keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Arthropod evolution

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454734/management-of-arthropod-vector-data-social-and-ecological-dynamics-facing-the-one-health-perspective
#1
REVIEW
Giovanni Benelli, Mary Frances Duggan
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are spread by direct and/or indirect contacts between a pathogen or parasite and their hosts. Arthropod vectors have evolved as excellent bloodsuckers, providing an elegant transportation mode for a wide number of infectious agents. The nature of pathogen and parasite transfer and the models used to predict how a disease might spread are magnified in complexity when an arthropod vector is part of the disease cycle. One Health is a worldwide strategy for expanding interdisciplinary collaborations and communications in all aspects of health care for humans, animals and the environment...
February 15, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385495/influence-of-previous-host-plants-on-the-reproductive-success-of-a-polyphagous-mite-pest-halotydeus-destructor-trombidiformes-penthaleidae
#2
Xuan Cheng, Paul A Umina, Ary A Hoffmann, Dominic Reisig
In the evolution of phytophagous arthropods, adaptation to a single type of host plant is generally assumed to lead to a reduction in fitness on other host plant types, resulting in increasing host specialization. While this process is normally considered to be genetically based, short-term effects acting within one generation (plasticity) or across two generations (cross-generation variation) could also play a role. Here, we test these effects in the redlegged earth mite, Halotydeus destructor (Tucker) (Prostigmata: Penthaleidae), a major agricultural pest of multiple crop plants...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383505/glycoalkaloid-composition-explains-variation-in-slug-resistance-in-solanum-dulcamara
#3
Onno W Calf, Heidrun Huber, Janny L Peters, Alexander Weinhold, Nicole M van Dam
In natural environments, plants have to deal with a wide range of different herbivores whose communities vary in time and space. It is believed that the chemical diversity within plant species has mainly arisen from selection pressures exerted by herbivores. So far, the effects of chemical diversity on plant resistance have mostly been assessed for arthropod herbivores. However, also gastropods, such as slugs, can cause extensive damage to plants. Here we investigate to what extent individual Solanum dulcamara plants differ in their resistance to slug herbivory and whether this variation can be explained by differences in secondary metabolites...
January 30, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377385/a-massive-incorporation-of-microbial-genes-into-the-genome-of-tetranychus-urticae-a-polyphagous-arthropod-herbivore
#4
N Wybouw, T Van Leeuwen, W Dermauw
A number of horizontal gene transfers (HGTs) have been identified in the spider mite Tetranychus urticae, a chelicerate herbivore. However, the genome of this mite species has at present not been thoroughly mined for the presence of HGT genes. Here, we performed a systematic screen for HGT genes in the T. urticae genome using the h-index metric. Our results not only validated previously identified HGT genes but also uncovered 25 novel HGT genes. In addition to HGT genes with a predicted biochemical function in carbohydrate, lipid and folate metabolism, we also identified the horizontal transfer of a ketopantoate hydroxymethyltransferase and a pantoate β-alanine ligase gene...
January 29, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362894/the-ontogeny-of-the-300-million-year-old-xiphosuran-euproops-danae-euchelicerata-and-implications-for-resolving-the-euproops-species-complex
#5
Carolin Haug, Marie A I N Rötzer
Xiphosurans have often been considered as archaic appearing cheliceratan arthropods, with a rich fossil record. We describe here parts of the post-embryonic ontogeny of the 300 million year old xiphosuran Euproops danae (Xiphosura sensu stricto, Euchelicerata), from the Mazon Creek Lagerstätte (Upper Carboniferous), USA. Recently, the ontogeny of a closely related species, Euproops sp. from the Upper Carboniferous Piesberg quarry, Osnabrück, Germany (informally called 'Piesproops'), has been reconstructed...
January 23, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351731/a-chelicerate-specific-burst-of-nonclassical-dscam-diversity
#6
Guozheng Cao, Yang Shi, Jian Zhang, Hongru Ma, Shouqing Hou, Haiyang Dong, Weiling Hong, Shuo Chen, Hao Li, Yandan Wu, Pengjuan Guo, Xu Shao, Bingbing Xu, Feng Shi, Yijun Meng, Yongfeng Jin
BACKGROUND: The immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily receptor Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) gene can generate tens of thousands of isoforms via alternative splicing, which is essential for both nervous and immune systems in insects. However, further information is required to develop a comprehensive view of Dscam diversification across the broad spectrum of Chelicerata clades, a basal branch of arthropods and the second largest group of terrestrial animals. RESULTS: In this study, a genome-wide comprehensive analysis of Dscam genes across Chelicerata species revealed a burst of nonclassical Dscams, categorised into four types-mDscam, sDscamα, sDscamβ, and sDscamγ-based on their size and structure...
January 19, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325765/a-systematic-investigation-on-the-composition-evolution-and-expression-characteristics-of-chemokine-superfamily-in-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#7
Zhiwei Liao, Quanyuan Wan, Xun Xiao, Jianfei Ji, Jianguo Su
Chemokines are a superfamily of small cytokines and characterized based on their ability to induce directional migration of cells along a concentration gradient by binding to chemokine receptors, which have important roles in immunology and development. Due to the numerous and diverse members, systematic identifications of chemokine superfamily genes are difficult in many species. To that end, a comprehensive analysis of BLAST and scripting language was conducted to systematically identify and characterize chemokine system in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)...
January 8, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324047/the-discovery-of-arthropod-specific-viruses-in-hematophagous-arthropods-an-open-door-to-understanding-the-mechanisms-of-arbovirus-and-arthropod-evolution
#8
Charles H Calisher, Stephen Higgs
The discovery of an odd virus from hematophagous arthropods 40 years ago by Stollar and Thomas described cell fusing agent virus in cells derived from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Then came the report of Kamiti River virus from Ae. macintoshi in 1999, followed by worldwide reports of the discovery of other viruses of mosquitoes, ticks, and midges that replicate only in arthropods and not in vertebrates or in vertebrate cells. These viruses (now totaling at least 64 published) have genomes analogous to viruses in various families that include arboviruses and nonarboviruses...
January 7, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324038/the-evolution-and-metamorphosis-of-arthropod-proteomics-and-genomics
#9
Judith H Willis
This article presents an overview of the development of techniques for analyzing cuticular proteins (CPs), their transcripts, and their genes over the past 50 years based primarily on experience in the laboratory of J.H. Willis. It emphasizes changes in the kind of data that can be gathered and how such data provided insights into the molecular underpinnings of insect metamorphosis and cuticle structure. It describes the techniques that allowed visualization of the location of CPs at both the anatomical and intracuticular levels and measurement of the appearance and deployment of transcripts from CP genes as well as what was learned from genomic and transcriptomic data...
January 7, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317714/mechanism-and-structural-diversity-of-exoribonuclease-resistant-rna-structures-in-flaviviral-rnas
#10
Andrea MacFadden, Zoe O'Donoghue, Patricia A G C Silva, Erich G Chapman, René C Olsthoorn, Mark G Sterken, Gorben P Pijlman, Peter J Bredenbeek, Jeffrey S Kieft
Flaviviruses such as Yellow fever, Dengue, West Nile, and Zika generate disease-linked viral noncoding RNAs called subgenomic flavivirus RNAs. Subgenomic flavivirus RNAs result when the 5'-3' progression of cellular exoribonuclease Xrn1 is blocked by RNA elements called Xrn1-resistant RNAs located within the viral genome's 3'-untranslated region that operate without protein co-factors. Here, we show that Xrn1-resistant RNAs can halt diverse exoribonucleases, revealing a mechanism in which they act as general mechanical blocks that 'brace' against an enzyme's surface, presenting an unfolding problem that confounds further enzyme progression...
January 9, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313897/influence-of-fruit-and-invertebrate-consumption-on-the-gut-microbiota-of-wild-white-faced-capuchins-cebus-capucinus
#11
Elizabeth K Mallott, Katherine R Amato, Paul A Garber, Ripan S Malhi
OBJECTIVES: Invertebrate consumption is thought to be an integral part of early hominin diets, and many modern human populations regularly consume insects and other arthropods. This study examines the response of gut microbial community structure and function to changes in diet in wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus), a primate that incorporates a large proportion of invertebrates in its diet. The goal of the study is to better understand the role of both fruit and invertebrate prey consumption on shaping primate gut microbiomes...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303983/a-dipteran-s-novel-sucker-punch-evolution-of-arthropod-atypical-venom-with-a-neurotoxic-component-in-robber-flies-asilidae-diptera
#12
Stephan Holger Drukewitz, Nico Fuhrmann, Eivind A B Undheim, Alexander Blanke, Julien Giribaldi, Rosanna Mary, Guillaume Laconde, Sébastien Dutertre, Björn Marcus von Reumont
Predatory robber flies (Diptera, Asilidae) have been suspected to be venomous due to their ability to overpower well-defended prey. However, details of their venom composition and toxin arsenal remained unknown. Here, we provide a detailed characterization of the venom system of robber flies through the application of comparative transcriptomics, proteomics and functional morphology. Our results reveal asilid venoms to be dominated by peptides and non-enzymatic proteins, and that the majority of components in the crude venom is represented by just ten toxin families, which we have named Asilidin1-10...
January 5, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290559/parallel-saltational-evolution-of-ultrafast-movements-in-snapping-shrimp-claws
#13
Tomonari Kaji, Arthur Anker, Christian S Wirkner, A Richard Palmer
How do stunning functional innovations evolve from unspecialized progenitors? This puzzle is particularly acute for ultrafast movements of appendages in arthropods as diverse as shrimps [1], stomatopods [2], insects [3-6], and spiders [7]. For example, the spectacular snapping claws of alpheid shrimps close so fast (∼0.5 ms) that jetted water creates a cavitation bubble and an immensely powerful snap upon bubble collapse [1]. Such extreme movements depend on (1) an energy-storage mechanism (e.g., some kind of spring) and (2) a latching mechanism to release stored energy quickly [8]...
December 27, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287988/rickettsial-genomics-and-the-paradigm-of-genome-reduction-associated-with-increased-virulence
#14
Awa Diop, Didier Raoult, Pierre-Edouard Fournier
Rickettsia species are arthropod endosymbiotic α-proteobacteria that can infect mammalian hosts during their obligate intracellular lifecycle, and cause a range of mild to severe diseases in humans. Paradoxically, during their adaptation to a bottleneck lifestyle, rickettsial genomes have undergone an evolution marked by a progressive chromosomic and plasmidic degradation resulting in a genome reduction from 1.5 to 1.1 Mb, with a coding capacity of 69 to 84%. A striking finding of rickettsial genomics has been that the most virulent species had genomes that were drastically reduced and degraded when compared to closely related less virulent or non pathogenic species...
December 26, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237851/micrornas-regulate-the-sesquiterpenoid-hormonal-pathway-in-drosophila-and-other-arthropods
#15
Zhe Qu, William G Bendena, Wenyan Nong, Kenneth W Siggens, Fernando G Noriega, Zhen-Peng Kai, Yang-Yang Zang, Alex C Koon, Ho Yin Edwin Chan, Ting Fung Chan, Ka Hou Chu, Hon Ming Lam, Michael Akam, Stephen S Tobe, Jerome Ho Lam Hui
Arthropods comprise the majority of all described animal species, and understanding their evolution is a central question in biology. Their developmental processes are under the precise control of distinct hormonal regulators, including the sesquiterpenoids juvenile hormone (JH) and methyl farnesoate. The control of the synthesis and mode of action of these hormones played important roles in the evolution of arthropods and their adaptation to diverse habitats. However, the precise roles of non-coding RNAs, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), controlling arthropod hormonal pathways are unknown...
December 20, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233973/parasitised-feathered-dinosaurs-as-revealed-by-cretaceous-amber-assemblages
#16
Enrique Peñalver, Antonio Arillo, Xavier Delclòs, David Peris, David A Grimaldi, Scott R Anderson, Paul C Nascimbene, Ricardo Pérez-de la Fuente
Ticks are currently among the most prevalent blood-feeding ectoparasites, but their feeding habits and hosts in deep time have long remained speculative. Here, we report direct and indirect evidence in 99 million-year-old Cretaceous amber showing that hard ticks and ticks of the extinct new family Deinocrotonidae fed on blood from feathered dinosaurs, non-avialan or avialan excluding crown-group birds. A †Cornupalpatum burmanicum hard tick is entangled in a pennaceous feather. Two deinocrotonids described as †Deinocroton draculi gen...
December 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216399/evolution-of-acidic-mammalian-chitinase-genes-chia-is-related-to-body-mass-and-insectivory-in-primates
#17
Mareike C Janiak, Morgan E Chaney, Anthony J Tosi
Insects are an important food resource for many primates, but the chitinous exoskeletons of arthropods have long been considered to be indigestible by the digestive enzymes of most mammals. However, recently mice and insectivorous bats were found to produce the enzyme acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) to digest insect exoskeletons. Here, we report on the gene CHIA and its paralogs, which encode AMCase, in a comparative sample of nonhuman primates. Our results show that early primates likely had three CHIA genes, suggesting that insects were an important component of the ancestral primate diet...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215078/melanization-in-response-to-wounding-is-ancestral-in-arthropods-and-conserved-in-albino-cave-species
#18
Helena Bilandžija, Mara Laslo, Megan L Porter, Daniel W Fong
Many species adapted to aphotic subterranean habitats have lost all body pigmentation. Yet, melanization is an important component of wound healing in arthropods. We amputated appendages in a variety of cave-adapted and surface-dwelling arthropods. A dark clot formed at the site of injury in most species tested, including even albino cave-adapted species. The dark coloration of the clots was due to melanin deposition. The speed of wound melanization was uncorrelated with a difference in metabolic rate between surface and cave populations of an amphipod...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203920/pan-arthropod-analysis-reveals-somatic-pirnas-as-an-ancestral-defence-against-transposable-elements
#19
Samuel H Lewis, Kaycee A Quarles, Yujing Yang, Melanie Tanguy, Lise Frézal, Stephen A Smith, Prashant P Sharma, Richard Cordaux, Clément Gilbert, Isabelle Giraud, David H Collins, Phillip D Zamore, Eric A Miska, Peter Sarkies, Francis M Jiggins
In animals, small RNA molecules termed PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) silence transposable elements (TEs), protecting the germline from genomic instability and mutation. piRNAs have been detected in the soma in a few animals, but these are believed to be specific adaptations of individual species. Here, we report that somatic piRNAs were probably present in the ancestral arthropod more than 500 million years ago. Analysis of 20 species across the arthropod phylum suggests that somatic piRNAs targeting TEs and messenger RNAs are common among arthropods...
January 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203666/structure-and-function-of-a-compound-eye-more-than-half-a-billion-years-old
#20
Brigitte Schoenemann, Helje Pärnaste, Euan N K Clarkson
Until now, the fossil record has not been capable of revealing any details of the mechanisms of complex vision at the beginning of metazoan evolution. Here, we describe functional units, at a cellular level, of a compound eye from the base of the Cambrian, more than half a billion years old. Remains of early Cambrian arthropods showed the external lattices of enormous compound eyes, but not the internal structures or anything about how those compound eyes may have functioned. In a phosphatized trilobite eye from the lower Cambrian of the Baltic, we found lithified remnants of cellular systems, typical of a modern focal apposition eye, similar to those of a bee or dragonfly...
December 4, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
keyword
keyword
118139
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"