance in the on-going efforts to control the alarming increase in mosquito-borne diseases. Furthermore, a non-destructive and real-time imaging technique to study the anatomical features of mosquito specimens can greatly aid the study of mosquitoes. In this study, we demonstrate the three-dimensional imaging capabilities of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for structural analysis of Anopheles sinensis mosquitoes. The anatomical features of An...
August 17, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812159/anatomical-and-embryological-perspectives-in-laparoscopic-complete-mesocoloic-excision-of-splenic-flexure-cancers
#7
Takeru Matsuda, Yasuo Sumi, Kimihiro Yamashita, Hiroshi Hasegawa, Masashi Yamamoto, Yoshiko Matsuda, Shingo Kanaji, Taro Oshikiri, Tetsu Nakamura, Satoshi Suzuki, Yoshihiro Kakeji
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic complete mesocoloic excision (CME) with central vascular ligation for splenic flexure cancer is technically challenging because of its anatomical complexity. Although embryological and anatomical consideration should be helpful to perform CME in colorectal cancer surgery, such studies on the splenic flexure are lacking. METHODS: The splenic flexure is located embryologically between the terminal portion of the midgut and the beginning of the hindgut, and is supplied by the superior mesenteric and inferior mesenteric arteries...
August 15, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808417/down-regulation-of-aminopeptidase-n-and-abc-transporter-subfamily-g-transcripts-in-cry1ab-and-cry1ac-resistant-asian-corn-borer-ostrinia-furnacalis-lepidoptera-crambidae
#8
Tiantao Zhang, Brad S Coates, Yueqin Wang, Yidong Wang, Shuxiong Bai, Zhenying Wang, Kanglai He
The Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a highly destructive pest of cultivated maize throughout East Asia. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystalline protein (Cry) toxins cause mortality by a mechanism involving pore formation or signal transduction following toxin binding to receptors along the midgut lumen of susceptible insects, but this mechanism and mutations therein that lead to resistance are not fully understood. In the current study, quantitative comparisons were made among midgut expressed transcripts from O...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804485/transcriptional-profiling-of-midguts-prepared-from-trypanosoma-t-congolense-positive-glossina-palpalis-palpalis-collected-from-two-distinct-cameroonian-foci-coordinated-signatures-of-the-midguts-remodeling-as-t-congolense-supportive-niches
#9
Jean M Tsagmo Ngoune, Flobert Njiokou, Béatrice Loriod, Ginette Kame-Ngasse, Nicolas Fernandez-Nunez, Claire Rioualen, Jacques van Helden, Anne Geiger
Our previous transcriptomic analysis of Glossina palpalis gambiensis experimentally infected or not with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense aimed to detect differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with infection. Specifically, we selected candidate genes governing tsetse fly vector competence that could be used in the context of an anti-vector strategy, to control human and/or animal trypanosomiasis. The present study aimed to verify whether gene expression in field tsetse flies (G. p. palpalis) is modified in response to natural infection by trypanosomes (T...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803235/18f-fdg-uptake-in-well-differentiated-neuroendocrine-tumors-correlates-with-both-ki-67-and-vhl-pathway-inactivation
#10
Margot Bucau, Astrid Laurent-Bellue, Nicolas Poté, Olivia Hentic, Jérôme Cros, Nidaa Mikail, Vinciane Rebours, Philippe Ruszniewski, Rachida Lebtahi, Anne Couvelard
<br>Introduction: 18FDG PET-scanner positivity correlates with poor prognosis in neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN). Glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9) are markers of agressivity in tumors. Together with pVHL, they are involved in tumor cell metabolism via the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) signaling pathway. The aim of this study was to compare, in a series of well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (NET), the 18-FDG uptake and expression of proliferation marker Ki-67, GLUT-1, CA9 and pVHL...
August 11, 2017: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802270/intra-molecular-salt-bridge-in-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry4ba-toxin-is-involved-in-the-stability-of-helix-%C3%AE-3-that-is-needed-for-oligomerization-and-insecticidal-activity
#11
Sabino Pacheco, Isabel Gómez, Jorge Sanchez, Blanca-Ines García-Gómez, Mario Soberón, Alejandra Bravo
Bacillus thuringiensis three domain Cry toxins kill insects by forming pores in the apical membrane of larval midgut cells. Oligomerization of the toxin is an important step for pore formation. Domain I helix α-3 participates in toxin oligomerization. Here we identify an intra-molecular salt bridge within helix α-3 of Cry4Ba (D111-K115) that is conserved in many members of the family of the three-domain Cry toxins. Single point mutations such as D111K or K115D resulted in proteins severely affected in toxicity...
August 11, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800614/optimization-of-recombinant-bacteria-expressing-dsrna-to-enhance-insecticidal-activity-against-a-lepidopteran-insect-spodoptera-exigua
#12
Mohammad Vatanparast, Yonggyun Kim
Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) has been applied to control insect pests due to its induction of RNA interference (RNAi) of a specific target gene expression. However, developing dsRNA-based insecticidal agent has been a great challenge especially against lepidopteran insect pests due to variations in RNAi efficiency. The objective of this study was to screen genes of chymotrypsins (SeCHYs) essential for the survival of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, to construct insecticidal dsRNA. In addition, an optimal oral delivery method was developed using recombinant bacteria...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800584/expression-of-the-rna-binding-protein-rbp10-promotes-the-bloodstream-form-differentiation-state-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#13
Elisha Mugo, Christine Clayton
In nearly all eukaryotes, cellular differentiation is governed by changes in transcription, and stabilized by chromatin and DNA modification. Gene expression control in the pathogen Trypanosoma brucei, in contrast, relies almost exclusively on post-transcriptional mechanisms, so RNA binding proteins must assume the burden that is usually borne by transcription factors. T. brucei multiply in the blood of mammals as bloodstream forms, and in the midgut of Tsetse flies as procyclic forms. We show here that a single RNA-binding protein, RBP10, promotes the bloodstream-form trypanosome differentiation state...
August 11, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800538/characterization-of-the-metabolic-transformation-of-thiamethoxam-to-clothianidin-in-helicoverpa-armigera-larvae-by-spe-combined-uplc-ms-ms-and-its-relationship-with-the-toxicity-of-thiamethoxam-to-helicoverpa-armigera-larvae
#14
Yinjun Fan, Xueyan Shi
In order to characterize the metabolic transformation of thiamethoxam (TMX) to clothianidin (CLO) in Helicoverpa armigera larvae and clarify its relationship with the insecticidal toxicity of TMX, method for determination of TMX and its metabolite clothianidin (CLO) residues in H. armigera larvae by solid phase extraction (SPE) combined UPLC-MS/MS was established. Following acetonitrile extraction and purification by SPE on florisil cartridge and C18 cartridge sequently, and cleanup by PSA adsorption, TMX and CLO residues in H...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800079/challenging-the-metallothionein-mt-gene-of-biomphalaria-glabrata-unexpected-response-patterns-due-to-cadmium-exposure-and-temperature-stress
#15
Michael Niederwanger, Martin Dvorak, Raimund Schnegg, Veronika Pedrini-Martha, Katharina Bacher, Massimo Bidoli, Reinhard Dallinger
Metallothioneins (MTs) are low-molecular-mass, cysteine-rich, metal binding proteins. In most animal species, they are involved in metal homeostasis and detoxification, and provide protection from oxidative stress. Gastropod MTs are highly diversified, exhibiting unique features and adaptations like metal specificity and multiplications of their metal binding domains. Here, we show that the MT gene of Biomphalaria glabrata, one of the largest MT genes identified so far, is composed in a unique way. The encoding for an MT protein has a three-domain structure and a C-terminal, Cys-rich extension...
August 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796799/differential-outcomes-of-zika-virus-infection-in-aedes-aegypti-orally-challenged-with-infectious-blood-meals-and-infectious-protein-meals
#16
Yan-Jang S Huang, Amy C Lyons, Wei-Wen Hsu, So Lee Park, Stephen Higgs, Dana L Vanlandingham
BACKGROUND: Infection of mosquitoes is an essential step for the transmission of mosquito-borne arboviruses in nature. Engorgement of infectious blood meals from viremic infected vertebrate hosts allows the entry of viruses and initiates infection of midgut epithelial cells. Historically, the infection process of arboviruses in mosquitoes has been studied through the engorgement of mosquitoes from viremic laboratory animals or from artificial feeders containing blood mixed with viruses harvested from cell cultures...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796437/a-selective-insecticidal-protein-from-pseudomonas-mosselii-for-corn-rootworm-control
#17
Jun-Zhi Wei, Jessica O'Rear, Ute Schellenberger, Barbara A Rosen, Young-Jun Park, Mark J McDonald, Genhai Zhu, Weiping Xie, Adane Kassa, Lisa Procyk, Mark Nelson, Claudia Perez Ortega, Jian-Zhou Zhao, Nasser Yalpani, Virginia C Crane, Scott H Diehn, Gary A Sandahl, Albert L Lu, Gusui Wu, Lu Liu
The coleopteran insect western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) is an economically important pest in North America and Europe. Transgenic corn plants producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal proteins have been useful against this devastating pest, but evolution of resistance has reduced their efficacy. Here we report the discovery of a novel insecticidal protein, PIP-47Aa, from an isolate of Pseudomonas mosselii. PIP-47Aa sequence shows no shared motifs, domains or signatures with other known proteins...
August 10, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793927/microbial-population-analysis-of-the-midgut-of-melophagus-ovinus-via-high-throughput-sequencing
#18
De-Yong Duan, Guo-Hua Liu, Tian-Yin Cheng, Ya-Qin Wang
BACKGROUND: Melophagus ovinus, one of the most common haematophagous ectoparasites of sheep, can cause anaemia and reductions in weight gain, wool growth and hide value. However, no information is available about the microfloral structure of the midgut of this ectoparasite. In the present study, we investigated the microbial community structure of the midgut contents of fully engorged female and male M. ovinus using Illumina HiSeq. RESULTS: The phylum showing the highest abundance was Proteobacteria (99...
August 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790458/zika-virus-replication-in-the-mosquito-culex-quinquefasciatus-in-brazil
#19
Duschinka Rd Guedes, Marcelo Hs Paiva, Mariana Ma Donato, Priscilla P Barbosa, Larissa Krokovsky, Sura W Dos S Rocha, Karina LA Saraiva, Mônica M Crespo, Tatiana Mt Rezende, Gabriel L Wallau, Rosângela Mr Barbosa, Cláudia Mf Oliveira, Maria Av Melo-Santos, Lindomar Pena, Marli T Cordeiro, Rafael F de O Franca, André Ls de Oliveira, Christina A Peixoto, Walter S Leal, Constância Fj Ayres
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus that has recently been associated with an increased incidence of neonatal microcephaly and other neurological disorders. The virus is primarily transmitted by mosquito bite, although other routes of infection have been implicated in some cases. The Aedes aegypti mosquito is considered to be the main vector to humans worldwide; however, there is evidence that other mosquito species, including Culex quinquefasciatus, transmit the virus. To test the potential of Cx. quinquefasciatus to transmit ZIKV, we experimentally compared the vector competence of laboratory-reared Ae...
August 9, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780070/identification-of-cry48aa-cry49aa-toxin-ligands-in-the-midgut-of-culex-quinquefasciatus-larvae
#20
Tatiana Maria Teodoro Rezende, Tatiany Patrícia Romão, Michel Batista, Colin Berry, Michael J Adang, Maria Helena Neves Lobo Silva-Filha
A binary mosquitocidal toxin composed of a three-domain Cry-like toxin (Cry48Aa) and a binary-like toxin (Cry49Aa) was identified in Lysinibacillus sphaericus. Cry48Aa/Cry49Aa has action on Culex quinquefasciatus larvae, in particular, to those that are resistant to the Bin Binary toxin, which is the major insecticidal factor from L. sphaericus-based biolarvicides, indicating that Cry48Aa/Cry49Aa interacts with distinct target sites in the midgut and can overcome Bin toxin resistance. This study aimed to identify Cry48Aa/Cry49Aa ligands in C...
August 2, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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