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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457957/synergistic-effect-of-entomopathogenic-fungus-fusarium-oxysporum-extract-in-combination-with-temephos-against-three-major-mosquito-vectors
#1
Perumal Vivekanandhan, Sengodan Karthi, Muthugounder S Shivakumar, Giovanni Benelli
Mosquito control using chemical insecticides is facing a major challenge due to development of insecticide resistance. Improving the efficiency of existing insecticides using synergistic secondary metabolites of biological origin is increasingly being researched. Herein, we evaluated the toxicity of Fusarium oxysporum extract alone and in binary combinations with temephos, on larvae and pupae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefaciatus. F. oxysporum extract was characterized using TLC, FT-IR and GC-MS...
February 19, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456553/silencing-of-iron-and-heme-related-genes-revealed-a-paramount-role-of-iron-in-the-physiology-of-the-hematophagous-vector-rhodnius-prolixus
#2
Ana B Walter-Nuno, Mabel L Taracena, Rafael D Mesquita, Pedro L Oliveira, Gabriela O Paiva-Silva
Iron is an essential element for most organisms However, free iron and heme, its complex with protoporphyrin IX, can be extremely cytotoxic, due to the production of reactive oxygen species, eventually leading to oxidative stress. Thus, eukaryotic cells control iron availability by regulating its transport, storage and excretion as well as the biosynthesis and degradation of heme. In the genome of Rhodnius prolixus , the vector of Chagas disease, we identified 36 genes related to iron and heme metabolism We performed a comprehensive analysis of these genes, including identification of homologous genes described in other insect genomes...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451334/microrna-profiling-between-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry1ab-susceptible-and-resistant-european-corn-borer-ostrinia-nubilalis-h%C3%A3-bner
#3
T Yu, X Li, B-S Coates, Q Zhang, B-D Siegfried, X Zhou
Transgenic maize hybrids that express insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystalline (Cry) protein toxins effectively protect against the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, a devastating maize pest. Field monitoring and laboratory selections have detected varying levels of O. nubilalis resistance to Cry1Ab toxin. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs that are involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Their potential roles in the evolution of Bt resistance, however, remain largely unknown...
February 16, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451298/micro-computed-tomography-visualization-of-the-vestigial-alimentary-canal-in-adult-oestrid-flies
#4
D Martín-Vega, A Garbout, F Ahmed, L M Ferrer, J Lucientes, D D Colwell, M J R Hall
Oestrid flies (Diptera: Oestridae) do not feed during the adult stage as they acquire all necessary nutrients during the parasitic larval stage. The adult mouthparts and digestive tract are therefore frequently vestigial; however, morphological data on the alimentary canal in adult oestrid flies are scarce and a proper visualization of this organ system within the adult body is lacking. The present work visualizes the morphology of the alimentary canal in adults of two oestrid species, Oestrus ovis L. and Hypoderma lineatum (de Villiers), with the use of non-invasive micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and compares it with the highly developed alimentary canal of the blow fly Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae)...
February 16, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448064/toxicity-of-different-fatty-acids-and-methyl-esters-on-culex-quinquefasciatus-larvae
#5
Aline Rocha de Melo, Israel J Pereira Garcia, José Eduardo Serrão, Hérica Lima Santos, Luciana A Rodrigues Dos Santos Lima, Stênio Nunes Alves
The Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito is a vector of several diseases, and its control has been performed with synthetic insecticides, which may have human and environmental side effects. Thus, the use of new and safe molecules are important, and this study evaluated the toxicity of active substances against this mosquito. The oleic, linoleic, linolenic, palmitic and stearic acids and their respective methyl esters were tested against fourth instar C. quinquefasciatus larvae. Oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids had LC50 values of 8...
February 12, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448008/insecticidal-activity-putative-binding-proteins-and-histopathological-effects-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-vip3-459-toxin-on-the-lepidopteran-pest-ectomyelois-ceratoniae
#6
Hanen Boukedi, Slim Tounsi, Lobna Abdelkefi-Mesrati
The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae, is an important agricultural pest that is susceptible to the Vip3(459) protein. The insecticidal activity, evaluated against this lepidopteran pest, displayed an LC 50 value of about 28 ng/cm 2 .The investigation of the mode of action of this B. thuringiensis protein demonstrated that the active form of this toxin bound to putative receptors in the BBMV of E. ceratoniae. Ligand blotting experiment proved that Vip3(459) specifically bound to two proteins of about 53 and 57 kDa, located on the midgut...
February 12, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447265/dynamic-remodeling-of-lipids-coincides-with-dengue-virus-replication-in-the-midgut-of-aedes-aegypti-mosquitoes
#7
Nunya Chotiwan, Barbara G Andre, Irma Sanchez-Vargas, M Nurul Islam, Jeffrey M Grabowski, Amber Hopf-Jannasch, Erik Gough, Ernesto Nakayasu, Carol D Blair, John T Belisle, Catherine A Hill, Richard J Kuhn, Rushika Perera
We describe the first comprehensive analysis of the midgut metabolome of Aedes aegypti, the primary mosquito vector for arboviruses such as dengue, Zika, chikungunya and yellow fever viruses. Transmission of these viruses depends on their ability to infect, replicate and disseminate from several tissues in the mosquito vector. The metabolic environments within these tissues play crucial roles in these processes. Since these viruses are enveloped, viral replication, assembly and release occur on cellular membranes primed through the manipulation of host metabolism...
February 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446564/glycosylation-on-proteins-of-the-intestine-and-perimicrovillar-membrane-of-triatoma-meccus-pallidipennis-under-different-feeding-conditions
#8
Ana E Gutiérrez-Cabrera, Wesley F Zandberg, Edgar Zenteno, Mario H Rodríguez, Bertha Espinoza, Carl Lowenberger
Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, interacts with molecules in the midgut of its insect vector to multiply and reach the infective stage. Many studies suggest that the parasite binds to midgut-specific glycans. We identified several glycoproteins expressed in the intestine and perimicrovillar membrane (PMM) of Triatoma (Meccus) pallidipennis under different feeding conditions. In order to assess changes in protein-linked glycans, we performed lectin and immunoblot analyses on glycoprotein extracts from these intestinal tissues using well-characterized lectins, and an antibody, which collectively recognize a wide range of different glycans epitopes...
February 15, 2018: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444463/a-comparative-study-on-oxidative-stress-response-in-the-hepatopancreas-and-midgut-of-the-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei-under-gradual-changes-to-low-or-high-ph-environment
#9
Si-Yin Han, Meng-Qiang Wang, Bao-Jie Wang, Mei Liu, Ke-Yong Jiang, Lei Wang
White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were reared under conditions of gradual changes to a low pH (gradual-low pH, 6.65-8.20) or a high pH (gradual-high pH, 8.20-9.81) versus a normal pH environment (8.14-8.31) during a 28-day period. Survival of shrimp, and ROS production, antioxidant responses and oxidative damage in the hepatopancreas and midgut were investigated. Consequently, shrimp enhanced MnSOD, GPx, and Hsp70 transcripts as early defense mechanism in the hepatopancreas and midgut to scavenge excessive ROS during short-term (≤7 d) gradual-low and high pH stress...
February 11, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443908/mosquitoes-as-suitable-vectors-for-alphaviruses
#10
REVIEW
Elisa X Y Lim, Wai Suet Lee, Eugene T Madzokere, Lara J Herrero
Alphaviruses are arthropod-borne viruses and are predominantly transmitted via mosquito vectors. This vector preference by alphaviruses raises the important question of the determinants that contribute to vector competence. There are several tissue barriers of the mosquito that the virus must overcome in order to establish a productive infection. Of importance are the midgut, basal lamina and the salivary glands. Infection of the salivary glands is crucial for virus transmission during the mosquito's subsequent bloodfeed...
February 14, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442316/odd-paired-the-drosophila-zic-gene
#11
Deborah A Hursh, Brian G Stultz
Zinc finger in the cerebellum (Zic) proteins are a family of transcription factors with multiple roles during development, particularly in neural tissues. The founding member of the Zic family is the Drosophila odd-paired (opa) gene. The Opa protein has a DNA binding domain containing five Cys2His2-type zinc fingers and has been shown to act as a sequence-specific DNA binding protein. Opa has significant homology to mammalian Zic1, Zic2, and Zic3 within the zinc finger domain and in two other conserved regions outside that domain...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434667/transcriptome-analysis-of-the-digestive-system-of-a-wood-feeding-termite-coptotermes-formosanus-revealed-a-unique-mechanism-for-effective-biomass-degradation
#12
Alei Geng, Yanbing Cheng, Yongli Wang, Daochen Zhu, Yilin Le, Jian Wu, Rongrong Xie, Joshua S Yuan, Jianzhong Sun
Background: Wood-feeding termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, represents a highly efficient system for biomass deconstruction and utilization. However, the detailed mechanisms of lignin modification and carbohydrate degradation in this system are still largely elusive. Results: In order to reveal the inherent mechanisms for efficient biomass degradation, four different organs (salivary glands, foregut, midgut, and hindgut) within a complete digestive system of a lower termite, C...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434593/-leishmania-donovani-inhibitor-of-serine-peptidases-2-mediated-inhibition-of-lectin-pathway-and-upregulation-of-c5ar-signaling-promote-parasite-survival-inside-host
#13
Sudha Verma, Abhishek Mandal, Md Yousuf Ansari, Ajay Kumar, Kumar Abhishek, Ayan Kumar Ghosh, Ashish Kumar, Vinod Kumar, Sushmita Das, Pradeep Das
Leishmania donovani , the causative agent of Indian visceral leishmaniasis has to face several barriers of the immune system inside the mammalian host for its survival. The complement system is one of the first barriers and consists of a well-balanced network of proteases including S1A family serine proteases (SPs). Inhibitor of serine peptidases (ISPs) is considered as inhibitor of S1A family serine peptidases and is reported to be present in trypanosomes, including Leishmania . In our previous study, we have deciphered the role of ISPs [LdISP1 and L...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429130/ultrastructure-of-the-larval-malpighian-tubules-in-terrobittacus-implicatus-mecoptera-bittacidae
#14
Lu Liu, Bao-Zhen Hua
The larvae of Bittacidae, a cosmopolitan family in Mecoptera, have an interesting habit of spraying the body surface with soil through the anus after hatching, and each molts. The fine structure of Malpighian tubules, however, remains largely unknown in the larvae of Bittacidae to date. Here, we studied the ultrastructure of the larval Malpighian tubules in the hangingfly Terrobittacus implicatus (Huang & Hua) using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The larvae of T. implicatus have six elongate Malpighian tubules at the junction of the midgut and hindgut...
February 10, 2018: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428514/target-and-non-target-response-of-swietenia-mahagoni-jacq-chemical-constituents-against-tobacco-cutworm-spodoptera-litura-fab-and-earthworm-eudrilus-eugeniae-kinb
#15
Anandan Dinesh-Kumar, Elangovan Srimaan, Muthiah Chellappandian, Prabhakaran Vasantha-Srinivasan, Sengodan Karthi, Annamalai Thanigaivel, Athirstam Ponsankar, Kanagaraj Muthu-Pandian Chanthini, Narayanan Shyam-Sundar, Mahendiran Annamalai, Kandaswamy Kalaivani, Wayne B Hunter, Sengottayan Senthil-Nathan
Toxicological screening of Swietenia mahagoni Jacq. (Meliaceae, West Indies Mahogany) against the lepidopteran pest Spodoptera litura was examined. Phytochemical screening through GC-MS analysis revealed nine peaks with prominent peak area % in Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (31.5%) was observed. The larvae exposed to discriminating dosage of 100 ppm deliver significant mortality rate compare to other treatment concentrations. The lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) was observed at the dosage of 31.04 and 86...
February 3, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422079/characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-a-newly-identified-glutathione-s-transferase-of-the-hard-tick-haemaphysalis-longicornis-during-blood-feeding
#16
Emmanuel Pacia Hernandez, Kodai Kusakisako, Melbourne Rio Talactac, Remil Linggatong Galay, Takeshi Hatta, Tomohide Matsuo, Kozo Fujisaki, Naotoshi Tsuji, Tetsuya Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Ticks are obligate hematophagous parasites important economically and to health. Ticks consume large amounts of blood for their survival and reproduction; however, large amounts of iron in blood could lead to oxidative stress. Ticks use several molecules such as glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), ferritins, and peroxiredoxins to cope with oxidative stress. This study aimed to identify and characterize the GSTs of the hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis in order to determine if they have a role in coping with oxidative stress...
February 8, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422072/proteomics-analysis-of-faecal-proteins-in-the-tick-haemaphysalis-flava
#17
Lei Liu, Yi-Song Liu, Guo-Hua Liu, Tian-Yin Cheng
BACKGROUND: Ticks and tick-borne diseases are of major public health concern. Currently, development of vaccines against ticks is considered crucial for their control. A critical step in this process is the screening of viable antigens. Faeces are byproducts of digestion and blood meal utilization, and partly reflect the vitality and vector potential of ticks. However, an integrated analysis of proteins in tick faeces is lacking. The present study explored the protein components in the faeces of the tick Haemaphysalis flava, by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) to identify potential protein antigens for vaccine development against ticks...
February 8, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417892/drosophila-peptide-hormones-allatostatin-a-and-diuretic-hormone-31-exhibiting-complementary-gradient-distribution-in-posterior-midgut-antagonistically-regulate-midgut-senescence-and-adult-lifespan
#18
Koji Takeda, Takashi Okumura, Mayu Terahata, Mio Yamaguchi, Kiichiro Taniguchi, Takashi Adachi-Yamada
Enteroendocrine cells (EEs) are evolutionarily conserved gastrointestinal secretory cells that show scattered distribution in the intestinal epithelium. These cells classified into several subtypes based on the hormones they produce in both mammals and insects. In the fruit fly Drosophila, it has been suggested that nearly equal numbers of two subtypes of EEs (Allatostatin A: AstA and Diuretic hormone 31 : Dh31) are alternately produced from the intestinal stem cells in the posterior midgut. However, we found that these two subtypes are not always present in this manner, but are rather distributed in a complementary frequency gradient along the posterior midgut...
February 2018: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415259/analysis-of-homologs-of-cry-toxin-receptor-related-proteins-in-the-midgut-of-a-non-bt-target-nilaparvata-lugens-st%C3%A3-l-hemiptera-delphacidae
#19
Ensi Shao, Li Lin, Sijun Liu, Jiao Zhang, Xuelin Chen, Li Sha, Zhipeng Huang, Biwang Huang, Xiong Guan
The brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens is one of the most destructive insect pests in the rice fields of Asia. Like other hemipteran insects, BPH is not susceptible to Cry toxins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) or transgenic rice carrying Bt cry genes. Lack of Cry receptors in the midgut is one of the main reasons that BPH is not susceptible to the Cry toxins. The main Cry-binding proteins (CBPs) of the susceptible insects are cadherin, aminopeptidase N (APN), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). In this study, we analyzed and validated de novo assembled transcripts from transcriptome sequencing data of BPH to identify and characterize homologs of cadherin, APN, and ALP...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414942/mechanical-regulation-of-stem-cell-differentiation-by-the-stretch-activated-piezo-channel
#20
Li He, Guangwei Si, Jiuhong Huang, Aravinthan D T Samuel, Norbert Perrimon
Somatic stem cells constantly adjust their self-renewal and lineage commitment by integrating various environmental cues to maintain tissue homeostasis. Although numerous chemical and biological signals have been identified that regulate stem-cell behaviour, whether stem cells can directly sense mechanical signals in vivo remains unclear. Here we show that mechanical stress regulates stem-cell differentiation in the adult Drosophila midgut through the stretch-activated ion channel Piezo. We find that Piezo is specifically expressed in previously unidentified enteroendocrine precursor cells, which have reduced proliferation ability and are destined to become enteroendocrine cells...
February 7, 2018: Nature
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