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Arthropod evolution

Patricia Kaaijk, Willem Luytjes
Tick-borne encephalitis and West Nile fever are endemic flavivirus diseases in Europe. Climate change, virus evolution, and social factors may increase the risk of these flavivirus infections and may lead to the emergence of other flaviviruses in Europe that are endemic in (sub)tropical regions of the world. Control of the spread of flaviviruses is very difficult considering the cycling of flaviviruses between arthropod vectors and animal reservoir hosts. The increasing threat of flavivirus infections emphasizes the necessity of a sustainable vector surveillance system, an active animal health surveillance system and an adequate human surveillance system for early detection of flavivirus infections...
October 20, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Jun Takatsuka, Madoka Nakai, Tetsuro Shinoda
Microbial parasitism, infection, and symbiosis in animals often modulate host endocrine systems, resulting in alterations of phenotypic traits of the host that can have profound effects on the ecology and evolution of both the microorganisms and their hosts. Information about the mechanisms and genetic bases of such modulations by animal parasites is available from studies of steroid hormones. However, reports involving other hormones are scarce. We found that an insect virus, a betaentomopoxvirus, encodes a juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase that can synthesize an important insect hormone, the sesquiterpenoid juvenile hormone...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Daisuke Kobayashi, Haruhiko Isawa, Ryosuke Fujita, Katsunori Murota, Kentaro Itokawa, Yukiko Higa, Yukie Katayama, Toshinori Sasaki, Tetsuya Mizutani, Shiroh Iwanaga, Nobuo Ohta, Arlene Garcia-Bertuso, Kyoko Sawabe
During an entomological surveillance for arthropod-borne viruses in the Philippines, we isolated a previously unrecognized virus from female Armigeres spp. mosquitoes. Whole-genome sequencing, genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolated virus, designated Armigeres iflavirus (ArIFV), is a novel member of the iflaviruses (genus Iflavirus, family Iflaviridae) and phylogenetically related to Moku virus, Hubei odonate virus 4, slow bee paralysis virus and Graminella nigrifrons virus 1...
October 19, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Sarah Signor
Wolbachia pipientis is an intracellular endosymbiont infecting many arthropods and filarial nematodes. Little is known about the short-term evolution of Wolbachia or its interaction with its host. Wolbachia is maternally inherited, resulting in co-inheritance of mitochondrial organelles such as mtDNA. Here I explore the evolution of Wolbachia, and the relationship between Wolbachia and mtDNA, using a large inbred panel of Drosophila simulans. I compare this to the only other large population genomic Wolbachia dataset from D...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Chen Wu, Melissa D Jordan, Richard D Newcomb, Neil J Gemmell, Sarah Bank, Karen Meusemann, Peter K Dearden, Elizabeth J Duncan, Sefanie Grosser, Kim Rutherford, Paul P Gardner, Ross N Crowhurst, Bernd Steinwender, Leah K Tooman, Mark I Stevens, Thomas R Buckley
BACKGROUND: The New Zealand collembolan genus Holacanthella contains the largest species of springtails (Collembola) in the world. Using Illumina technology we have sequenced and assembled a draft genome and transcriptome from Holacanthella duospinosa (Salmon). We have used this annotated assembly to investigate the genetic basis of a range of traits critical to the evolution of the Hexapoda, the phylogenetic position of H. duospinosa and potential horizontal gene transfer events. RESULTS: Our genome assembly was ~375 Mbp in size with a scaffold N50 of ~230 Kbp and sequencing coverage of ~180×...
October 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
Marc W Cadotte, Stuart W Livingstone, Simone-Louise E Yasui, Russell Dinnage, Jin-Tian Li, Robin Marushia, James Santangelo, Wensheng Shu
Ecosystem function is the outcome of species interactions, traits, and niche overlap -all of which are influenced by evolution. However, it is not well understood how the tempo and mode of niche evolution can influence ecosystem function. In evolutionary models where either species differences accumulate through random drift in a single trait or species differences accumulate through divergent selection among close relatives, we should expect that ecosystem function is strongly related to diversity. However, when strong selection causes species to converge on specific niches or when novel traits that directly affect function evolve in some clades but not others, the relationship between diversity and ecosystem function might not be very strong...
October 11, 2017: Ecology
Markus Friedrich
Pax6 transcription factors are essential upstream regulators in the developing anterior brain and peripheral visual system of most bilaterian animals. While a single homolog is in charge of these functions in vertebrates, two Pax6 genes are in Drosophila: eyeless (ey) and twin of eyeless (toy). At first glance, their co-existence seems sufficiently explained by their differential involvement in the specification of two types of insect visual organs: the lateral compound eyes (ey) and the dorsal ocelli (toy)...
October 6, 2017: Developmental Biology
Jean-Paul Gonzalez, Marc Souris, Willy Valdivia-Granda
As successive epidemics have swept the world, the scientific community has quickly learned from them about the emergence and transmission of communicable diseases. Epidemics usually occur when health systems are unprepared. During an unexpected epidemic, health authorities engage in damage control, fear drives action, and the desire to understand the threat is greatest. As humanity recovers, policy-makers seek scientific expertise to improve their "preparedness" to face future events.Global spread of disease is exemplified by the spread of yellow fever from Africa to the Americas, by the spread of dengue fever through transcontinental migration of mosquitos, by the relentless influenza virus pandemics, and, most recently, by the unexpected emergence of Ebola virus, spread by motorbike and long haul carriers...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Marie Cariou, Laurent Duret, Sylvain Charlat
The spread of maternally inherited microorganisms, such as Wolbachia bacteria, can induce indirect selective sweeps on host mitochondria, to which they are linked within the cytoplasm. The resulting reduction in effective population size might lead to smaller mitochondrial diversity and reduced efficiency of natural selection. While documented in several host species, it is currently unclear if such a scenario is common enough to globally impact the diversity and evolution of mitochondria in Wolbachia-infected lineages...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Arie van der Meijden, Bjørn Koch, Tom van der Valk, Leidy J Vargas-Muñoz, Sebastian Estrada-Gómez
Scorpions use their venom in defensive situations as well as for subduing prey. Since some species of scorpion use their venom more in defensive situations than others, this may have led to selection for differences in effectiveness in defensive situations. Here, we compared the LD50 of the venom of 10 species of scorpions on five different species of target organisms; two insects and three vertebrates. We found little correlation between the target species in the efficacy of the different scorpion venoms. Only the two insects showed a positive correlation, indicating that they responded similarly to the panel of scorpion venoms...
October 4, 2017: Toxins
S Louryan, N Vanmuylder
The invertebrates, with known exception of echinoderms, are hyponeurian and protostomian. By contrast, echinoderms, chordates and vertebrate are epineurian and deuterostomian. Convinced of the uniqueness origin of all species, Etienne Geoffroy Saint Hilaire (1772-1844), had postulated a complete inversion of body plan to explain this difference. He had to face up to the hostility of the fixist Georges Cuvier (1763-1832). Much later, famous embryologists such as Maurice Caullery still believed that this idea was erroneous...
September 27, 2017: Morphologie: Bulletin de L'Association des Anatomistes
Shauni Omond, Linh M T Ly, Russell Beaton, Jonathan J Storm, Matthew W Hale, John A Lesku
Introduction: Sleep either appeared once early in the evolution of animals, or at multiple instances over evolutionary time. Understanding whether sleep is a diagnostic trait for members of the kingdom Animalia has important implications for our understanding of the evolution of sleep and sleep functions. Unfortunately, knowledge on the phylogenetic breadth of sleep is restricted to vertebrates, a few arthropods and molluscs, and one species of nematode. There is a dearth of information on the other 30 or so animal phyla...
August 24, 2017: Sleep
Ariel D Chipman, Douglas H Erwin
The last few years have seen a significant increase in the amount of data we have about the evolution of the arthropod body plan. This has come mainly from three separate sources: a new consensus and improved resolution of arthropod phylogeny, based largely on new phylogenomic analyses; a wealth of new early arthropod fossils from a number of Cambrian localities with excellent preservation, as well as a renewed analysis of some older fossils; and developmental data from a range of model and non-model pan-arthropod species that shed light on the developmental origins and homologies of key arthropod traits...
September 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Sarah M Tweedt
The arthropod body plan is widely believed to have derived from an ancestral form resembling Cambrian-aged fossil lobopodians, and interpretations of morphological and molecular data have long favored this hypothesis. It is possible, however, that appendages and other morphologies observed in extinct and living panarthropods evolved independently. The key to distinguishing between morphological homology and homoplasy lies in the study of developmental gene regulatory networks (GRNs), and specifically, in determining the unique genetic circuits that construct characters...
September 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Tzach Auman, Ariel D Chipman
Our understanding of the genetics of arthropod body plan development originally stems from work on Drosophila melanogaster from the late 1970s and onward. In Drosophila, there is a relatively detailed model for the network of gene interactions that proceeds in a sequential-hierarchical fashion to define the main features of the body plan. Over the years, we have a growing understanding of the networks involved in defining the body plan in an increasing number of arthropod species. It is now becoming possible to tease out the conserved aspects of these networks and to try to reconstruct their evolution...
September 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Gregory D Edgecombe
The past five years have witnessed a renewed interest in discrete morphological characters as a source of phylogenetic data, after a decade or more of their dismissal in favor of molecules-only approaches. This has stemmed in large part from refinements in total evidence dating, which requires morphological character matrices for extinct and extant taxa as well as temporal data from fossils. The unique contribution of palaeontology is stem groups, revealing the sequence of character acquisition in long-branch terminals and otherwise unknown character combinations and/or character states in extinct phenotypes...
September 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Joanna M Wolfe
Macroevolutionary developmental biology employs fossilized ontogenetic data and phylogenetic comparative methods to probe the evolution of development at ancient nodes. Despite the prevalence of ecologically differentiated larval forms in marine invertebrates, it has been frequently presumed that the ancestors of arthropods were direct developers, and that metamorphosis may not have evolved until the Ordovician or later. Using fossils and new dated phylogenies, I infer that metamorphosis was likely ancestral for crown arthropods, contradicting this assumption...
September 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Timothy P Driscoll, Victoria I Verhoeve, Mark L Guillotte, Stephanie S Lehman, Sherri A Rennoll, Magda Beier-Sexton, M Sayeedur Rahman, Abdu F Azad, Joseph J Gillespie
Reductive genome evolution has purged many metabolic pathways from obligate intracellular Rickettsia (Alphaproteobacteria; Rickettsiaceae). While some aspects of host-dependent rickettsial metabolism have been characterized, the array of host-acquired metabolites and their cognate transporters remains unknown. This dearth of information has thwarted efforts to obtain an axenic Rickettsia culture, a major impediment to conventional genetic approaches. Using phylogenomics and computational pathway analysis, we reconstructed the Rickettsia metabolic and transport network, identifying 51 host-acquired metabolites (only 21 previously characterized) needed to compensate for degraded biosynthesis pathways...
September 26, 2017: MBio
Wen-Bin Gu, Yi-Lian Zhou, Dan-Dan Tu, Zhong-Kai Zhou, Qi-Hui Zhu, Yu-Yin Chen, Miao-An Shu
IL-16 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine originally designated as a lymphocyte chemoattractant factor. In mammal and avian, it has been characterized as an essential regulator of various cellular processes including cell recruitment and activation against pathogen invasion. So far, neither of the full-length of IL-16 homologue nor the response mechanism against pathogen was reported in crab species. In the present study, the pro-IL-16 homologue was firstly cloned and characterized from mud crab Scylla paramamosain...
September 23, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Maria Ninova, Sam Griffiths-Jones, Matthew Ronshaugen
BACKGROUND: Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are a class of short (~26-31-nucleotide) non-protein-coding RNAs expressed in the metazoan germline. The piRNA pathway in arthropods is best understood in the ovary of Drosophila melanogaster, where it acts to silence active transposable elements (TEs). Maternal loading of piRNAs in oocytes is further required for the inheritance of piRNA-mediated transposon defence. However, our understanding of the diversity, evolution and function of the piRNA complement beyond drosophilids is limited...
September 26, 2017: Genome Biology
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