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Lu Zhuang, Yi Sun, Xiao-Ming Cui, Fang Tang, Jian-Gong Hu, Li-Yuan Wang, Ning Cui, Zhen-Dong Yang, Dou-Dou Huang, Xiao-Ai Zhang, Wei Liu, Wu-Chun Cao
We demonstrate maintenance and transmission of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus by Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks in the larva, nymph, and adult stages with dissemination in salivary gland, midgut, and ovarian tissues. The H. longicornis tick is a competent vector to transmit this virus in both transovarial and transstadial modes.
May 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Sadegh Saffari, Saeed Keyvanshokooh, Mohammad Zakeri, Seyed Ali Johari, Hossein Pasha-Zanoosi, Mansour Torfi Mozanzadeh
An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to compare the effects of supplementing (0.7 mg kg-1 ) different dietary selenium (Se) sources including organic [selenomethionine (SeMet)], inorganic [sodium selenite (Na2 SeO3 )], and nanoparticulate Se (nano-Se) on physiological responses of common carp, Cyprinus carpio juveniles (9.7 ± 0.1 g). Basal diet without Se supplementation used as control. Fish fed nano-Se supplemented diet had the highest weight gain (97.2 ± 10.8%) and feed efficiency ratio (42...
April 16, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Christine Bayley, Christina Cheng, Michael Lynch
The authors describe pathological and microbiological features of mortalities in a captive breeding colony of Lord Howe Island stick insects ( Dryococelus australis) over a period of 18 months. There were 2 peaks of mortality in this period. In the first, insects presented dead with minimal premonitory signs of illness. In the second, affected insects were ataxic with contracted limbs and inability to climb or right themselves. Gross lesions were uncommon but included pigmented plaques on the gut and cloacal prolapse...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Quan Gan, Xinwei Zhang, Daobo Zhang, Liang Shi, Yue Zhou, Tongtong Sun, Song Jiang, Junshan Gao, Yan Meng
Sucrose is the most commonly transported sugar in plants and is easily assimilated by insects to fulfill the requirement of physiological metabolism. BmSuc1 is a novel animal β-fructofuranosidase (β-FFase, EC gene that was firstly cloned and identified in silkworm, Bombyx mori. BmSUC1 was presumed to play an important role in the silkworm-mulberry enzymatic adaptation system by effectively hydrolyzing sucrose absorbed from mulberry leaves. However, this has not been proved with direct evidence thus far...
April 13, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Xin Xie, Zhangjian Zhou, Yongchun Song, Wei Wang, Chengxue Dang, Hao Zhang
Developing rapidly from the cecal diverticulum in a 5-week-old embryo, the cecum, which is developed from the caudal limb of the midgut loop, is different from the ascending colon. The aim of this study was to analyze the different clinicopathological and biological characteristics of patients with carcinoma of the cecum and ascending colon. We accessed data for 59,035 patients with adenocarcinomas of the cecum and ascending colon from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database to explore the potential associations between the clinicopathological characteristics and overall survival...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
Jaruwan Poljaroen, Ruchanok Tinikul, Panat Anuracpreeda, Prasert Sobhon, Yotsawan Tinikul
In the present study, the presence and distribution of leptin receptor (LEP-R) in central nervous system, digestive organs, gonads of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, were investigated with Western blot and immunohistochemistry. By Western blot a LEP-R with a molecular weight (MW) of 100 kDa was detected in the brain, thoracic ganglia, abdominal ganglia, hepatopancreas, all parts of the gastrointestinal tract, ovaries, and testes. In hepatopancreas and foregut, another intense positive band was detected at molecular weight of 30 kDa, which could be an isotype of LEP-R...
April 11, 2018: Acta Histochemica
T Liburkin-Dan, D Schlisselberg, R Fischer-Weinberger, P Pescher, E Inbar, M Ephros, D Rentsch, G F Späth, D Zilberstein
Leishmania are obligatory intracellular parasites that cycle between the sand fly midgut (extracellular promastigotes) and mammalian macrophage phagolysosomes (intracellular amastigotes). They have developed mechanisms of adaptation to the distinct environments of host and vector that favor utilization of both proline and alanine. LdAAP24 is the L. donovani proline-alanine transporter. It is a member of Leishmania system A that translocates neutral amino acids. Since system A is promastigote-specific, we aimed to assess whether LdAAP24 is also expressed exclusively in promastigotes...
April 12, 2018: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Jia-Hui Chen
Malrotation of the midgut is generally considered as a pediatric pathology with the majority of patients presenting in childhood. The diagnosis is rare in adults, which sometimes leads to delay in diagnosis and treatment. An index of suspicion is therefore required when dealing with patients of any age group with abdominal symptoms. We present a case of a 26-year-old male who presented with left lower abdominal pain with preoperative computed tomography showing suspected left-sided appendicitis associated with midgut malrotation...
January 2018: Ci Ji Yi Xue za Zhi, Tzu-chi Medical Journal
Ze-Hua Wang, Rong-Min Hu, Xi-Qian Ye, Jian-Hua Huang, Xue-Xin Chen, Min Shi
Laccase (EC is a phenoloxidase found in many insect species. The Laccase 1 gene from Plutella xylostella (PxLac1) was cloned, and its expression patterns and functions were determined using qPCR and RNAi methods. The results showed that the expression levels of PxLac1 were consistently high in all larval stages, and the most abundant was in the midgut during the 4th instar stage. Moreover, the expression of PxLac1 was up-regulated in response to bacterial infection, and decreased 24 h after being parasitized by Cotesia vestalis...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Roberta Carvalho Ferreira, Cínthia Firmo Teixeira, Vinícius Fernandes A de Sousa, Alessandra A Guarneri
Trypanosoma rangeli is a protozoan parasite that infects mammals and triatomines, causing different levels of pathogenicity in its invertebrate vectors, particularly those from the genus Rhodnius. We have recently shown that temperature can modulate T. rangeli growth during in vitro culture, as well as its in vivo pathogenicity to R. prolixus. In the present study, we investigated colonization of R. prolixus by T. rangeli and assessed the role of temperature and vector nutrition on parasite development and multiplication...
April 6, 2018: Parasitology Research
Ho-Jun Jeon, Young-Shin Kim, Joong-Gook Kim, Kyu Heo, Jung-Hoon Pyo, Masamitsu Yamaguchi, Joung-Sun Park, Mi-Ae Yoo
Chromatin change is one of the crucial causes of aging. Specifically, maintenance of heterochromatin stability is critical for cellular integrity, and its loss induces genomic instability and cellular aging. However, the causes and effects of heterochromatin instability in multicellular tissue aging still remain unclear. Here, in the adult Drosophila midgut, we report age-related loss of heterochromatin stability in enterocytes (ECs) due to the loss and dispersion of tri-methylated histone H3 Lys9 (H3K9me3) and heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1)...
April 3, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
V Gross, R Bährle, G Mayer
The taxon Tardigrada, commonly called "water bears", consists of microscopic, eight-legged invertebrates that are well known for their ability to tolerate extreme environmental conditions. Their miniscule body size means that tardigrades possess a small total number of cells, the number and arrangement of which may be highly conserved in some organs. Although mitoses have been observed in several organs, the rate and pattern of cell divisions in adult tardigrades has never been characterized. In this study, we incubated live tardigrades over a period of several days with a thymidine analog in order to visualize all cells that had divided during this time...
April 2018: Tissue & Cell
Sarah M Short, Sarah van Tol, Brendan Smith, Yuemei Dong, George Dimopoulos
BACKGROUND: Vector control is critical in reducing the disease burden caused by mosquitoes, and insecticides are an effective tool to control vector populations. Resistance to common insecticides is now widespread, and novel classes of insecticides are needed. In previous work, we described the mosquitocidal activity of Chromobacterium sp. Panama (C.sp_P), a bacterium found in association with mosquitoes in natural populations. In the current work, we further explored the effects of exposure to the bacterium on mosquito fitness and mosquito physiology...
April 5, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Bharti Bhatia, Chad Hillman, Valentina Carracoi, Britney N Cheff, Kit Tilly, Patricia A Rosa
Lyme disease in humans is caused by several genospecies of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) complex of spirochetal bacteria, including B. burgdorferi, B. afzelii and B. garinii. These bacteria exist in nature as obligate parasites in an enzootic cycle between small vertebrate hosts and Ixodid tick vectors, with humans representing incidental hosts. During the natural enzootic cycle, infected ticks in endemic areas feed not only upon naïve hosts, but also upon seropositive infected hosts. In the current study, we considered this environmental parameter and assessed the impact of the immune status of the blood-meal host on the phenotype of the Lyme disease spirochete within the tick vector...
April 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Jovana Sadlova, Miroslav Homola, Jitka Myskova, Magda Jancarova, Petr Volf
BACKGROUND: The peritrophic matrix (PM) is an acellular chitin-containing envelope which in most blood sucking insects encloses the ingested blood meal and protects the midgut epithelium. Type I PM present in sand flies and other blood sucking batch feeders is secreted around the meal by the entire midgut in response to feeding. Here we tested the hypothesis that in Sergentomyia schwetzi the PM creates a physical barrier that prevents escape of Leishmania parasites from the endoperitrophic space...
April 4, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Tyler R Huycke, Clifford J Tabin
The gastrointestinal tract is an essential system of organs required for nutrient absorption. As a simple tube early in development, the primitive gut is patterned along its anterior-posterior axis into discrete compartments with unique morphologies relevant to their functions in the digestive process. These morphologies are acquired gradually through development as the gut is patterned by tissue interactions, both molecular and mechanical in nature, involving all three germ layers. With a focus on midgut morphogenesis, we review work in the chick embryo demonstrating how these molecular signals and mechanical forces sculpt the developing gut tube into its mature form...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Waqas Ahmed, Taseer Ibrahim, Muhammad Hanif Abbasi, Mubashar Ahmed Bajwa
We present a case of 14-year girl with left-sided acute appendicitis who presented with lower abdominal pain. Midgut malrotation occurs at a rate of 1 in 500 live births. The condition is incidentally diagnosed during various radiological investigations done for other purposes. However, such patients may present with conditions like acute appendicitis, which poses a diagnostic dilemma if a high index of suspicion is not kept. The purpose of this case report is to increase awareness in the emergency physicians and young surgeons of this rare presentation; and the importance of radiological investigations in the diagnosis of left-sided appendicitis, to decrease morbidity and mortality...
April 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Staci M Dreyer, Kelsey J Morin, Jefferson A Vaughan
BACKGROUND: Vector control is a crucial element of anti-malaria campaigns and works best when there is a thorough knowledge of the biology and behaviour of the Anopheles vector species responsible for transmitting malaria within a given locale. With the push to eradicate malaria stronger than ever, there is a growing need to develop and deploy control strategies that exploit the behavioural attributes of local vector species. This is especially true in regions where the vectors are exophagic (i...
April 3, 2018: Malaria Journal
Aurélien Vigneron, Emre Aksoy, Brian L Weiss, Xiaoli Bing, Xin Zhao, Erick O Awuoche, Michelle B O'Neill, Yineng Wu, Geoffrey M Attardo, Serap Aksoy
Arthropod vectors have multiple physical and immunological barriers that impede the development and transmission of parasites to new vertebrate hosts. These barriers include the peritrophic matrix (PM), a chitinous barrier that separates the blood bolus from the midgut epithelia and thus modulates vector-microbiota interactions. In tsetse flies, a sleeve-like PM is continuously produced by the cardia organ located at the fore- and midgut junction. African trypanosomes, Trypanosoma brucei, must bypass the PM twice; first to colonize the midgut and secondly to reach the salivary glands (SG), to complete their transmission cycle in tsetse...
April 3, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Leslie S Itsara, Yaxian Zhou, Julie Do, Samrita Dungel, Matthew E Fishbaugher, Will W Betz, Thao Nguyen, Mary Jane Navarro, Erika L Flannery, Ashley M Vaughan, Stefan H I Kappe, Anil K Ghosh
BACKGROUND: Despite the importance of the Plasmodium berghei oocyst capsule protein (PbCap380) in parasite survival, very little is known about the orthologous Plasmodium falciparum capsule protein (PfCap380). The goal of this work was to study the growth of P. falciparum oocysts using PfCap380 as a developmental marker. METHODS: To study P. falciparum oocyst development using both in vivo (mosquito-derived) and in vitro (culture-derived) growth conditions, antibodies (polyclonal antisera) were raised against PfCap380...
April 2, 2018: Malaria Journal
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