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Arthropod evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099506/spatial-and-host-related-variation-in-prevalence-and-population-density-of-wheat-curl-mite-aceria-tosichella-cryptic-genotypes-in-agricultural-landscapes
#1
Anna Skoracka, Mariusz Lewandowski, Brian G Rector, Wiktoria Szydło, Lechosław Kuczyński
The wheat curl mite (WCM), Aceria tosichella Keifer, is a major pest of cereals worldwide that also comprises a complex of at least 16 genetic lineages with divergent physiological traits, including host associations and specificity. The goal of this study was to test the extent to which host-plant species and landscape spatial variation influence WCM presence and population density across the entire area of Poland (>311,000 km2). Three important findings arose from the results of the study. (1) The majority of WCM lineages analyzed exhibited variation in patterns of prevalence and/or population density on both spatial and host-associated scales...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058113/transmission-bottlenecks-and-rnai-collectively-influence-tick-borne-flavivirus-evolution
#2
Nathan D Grubaugh, Claudia Rückert, Philip M Armstrong, Angela Bransfield, John F Anderson, Gregory D Ebel, Doug E Brackney
Arthropod-borne RNA viruses exist within hosts as heterogeneous populations of viral variants and, as a result, possess great genetic plasticity. Understanding the micro-evolutionary forces shaping these viruses can provide insights into how they emerge, adapt, and persist in new and changing ecological niches. While considerable attention has been directed toward studying the population dynamics of mosquito-borne viruses, little is known about tick-borne virus populations. Therefore, using a mouse and Ixodes scapularis tick transmission model, we examined Powassan virus (POWV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) populations in and between both the vertebrate host and arthropod vector...
July 2016: Virus Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049417/assessing-segmental-versus-non-segmental-features-in-the-ventral-nervous-system-of-onychophorans-velvet-worms
#3
Christine Martin, Vladimir Gross, Hans-Joachim Pflüger, Paul A Stevenson, Georg Mayer
BACKGROUND: Due to their phylogenetic position as one of the closest arthropod relatives, studies of the organisation of the nervous system in onychophorans play a key role for understanding the evolution of body segmentation in arthropods. Previous studies revealed that, in contrast to the arthropods, segmentally repeated ganglia are not present within the onychophoran ventral nerve cords, suggesting that segmentation is either reduced or might be incomplete in the onychophoran ventral nervous system...
January 3, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028472/candidate-pathogenicity-islands-in-the-genome-of-candidatus-rickettsiella-isopodorum-an-intracellular-bacterium-infecting-terrestrial-isopod-crustaceans
#4
YaDong Wang, Christopher Chandler
The bacterial genus Rickettsiellabelongs to the order Legionellales in the Gammaproteobacteria, and consists of several described species and pathotypes, most of which are considered to be intracellular pathogens infecting arthropods. Two members of this genus, R. grylliand R. isopodorum, are known to infect terrestrial isopod crustaceans. In this study, we assembled a draft genomic sequence for R. isopodorum, and performed a comparative genomic analysis with R. grylli. We found evidence for several candidate genomic island regions in R...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028122/evolution-of-chemosensory-gene-families-in-arthropods-insight-from-the-first-inclusive-comparative-transcriptome-analysis-across-spider-appendages
#5
Joel Vizueta, Cristina Frías-López, Nuria Macías-Hernández, Miquel A Arnedo, Alejandro Sánchez-Gracia, Julio Rozas
Unlike hexapods and vertebrates, in chelicerates, knowledge of the specific molecules involved in chemoreception comes exclusively from the comparative analysis of genome sequences. Indeed, the genomes of mites, ticks and spiders contain several genes encoding homologs of some insect membrane receptors and small soluble chemosensory proteins. Here, we conducted for the first time a comprehensive comparative RNA-Seq analysis across different body structures of a chelicerate: the nocturnal wandering hunter spider Dysdera silvatica Schmidt 1981...
December 27, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005061/comparative-genomics-provides-a-timeframe-for-wolbachia-evolution-and-exposes-a-recent-biotin-synthesis-operon-transfer
#6
Michael Gerth, Christoph Bleidorn
The genus Wolbachia (Alphaproteobacteria) comprises the most abundant inherited intracellular bacteria(1). Despite their relevance as manipulators of human pathogen transmission(2) and arthropod reproduction(3), many aspects of their evolutionary history are not well understood(4). In arthropods, Wolbachia infections are typically transient on evolutionary timescales(5,6) and co-divergence between hosts and Wolbachia is supposedly rare. Consequently, much of our knowledge of Wolbachia genome evolution derives from very recently diverged strains, and a timescale for Wolbachia is lacking...
December 22, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905469/selection-for-predation-not-female-fecundity-explains-sexual-size-dimorphism-in-the-orchid-mantises
#7
Gavin J Svenson, Sydney K Brannoch, Henrique M Rodrigues, James C O'Hanlon, Frank Wieland
Here we reconstruct the evolutionary shift towards floral simulation in orchid mantises and suggest female predatory selection as the likely driving force behind the development of extreme sexual size dimorphism. Through analysis of body size data and phylogenetic modelling of trait evolution, we recovered an ancestral shift towards sexual dimorphisms in both size and appearance in a lineage of flower-associated praying mantises. Sedentary female flower mantises dramatically increased in size prior to a transition from camouflaged, ambush predation to a floral simulation strategy, gaining access to, and visually attracting, a novel resource: large pollinating insects...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881649/the-many-faces-of-the-flavivirus-ns5-protein-in-antagonism-of-type-i-interferon-signaling
#8
REVIEW
Sonja M Best
The vector-borne flaviviruses cause severe disease in humans on every inhabited continent on earth. Their transmission by arthropods, particularly mosquitoes, facilitates large emergence events such as witnessed with Zika virus (ZIKV) or West Nile virus in the Americas. Every vector-borne flavivirus examined thus far that causes disease in humans, from dengue virus to ZIKV, antagonizes the host type I interferon (IFN-I) response by preventing JAK-STAT signaling, suggesting that suppression of this pathway is an important determinant of infection...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826498/functional-diversity-of-resilin-in-arthropoda
#9
REVIEW
Jan Michels, Esther Appel, Stanislav N Gorb
Resilin is an elastomeric protein typically occurring in exoskeletons of arthropods. It is composed of randomly orientated coiled polypeptide chains that are covalently cross-linked together at regular intervals by the two unusual amino acids dityrosine and trityrosine forming a stable network with a high degree of flexibility and mobility. As a result of its molecular prerequisites, resilin features exceptional rubber-like properties including a relatively low stiffness, a rather pronounced long-range deformability and a nearly perfect elastic recovery...
2016: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809783/transcriptomic-data-from-panarthropods-shed-new-light-on-the-evolution-of-insulator-binding-proteins-in-insects-insect-insulator-proteins
#10
Thomas Pauli, Lucia Vedder, Daniel Dowling, Malte Petersen, Karen Meusemann, Alexander Donath, Ralph S Peters, Lars Podsiadlowski, Christoph Mayer, Shanlin Liu, Xin Zhou, Peter Heger, Thomas Wiehe, Lars Hering, Georg Mayer, Bernhard Misof, Oliver Niehuis
BACKGROUND: Body plan development in multi-cellular organisms is largely determined by homeotic genes. Expression of homeotic genes, in turn, is partially regulated by insulator binding proteins (IBPs). While only a few enhancer blocking IBPs have been identified in vertebrates, the common fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster harbors at least twelve different enhancer blocking IBPs. We screened recently compiled insect transcriptomes from the 1KITE project and genomic and transcriptomic data from public databases, aiming to trace the origin of IBPs in insects and other arthropods...
November 3, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783385/from-success-to-persistence-identifying-an-evolutionary-regime-shift-in-the-diverse-paleozoic-aquatic-arthropod-group-eurypterida-driven-by-the-devonian-biotic-crisis
#11
James C Lamsdell, Paul A Selden
Mass extinctions have altered the trajectory of evolution a number of times over the Phanerozoic. During these periods of biotic upheaval a different selective regime appears to operate, although it is still unclear whether consistent survivorship rules apply across different extinction events. We compare variations in diversity and disparity across the evolutionary history of a major Paleozoic arthropod group, the Eurypterida. Using these data, we explore the group's transition from a successful, dynamic clade to a stagnant persistent lineage, pinpointing the Devonian as the period during which this evolutionary regime shift occurred...
January 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780588/the-non-mammalian-mif-superfamily
#12
REVIEW
Amanda Sparkes, Patrick De Baetselier, Kim Roelants, Carl De Trez, Stefan Magez, Jo A Van Ginderachter, Geert Raes, Richard Bucala, Benoît Stijlemans
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was first described as a cytokine 50 years ago, and emerged in mammals as a pleiotropic protein with pro-inflammatory, chemotactic, and growth-promoting activities. In addition, MIF has gained substantial attention as a pivotal upstream mediator of innate and adaptive immune responses and with pathologic roles in several diseases. Of less importance in mammals is an intrinsic but non-physiologic enzymatic activity that points to MIF's evolution from an ancient defense molecule...
October 12, 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780074/fossils-and-the-evolution-of-the-arthropod-brain
#13
REVIEW
Nicholas J Strausfeld, Xiaoya Ma, Gregory D Edgecombe
The discovery of fossilized brains and ventral nerve cords in lower and mid-Cambrian arthropods has led to crucial insights about the evolution of their central nervous system, the segmental identity of head appendages and the early evolution of eyes and their underlying visual systems. Fundamental ground patterns of lower Cambrian arthropod brains and nervous systems correspond to the ground patterns of brains and nervous systems belonging to three of four major extant panarthropod lineages. These findings demonstrate the evolutionary stability of early neural arrangements over an immense time span...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777729/metabolic-adaptations-in-a-range-expanding-arthropod
#14
Katrien H P Van Petegem, David Renault, Robby Stoks, Dries Bonte
Despite an increasing number of studies documenting life-history evolution during range expansions or shifts, we lack a mechanistic understanding of the underlying physiological processes. In this explorative study, we used a metabolomics approach to study physiological changes associated with the recent range expansion of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae). Mite populations were sampled along a latitudinal gradient from range core to edge and reared under benign common garden conditions for two generations...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759078/genotype-specific-interactions-between-parasitic-arthropods
#15
M Orsucci, M Navajas, S Fellous
Despite the ubiquity of coinfection, we know little of the effects of intra-specific genetic variability on coinfection by distinct parasite species. Here we test the hypothesis that parasite multiplication depends on the combination of parasite genotypes that coinfect the host (that is Genotype.parasite × Genotype.parasite interaction). To that aim, we infected tomato leaves with the ecto-parasitic mites Tetranychus urticae and Tetranychus evansi. We tested all possible combinations between four T. urticae and two T...
October 19, 2016: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748992/host-nuclear-genotype-influences-phenotype-of-a-conditional-mutualist-symbiont
#16
M S Hunter, P Asiimwe, A G Himler, S E Kelly
Arthropods commonly carry maternally inherited intracellular bacterial symbionts that may profoundly influence host biology and evolution. The intracellular symbiont Rickettsia sp. nr. bellii swept rapidly into populations of the sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci in the south-western USA. Previous laboratory experiments showed female-bias and fitness benefits were associated with Rickettsia infection, potentially explaining the high frequencies of infection observed in field populations, but the effects varied with whitefly genetic line...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739374/antifreeze-proteins-from-diverse-organisms-and-their-applications-an-overview
#17
Randy Chi Fai Cheung, Tzi Bun Ng, Jack Ho Wong
Antifreeze proteins are ice-binding or ice-structuring proteins that prevent water from freezing by adsorbing to the ice surface and stopping the growth of minute ice crystals to large crystals in a non-colligative manner. The antifreeze proteins are found in species like fish, arthropods, plants, algae, fungi, yeasts and bacteria. The diversity, distribution and classification of antifreeze proteins were highlighted in this review. Antifreeze proteins help the organisms adapt to and survive in subzero temperature environments...
October 12, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731321/early-miocene-amber-inclusions-from-mexico-reveal-antiquity-of-mangrove-associated-copepods
#18
Rony Huys, Eduardo Suárez-Morales, María de Lourdes Serrano-Sánchez, Elena Centeno-García, Francisco J Vega
Copepods are aquatic microcrustaceans and represent the most abundant metazoans on Earth, outnumbering insects and nematode worms. Their position of numerical world predominance can be attributed to three principal radiation events, i.e. their major habitat shift into the marine plankton, the colonization of freshwater and semiterrestrial environments, and the evolution of parasitism. Their variety of life strategies has generated an incredible morphological plasticity and disparity in body form and shape that are arguably unrivalled among the Crustacea...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721806/the-terrestrial-isopod-microbiome-an-all-in-one-toolbox-for-animal-microbe-interactions-of-ecological-relevance
#19
Didier Bouchon, Martin Zimmer, Jessica Dittmer
Bacterial symbionts represent essential drivers of arthropod ecology and evolution, influencing host traits such as nutrition, reproduction, immunity, and speciation. However, the majority of work on arthropod microbiota has been conducted in insects and more studies in non-model species across different ecological niches will be needed to complete our understanding of host-microbiota interactions. In this review, we present terrestrial isopod crustaceans as an emerging model organism to investigate symbiotic associations with potential relevance to ecosystem functioning...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718537/adaptive-dynamics-of-cuticular-hydrocarbons-in-drosophila
#20
S Rajpurohit, R Hanus, V Vrkoslav, E L Behrman, A O Bergland, D Petrov, J Cvačka, P S Schmidt
Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are hydrophobic compounds deposited on the arthropod cuticle that are of functional significance with respect to stress tolerance, social interactions and mating dynamics. We characterized CHC profiles in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster at five levels: across a latitudinal transect in the eastern United States, as a function of developmental temperature during culture, across seasonal time in replicate years, and as a function of rapid evolution in experimental mesocosms in the field...
January 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
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