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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049228/the-efficiency-of-sonography-in-diagnosing-volvulus-in-neonates-with-suspected-intestinal-malrotation
#1
Wenhua Zhang, Hongjun Sun, Fangqiong Luo
This study is to prospectively evaluate the efficiency of sonography for volvulus diagnosis in neonates with clinically suspected intestinal malrotation.A total of 83 patients with suspected intestinal malrotation who underwent detailed abdominal sonography and upper gastrointestinal contrast study were included. Malrotation was characterized by inversion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and superior mesenteric vein (SMV) in sonographic examination. The "whirlpool sign" of Color Doppler Sonography was recognized as a characteristic for malrotation with volvulus...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043104/undescended-cecum-with-accessory-right-colic-artery-a-rare-case-report
#2
Praveen Kumar Ravi, Manisha Rajanand Gaikwad, Pravash Ranjan Mishra, Naina Santosh Wakode, Prabhas Ranjan Tripathy, E Tripati Patro, Babita Kujur, Santosh Laxman Wakode
Midgut malrotation and incomplete rotation are common causes of neonatal intestinal obstruction. At end of 10 week of intrauterine life, cecum will be placed in subhepatic region temporarily and descends to right lower quadrant by eleventh week. Arrest of cecum in subhepatic region or undescended cecum is a rare congenital anomaly of mid gut. Usually, it remains asymptomatic and is diagnosed incidentally. If any pathology occurs in anomalous part, like appendicitis then the diagnosis and treatment will be challenging in all age groups...
September 2017: Anatomy & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042500/immune-regulation-of-plasmodium-is-anopheles-species-specific-and-infection-intensity-dependent
#3
Maria L Simões, Godfree Mlambo, Abhai Tripathi, Yuemei Dong, George Dimopoulos
Malaria parasite ookinetes must traverse the vector mosquito midgut epithelium to transform into sporozoite-producing oocysts. The Anopheles innate immune system is a key regulator of this process, thereby determining vector competence and disease transmission. The role of Anopheles innate immunity factors as agonists or antagonists of malaria parasite infection has been previously determined using specific single Anopheles-Plasmodium species combinations. Here we show that the two C-type lectins CTL4 and CTLMA2 exert differential agonistic and antagonistic regulation of parasite killing in African and South American Anopheles species...
October 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042192/an-immune-related-gene-expression-atlas-of-the-shrimp-digestive-system-in-response-to-two-major-pathogens-brings-insights-into-the-involvement-of-hemocytes-in-gut-immunity
#4
Amanda S Silveira, Gabriel M Matos, Marcelo Falchetti, Fabio S Ribeiro, Albert Bressan, Evelyne Bachère, Luciane M Perazzolo, Rafael D Rosa
Much of our current knowledge on shrimp immune system is restricted to the defense reactions mediated by the hemocytes and little is known about gut immunity. Here, we have investigated the transcriptional profile of immune-related genes in different organs of the digestive system of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. First, the tissue distribution of 52 well-known immune-related genes has been assessed by semiquantitative analysis in the gastrointestinal tract (foregut, midgut and hindgut) and in the hepatopancreas and circulating hemocytes of shrimp stimulated or not with heat-killed bacteria...
October 14, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040501/tissue-damage-induced-midgut-stem-cell-proliferation-and-microbial-dysbiosis-in-spodoptera-litura
#5
Neeti Pandey, Raman Rajagopal
In the past decade, gut microbiota has come to the fore in search for the cause of disregulation in intestinal homeostasis. Here, we report a possible link between gut microbial dynamics and stress inducing factors using the leaf worm moth Spodoptera litura as a model organism. Investigation reveals that S. litura exhibits dysbiosis i.e. alteration in the gut microbiota composition that might induce or suppress inflammation upon exposure to dextran sulfate, sodium salt, a tissue damaging agent (DSS, 40kD). It primarily corresponds to an expansion of the bacterial phylotypes Enterobacter sp...
October 11, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037931/distinct-populations-of-embryonic-epithelial-progenitors-generate-lgr5-intestinal-stem-cells
#6
Margarita M Dzama, Lira Nigmatullina, Sergi Sayols, Nastasja Kreim, Natalia Soshnikova
The adult intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are transcriptionally heterogeneous. As the mechanisms governing their developmental specification are still poorly understood, whether this heterogeneity reflects an early determination of distinct cellular sub-types with potentially distinct physiological functions remains an open question. We investigate the cellular heterogeneity within the mouse embryonic midgut epithelium at the molecular and functional levels. Cell fate mapping analysis revealed that multiple early embryonic epithelial progenitors give rise to Lgr5(+) ISCs...
October 13, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036914/molecular-characterization-and-functional-analysis-of-a-ferritin-heavy-chain-subunit-from-the-eri-silkworm-samia-cynthia-ricini
#7
Hai-Zhong Yu, Shang-Zhi Zhang, Yan Ma, Dong-Qiong Fei, Bing Li, Li-Ang Yang, Jie Wang, Zhen Li, Azharuddin Muhammad, Jia-Ping Xu
Ferritins are conserved iron-binding proteins that are primarily involved in iron storage, detoxification and the immune response. Despite the importance of ferritin in organisms, little is known about their roles in the eri-silkworm (Samia cynthia ricini). We previously identified a ferritin heavy chain subunit named ScFerHCH in the S. c. ricini transcriptome database. The full-length S. c. ricini ferritin heavy chain subunit (ScFerHCH) was 1863 bp and encoded a protein of 231 amino acids with a deduced molecular weight of 25...
October 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035241/eustigmaeus-johnstoni-zhang-gerson-acari-stigmaeidae-a-parasitic-mite-species-detected-in-phlebotomus-papatasi-diptera-psychodidae-specimens-collected-from-ayd%C3%A4-n-turkey
#8
Metin Pekağırbaş, Mehmet Karakuş, Suha Kenan Arserim, Salih Doğan, Hasan Eren, Seray Töz, Yusuf Özbel
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to report the presence of the parasitic mite Eustigmaeus johnstoni Zhang - Gerson (E. johnstoni) on the sand fly species Phlebotomus papatasi (P. papatasi) collected in Aydın province, Turkey. METHODS: Sand flies were collected from nature by CDC light traps in Nazilli town in Aydın province and were separated according to collection localities. Head and genital areas were cut and mounted for species identification, and midgut contents were checked for the possible presence of Leishmania parasites under a light microscope...
September 2017: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032300/gastric-cathepsin-d-exception-or-the-rule-in-decapods-crustaceans
#9
Diana Martínez-Alarcón, Reinhard Saborowski, Liliana Rojo-Arreola, Fernando García-Carreño
Cathepsin D is an aspartic endopetidase with typical characteristics of lysosomal enzymes. Cathepsin D activity has been reported in the gastric fluid of clawed lobsters where it acts as an extracellular digestive enzyme. Here we investigate whether cathepsin D is unique in clawed lobsters or, instead, common in decapod crustaceans. Eleven species of decapods belonging to six infraorders were tested for cathepsin D activity in the midgut gland, the muscle tissue, the gills, and when technically possible, in the gastric fluid...
October 11, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019656/adsorption-of-insecticidal-crystal-protein-cry11aa-onto-nano-mg-oh-2-effects-on-bioactivity-and-anti-ultraviolet-ability
#10
Xiaohong Pan, Zhangyan Xu, Lan Li, Enshi Shao, Saili Chen, Tengzhou Huang, Zhi Chen, Wenhua Rao, Tianpei Huang, Lingling Zhang, Songqing Wu, Xiong Guan
The traditional Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) formulation for field applications are not resistant to harsh environmental conditions. Hence, the active ingredients of the Bt bioinsecticides could degrade quickly and has low anti-ultraviolet ability in the field, which significantly limits its practical application. In the present study, we developed an efficient and stable delivery system for Bt Cry11Aa toxins. We coated Cry11Aa proteins with Mg(OH)2 nanoparticles (MHNPs), and then assessed the effects of MHNPs on bioactivity and anti-ultraviolet ability of the Cry11Aa proteins...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018955/the-effect-of-laminin-1-on-enteric-neural-crest-derived-cell-migration-in-the-hirschsprung-s-disease-mouse-model
#11
Nana Nakazawa-Tanaka, N Fujiwara, K Miyahara, S Nakada, E Arikawa-Hirasawa, C Akazawa, M Urao, A Yamataka
BACKGROUND/AIM: Laminin-1 regulates neurite outgrowth in various neuronal cells. We have previously demonstrated that laminin-1 promotes enteric neural crest-derived cell (ENCC) migration by using Sox10-VENUS transgenic mice, in which ENCCs are labeled with a green fluorescent protein, Venus. Mice lacking the endothelin-B receptor gene, Ednrb (-/-) mice, are widely used as a model for Hirschsprung's disease (HD). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of laminin-1on ENCC migration in Sox10-VENUS(+)/Ednrb (-/-) mice, a newly created HD mice model...
October 10, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018619/alpha-arylphorin-is-a-mitogen-in-the-heliothis-virescens-midgut-cell-secretome-upon-cry1ac-intoxication
#12
Anais Castagnola, Jerreme Jackson, Omaththage P Perera, Cris Oppert, Shigetoshi Eda, Juan Luis Jurat-Fuentes
Insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) target cells in the midgut epithelium of susceptible larvae. While the mode of action of Cry toxins has been extensively investigated, the midgut response to Cry intoxication and its regulation are not well characterized. In this work, we describe the secreted proteome (secretome) of primary mature midgut cell cultures from Heliothis virescens larvae after exposure to Cry1Ac toxin compared to control buffer treatment. The Cry1Ac-induced secretome caused higher proliferation and differentiation and an overall reduction in total cell mortality over time in primary H...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017939/identification-of-a-novel-toll-gene-shtoll3-from-the-freshwater-crab-sinopotamon-henanense-and-its-expression-pattern-changes-in-response-to-cadmium-followed-by-aeromonas-hydrophila-infection
#13
Lang Lang, Zuobing Zhang, Weixin Jing, Jiang-Shiou Hwang, Shao-Chin Lee, Lan Wang
Toll signaling is essential for expression of immune genes which are important for defense against bacterial, fungal and viral infections in invertebrates. Although several toll genes have been identified in the crustaceans, none of them has been investigated in freshwater crab Sinopotamon henanense. Moreover, the effect of cadmium (Cd) on toll gene expression has never been examined on the freshwater crabs which live in the sediments and are prone to heavy metal bioaccumulation. Our transcriptomic analysis of hepatopancreas tissue reveals that toll3 gene expression has been decreased when treated with Cd...
October 7, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993269/hydrogen-peroxide-resistance-in-strigomonas-culicis-effects-on-mitochondrial-functionality-and-aedes-aegypti-interaction
#14
Ana Cristina Souza Bombaça, Felipe de Almeida Dias, Vitor Ennes-Vidal, Aline Dos Santos Garcia-Gomes, Marcos Henrique Ferreira Sorgine, Claudia Masini d'Avila-Levy, Rubem Figueiredo Sadok Menna-Barreto
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are toxic molecules involved in several biological processes such as cellular signaling, proliferation, differentiation and cell death. Adaptations to oxidative environments are crucial for the success of the colonization of insects by protozoa. Strigomonas culicis is a monoxenic trypanosomatid found in the midgut of mosquitoes and presenting a life cycle restricted to the epimastigote form. Among S. culicis peculiarities, there is an endosymbiotic bacterium in the cytoplasm, which completes essential biosynthetic routes of the host cell and may represent an intermediary evolutive step in organelle origin, thus constituting an interesting model for evolutive researches...
October 7, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985216/the-babesia-bovis-hap2-gene-is-not-required-for-blood-stage-replication-but-expressed-upon-in-vitro-sexual-stage-induction
#15
Hala E Hussein, Reginaldo G Bastos, David A Schneider, Wendell C Johnson, Fatma K Adham, William C Davis, Jacob M Laughery, David R Herndon, Heba F Alzan, Massaro W Ueti, Carlos E Suarez
Babesia bovis, is a tick borne apicomplexan parasite responsible for important cattle losses globally. Babesia parasites have a complex life cycle including asexual replication in the mammalian host and sexual reproduction in the tick vector. Novel control strategies aimed at limiting transmission of the parasite are needed, but transmission blocking vaccine candidates remain undefined. Expression of HAP2 has been recognized as critical for the fertilization of parasites in the Babesia-related Plasmodium, and is a leading candidate for a transmission blocking vaccine against malaria...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978338/laboratory-colonization-stabilizes-the-naturally-dynamic-microbiome-composition-of-field-collected-dermacentor-andersoni-ticks
#16
Cory A Gall, Glen A Scoles, Krisztian Magori, Kathleen L Mason, Kelly A Brayton
BACKGROUND: Nearly a quarter of emerging infectious diseases identified in the last century are arthropod-borne. Although ticks and insects can carry pathogenic microorganisms, non-pathogenic microbes make up the majority of their microbial communities. The majority of tick microbiome research has had a focus on discovery and description; very few studies have analyzed the ecological context and functional responses of the bacterial microbiome of ticks. The goal of this analysis was to characterize the stability of the bacterial microbiome of Dermacentor andersoni ticks between generations and two populations within a species...
October 4, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973578/identification-and-characterization-of-bmvta1-a-bombyx-mori-lepidoptera-bombycidae-homologue-for-vta1-that-is-up-regulated-in-development
#17
Hengchuan Xia, Dandan Shao, Xiaoyong Liu, Qiang Wang, Yang Zhou, Keping Chen
Vps20-associated 1 (Vta1) positively regulates Vacuolar protein sorting 4 (Vps4) to disassemble endosomal sorting complex required for transport III (ESCRT-III) for repeated uses in multivesicular body (MVB) pathway, virus budding and other processes. Currently, these proteins have mainly been studied in yeast and mammalian cells, while identities of them in insects remain largely unknown. We previously identified BmVps4, a Vps4 homologue from Bombyx mori. Here, we report the identification of a homologue for Vta1, designated as BmVta1...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973574/allantoin-crystal-formation-in-bagrada-hilaris-burmeister-heteroptera-pentatomidae-females
#18
M Guadalupe Rojas, Michael J Grodowitz, Joseph Reibenspies, Darcy A Reed, Thomas M Perring, Margaret L Allen
Bagrada hilaris is a polyphagous herbivore reported as an invasive pest in the United States. During the course of dissecting Burmeister hilaris unique crystals were observed in both the midgut and oviducts. Crystals were identified using X-ray diffraction techniques. Both acicular (i.e., needle-like, slender, and/or tapered) and cubic (i.e., cube shaped) crystals were observed in six of 75 individuals examined (8.0%). The crystals were mainly observed in females (6.7%), followed by males (1.3%) with no crystals observed in the minimal number of nymphs examined (0%)...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972189/the-lipopolysaccharide-core-oligosaccharide-of-burkholderia-plays-a-critical-role-in-maintaining-a-proper-gut-symbiosis-with-the-bean-bug-riptortus-pedestris
#19
Jiyeun Kate Kim, Ho Am Jang, Min Seon Kim, Jae Hyun Cho, Jum Beom Lee, Flaviana Di Lorenzo, Luisa Sturiale, Alba Silipo, Antonio Molinaro, Bok Luel Lee
Lipopolysaccharide, the outer cell wall component of Gram-negative bacteria, has been shown to be important for symbiotic associations. We recently reported that the lipopolysaccharide O-antigen of Burkholderia enhances the initial colonization of the midgut of the bean bug, Riptortus pedestris. However, the midgut-colonizing Burkholderia symbionts lack the O-antigen, but display the core oligosaccharide on the cell surface. In this study, we investigated the role of the core oligosaccharide, which directly interacts with the host midgut, in the Riptortus-Burkholderia symbiosis...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970168/proteolytic-activation-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-vip3aa-protein-by-spodoptera-exigua-midgut-protease
#20
Jing Zhang, Zhi-Zhen Pan, Lian Xu, Bo Liu, Zheng Chen, Jie Li, Li-Yang Niu, Yu-Jing Zhu, Qing-Xi Chen
Proteolysis of Vip3Aa by insect midgut proteases is essential for their toxicity against target insects. In the present study, proteolysis of Vip3Aa was evaluated by Spodoptera exigua midgut proteases (MJ). Trypsin was verified involved in the activation of Vip3Aa and three potential cleavage sites (Lys(195), Lys(197) and Lys(198)) were identified. Four Vip3Aa mutants (KKK195197198AAA, KK197198AA, KK195198AA and KK195197AA) were designed and constructed by replacing residues Lys(195,197,198), Lys(197,198), Lys(195,198) and Lys(195,197) with Ala, respectively...
September 29, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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