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Arthropod evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657824/genome-wide-analyses-of-the-bhlh-superfamily-in-crustaceans-reappraisal-of-higher-order-groupings-and-evidence-for-lineage-specific-duplications
#1
Wai Hoong Chang, Alvina G Lai
The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins represent a key group of transcription factors implicated in numerous eukaryotic developmental and signal transduction processes. Characterization of bHLHs from model species such as humans, fruit flies, nematodes and plants have yielded important information on their functions and evolutionary origin. However, relatively little is known about bHLHs in non-model organisms despite the availability of a vast number of high-throughput sequencing datasets, enabling previously intractable genome-wide and cross-species analyses to be now performed...
March 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651555/larval-neurogenesis-in-the-copepod-tigriopus-californicus-tetraconata-multicrustacea
#2
Hendrikje Hein, Gerhard Scholtz
Arthropod early neurogenesis shows distinct patterns that have been interpreted in an evolutionary framework. For instance, crustaceans and Hexapoda form the taxon Tetraconata and share the differentiation of specific neural precursors, the neuroblasts, a character which sets them apart from Chelicerata and Myriapoda. Neuroblasts are relatively large stem cells that generate ganglion mother cells by asymmetric divisions. Ganglion mother cells typically divide once to give rise to neurons and glia cells. In hexapods, neuroblasts segregate from the neuroectoderm before they begin their characteristic proliferative activity...
April 12, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626113/low-resolution-vision-in-a-velvet-worm-onychophora
#3
John Daniel Kirwan, Josefine Graf, Jochen Smolka, Georg Mayer, Miriam Judith Henze, Dan-Eric Nilsson
Onychophorans, also known as velvet worms, possess a pair of simple lateral eyes, and are a key lineage with regard to the evolution of vision. They resemble ancient Cambrian forms, and are closely related to arthropods, which boast an unrivalled diversity of eye designs. Nonetheless, the visual capabilities of onychophorans have not been well explored. Here, we assess the spatial resolution of the onychophoran Euperipatoides rowelli using behavioural experiments, three-dimensional reconstruction, anatomical and optical examinations, and modelling...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621973/comparison-of-ventral-organ-development-across-pycnogonida-arthropoda-chelicerata-provides-evidence-for-a-plesiomorphic-mode-of-late-neurogenesis-in-sea-spiders-and-myriapods
#4
Georg Brenneis, Gerhard Scholtz, Barbara S Beltz
BACKGROUND: Comparative studies of neuroanatomy and neurodevelopment provide valuable information for phylogenetic inference. Beyond that, they reveal transformations of neuroanatomical structures during animal evolution and modifications in the developmental processes that have shaped these structures. In the extremely diverse Arthropoda, such comparative studies contribute with ever-increasing structural resolution and taxon coverage to our understanding of nervous system evolution...
April 5, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607798/development-of-phasmarhabditis-hermaphrodita-and-members-of-the-phasmarhabditis-genus-as-new-genetic-model-nematodes-to-study-the-genetic-basis-of-parasitism
#5
P Andrus, R Rae
The genetic mechanisms of how free-living nematodes evolved into parasites are unknown. Current genetic model nematodes (e.g. Caenorhabditis elegans) are not well suited to provide the answer, and mammalian parasites are expensive and logistically difficult to maintain. Here we propose the terrestrial gastropod parasite Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita as a new alternative to study the evolution of parasitism, and outline the methodology of how to keep P. hermaphrodita in the lab for genetic experiments. We show that P...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603494/clarifying-the-relationships-between-microsporidia-and-cryptomycota
#6
David Bass, Lucas Czech, Bryony Williams, Cédric Berney, Micah Dunthorn, Frederic Mahé, Guifré Torruella, Grant D Stentiford, Tom A Williams
Some protists with microsporidian-like cell biological characters, including Mitosporidium, Paramicrosporidium, and Nucleophaga, have SSU rRNA gene sequences that are much less divergent than canonical Microsporidia. We analysed the phylogenetic placement and environmental diversity of microsporidian-like lineages that group near the base of the fungal radiation and showed that they group in a clade with metchnikovellids and canonical microsporidians to the exclusion of the clade including Rozella, in line with what is currently known of their morphology and cell biology...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599480/fungal-spore-diversity-reflects-substrate-specific-deposition-challenges
#7
Sara Calhim, Panu Halme, Jens H Petersen, Thomas Læssøe, Claus Bässler, Jacob Heilmann-Clausen
Sexual spores are important for the dispersal and population dynamics of fungi. They show remarkable morphological diversity, but the underlying forces driving spore evolution are poorly known. We investigated whether trophic status and substrate associations are associated with morphology in 787 macrofungal genera. We show that both spore size and ornamentation are associated with trophic specialization, so that large and ornamented spores are more probable in ectomycorrhizal than in saprotrophic genera. This suggests that spore ornamentation facilitates attachment to arthropod vectors, which ectomycorrhizal species may need to reach lower soil layers...
March 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596427/taking-a-bite-out-of-nutrition-and-arbovirus-infection
#8
REVIEW
James Weger-Lucarelli, Heidi Auerswald, Marco Vignuzzi, Phillipe Dussart, Erik A Karlsson
Nutrition is a key factor in host-pathogen defense. Malnutrition can increase both host susceptibility and severity of infection through a number of pathways, and infection itself can promote nutritional deterioration and further susceptibility. Nutritional status can also strongly influence response to vaccination or therapeutic pharmaceuticals. Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) have a long history of infecting humans, resulting in regular pandemics as well as an increasing frequency of autochthonous transmission...
March 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593212/molecular-determinants-of-yellow-fever-virus-pathogenicity-in-syrian-golden-hamsters-one-mutation-away-from-virulence
#9
Raphaëlle Klitting, Laura Roth, Félix A Rey, Xavier de Lamballerie
Yellow fever virus (Flavivirus genus) is an arthropod-borne pathogen, which can infect humans, causing a severe viscerotropic disease with a high mortality rate. Adapted viral strains allow the reproduction of yellow fever disease in hamsters with features similar to the human disease. Here, we used the Infectious Subgenomic Amplicons reverse genetics method to produce an equivalent to the hamster-virulent strain, Yellow Fever Ap7, by introducing a set of four synonymous and six nonsynonymous mutations into a single subgenomic amplicon, derived from the sequence of the Asibi strain...
March 29, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587626/diversity-and-distribution-of-wolbachia-in-relation-to-geography-host-plant-affiliation-and-life-cycle-of-a-heterogonic-gall-wasp
#10
Hannes Schuler, Scott P Egan, Glen R Hood, Robert W Busbee, Amanda L Driscoe, James R Ott
BACKGROUND: The maternally inherited endosymbiont Wolbachia is widespread in arthropods and nematodes and can play an important role in the ecology and evolution of its host through reproductive manipulation. Here, we survey Wolbachia in Belonocnema treatae, a widely distributed North American cynipid gall forming wasp that exhibits regional host specialization on three species of oaks and alternation of sexually and asexually reproducing generations. We investigated whether patterns of Wolbachia infection and diversity in B...
March 27, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578683/an-immunohistochemical-approach-to-understanding-the-organization-of-the-olfactory-system-in-the-cuttlefish-sepia-officinalis
#11
Alexia T Scaros, Roger Croll, Sebastien Baratte
Cephalopods are non-traditional but captivating models of invertebrate neurobiology, particularly in evolutionary comparisons. Cephalopod olfactory systems have striking similarities and fundamental differences with vertebrates, arthropods, and gastropods, raising questions about the ancestral origins of those systems. We describe here the organization and development of the olfactory system of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. FMRFamide and/or related peptides and histamine are putative neurotransmitters in olfactory sensory neurons...
March 26, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568479/embryonic-lethality-is-not-sufficient-to-explain-hourglass-like-conservation-of-vertebrate-embryos
#12
Yui Uchida, Masahiro Uesaka, Takayoshi Yamamoto, Hiroyuki Takeda, Naoki Irie
Background: Understanding the general trends in developmental changes during animal evolution, which are often associated with morphological diversification, has long been a central issue in evolutionary developmental biology. Recent comparative transcriptomic studies revealed that gene expression profiles of mid-embryonic period tend to be more evolutionarily conserved than those in earlier or later periods. While the hourglass-like divergence of developmental processes has been demonstrated in a variety of animal groups such as vertebrates, arthropods, and nematodes, the exact mechanism leading to this mid-embryonic conservation remains to be clarified...
2018: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568316/chemical-and-behavioral-integration-of-army-ant-associated-rove-beetles-a-comparison-between-specialists-and-generalists
#13
Christoph von Beeren, Adrian Brückner, Munetoshi Maruyama, Griffin Burke, Jana Wieschollek, Daniel J C Kronauer
Host-symbiont interactions are embedded in ecological communities and range from unspecific to highly specific relationships. Army ants and their arthropod guests represent a fascinating example of species-rich host-symbiont associations where host specificity ranges across the entire generalist - specialist continuum. In the present study, we compared the behavioral and chemical integration mechanisms of two extremes of the generalist - specialist continuum: generalist ant-predators in the genus Tetradonia (Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae: Athetini), and specialist ant-mimics in the genera Ecitomorpha and Ecitophya (Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae: Ecitocharini)...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555751/diversification-of-aid-apobec-like-deaminases-in-metazoa-multiplicity-of-clades-and-widespread-roles-in-immunity
#14
Arunkumar Krishnan, Lakshminarayan M Iyer, Stephen J Holland, Thomas Boehm, L Aravind
AID/APOBEC deaminases (AADs) convert cytidine to uridine in single-stranded nucleic acids. They are involved in numerous mutagenic processes, including those underpinning vertebrate innate and adaptive immunity. Using a multipronged sequence analysis strategy, we uncover several AADs across metazoa, dictyosteliida, and algae, including multiple previously unreported vertebrate clades, and versions from urochordates, nematodes, echinoderms, arthropods, lophotrochozoans, cnidarians, and porifera. Evolutionary analysis suggests a fundamental division of AADs early in metazoan evolution into secreted deaminases (SNADs) and classical AADs, followed by diversification into several clades driven by rapid-sequence evolution, gene loss, lineage-specific expansions, and lateral transfer to various algae...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523785/brain-and-eyes-of-kerygmachela-reveal-protocerebral-ancestry-of-the-panarthropod-head
#15
Tae-Yoon S Park, Ji-Hoon Kihm, Jusun Woo, Changkun Park, Won Young Lee, M Paul Smith, David A T Harper, Fletcher Young, Arne T Nielsen, Jakob Vinther
Recent discoveries of fossil nervous tissue in Cambrian fossils have allowed researchers to trace the origin and evolution of the complex arthropod head and brain based on stem groups close to the origin of the clade, rather than on extant, highly derived members. Here we show that Kerygmachela from Sirius Passet, North Greenland, a primitive stem-group euarthropod, exhibits a diminutive (protocerebral) brain that innervates both the eyes and frontal appendages. It has been surmised, based on developmental evidence, that the ancestor of vertebrates and arthropods had a tripartite brain, which is refuted by the fossil evidence presented here...
March 9, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501422/immune-repertoire-in-the-transcriptome-of-littorina-littorea-reveals-new-trends-in-lophotrochozoan-proto-complement-evolution
#16
Alexander M Gorbushin
The evolution of complement system in invertebrates is poorly investigated. While the repertoire of complement genes in several Ecdysozoa lineages is found substantially different from that of Deuterostomia, the composition and function of the complement in the second protostome lineage, Lophotrochozoa, remains unclear. Here we report the general description of new transcriptomic data on the common periwinkle, Littorina littorea, and trace the evolutionary trajectories of the ancestral proto-complement repertoire...
February 28, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493870/pesticide-durability-and-the-evolution-of-resistance-a-novel-application-of-survival-analysis
#17
Kristian Brevik, Sean D Schoville, David Mota-Sanchez, Yolanda H Chen
BACKGROUND: Arthropod pests are widely perceived to evolve resistance to insecticides at different rates. Although widespread "successful" species are assumed to evolve quickly and minor pests slowly, few studies have utilized published data on resistance events to test for differences among species. Using 532 records from the Arthropod Pesticide Resistance Database covering 20 species, we applied a survival analysis to model the number of generations from insecticide introduction to the first report of arthropod resistance, providing one of the most comprehensive analyses of this question to date...
March 1, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491987/the-effect-of-fasting-and-body-reserves-on-cold-tolerance-in-2-pit-building-insect-predators
#18
Inon Scharf, Alma Daniel, Heath Andrew MacMillan, Noa Katz
Pit-building antlions and wormlions are 2 distantly-related insect species, whose larvae construct pits in loose soil to trap small arthropod prey. This convergent evolution of natural histories has led to additional similarities in their natural history and ecology, and thus, these 2 species encounter similar abiotic stress (such as periodic starvation) in their natural habitat. Here, we measured the cold tolerance of the 2 species and examined whether recent feeding or food deprivation, as well as body composition (body mass and lipid content) and condition (quantified as mass-to-size residuals) affect their cold tolerance...
June 2017: Current Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485126/investigating-the-genetic-and-epigenetic-basis-of-big-biological-questions-with-the-parthenogenetic-marbled-crayfish-a-review-and-perspectives
#19
Gunter Vogt
In the last 15 years, considerable attempts have been undertaken to develop the obligately parthenogenetic marbled crayfish Procambarus virginalis as a new model in biology. Its main advantage is the production of large numbers of offspring that are genetically identical to the mother, making this crustacean particularly suitable for research in epigenetics. Now, a draft genome, transcriptome and genome-wide methylome are available opening new windows for research. In this article, I summarize the biological advantages and genomic and epigenetic features of marbled crayfish and, based on first promising data, discuss what this new model could contribute to answering of ''big'' biological questions...
March 2018: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463651/n-glycosylation-of-viral-e-protein-is-the-determinant-for-vector-midgut-invasion-by-flaviviruses
#20
Dan Wen, Suhua Li, Fangfang Dong, Yanan Zhang, Yongfang Lin, Jumei Wang, Zhen Zou, Aihua Zheng
Transmission of flaviviruses by hematophagous insects such as mosquitoes requires acquisition of the virus during blood feeding on the host, with midgut as the primary infection site. Here, we report that N-glycosylation of the E protein, which is conserved among most flaviviruses, is critical for the Zika virus (ZIKV) to invade the vector midgut by inhibiting the reactive oxygen species (ROS) pathway of the mosquito immune system. Our data further show that removal of the ZIKV E glycosylation site prevents mosquito infection by flaviviruses via the oral route, whereas there is no effect on infection by intrathoracic microinjection, which bypasses the midgut...
February 20, 2018: MBio
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