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Arthropod evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216399/evolution-of-acidic-mammalian-chitinase-genes-chia-is-related-to-body-mass-and-insectivory-in-primates
#1
Mareike C Janiak, Morgan E Chaney, Anthony J Tosi
Insects are an important food resource for many primates, but the chitinous exoskeletons of arthropods have long been considered to be indigestible by the digestive enzymes of most mammals. However, recently mice and insectivorous bats were found to produce the enzyme acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) to digest insect exoskeletons. Here, we report on the gene CHIA and its paralogs, which encode AMCase, in a comparative sample of nonhuman primates. Our results show that early primates likely had three CHIA genes, suggesting that insects were an important component of the ancestral primate diet...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215078/melanization-in-response-to-wounding-is-ancestral-in-arthropods-and-conserved-in-albino-cave-species
#2
Helena Bilandžija, Mara Laslo, Megan L Porter, Daniel W Fong
Many species adapted to aphotic subterranean habitats have lost all body pigmentation. Yet, melanization is an important component of wound healing in arthropods. We amputated appendages in a variety of cave-adapted and surface-dwelling arthropods. A dark clot formed at the site of injury in most species tested, including even albino cave-adapted species. The dark coloration of the clots was due to melanin deposition. The speed of wound melanization was uncorrelated with a difference in metabolic rate between surface and cave populations of an amphipod...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203920/pan-arthropod-analysis-reveals-somatic-pirnas-as-an-ancestral-defence-against-transposable-elements
#3
Samuel H Lewis, Kaycee A Quarles, Yujing Yang, Melanie Tanguy, Lise Frézal, Stephen A Smith, Prashant P Sharma, Richard Cordaux, Clément Gilbert, Isabelle Giraud, David H Collins, Phillip D Zamore, Eric A Miska, Peter Sarkies, Francis M Jiggins
In animals, small RNA molecules termed PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) silence transposable elements (TEs), protecting the germline from genomic instability and mutation. piRNAs have been detected in the soma in a few animals, but these are believed to be specific adaptations of individual species. Here, we report that somatic piRNAs were probably present in the ancestral arthropod more than 500 million years ago. Analysis of 20 species across the arthropod phylum suggests that somatic piRNAs targeting TEs and messenger RNAs are common among arthropods...
December 4, 2017: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203666/structure-and-function-of-a-compound-eye-more-than-half-a-billion-years-old
#4
Brigitte Schoenemann, Helje Pärnaste, Euan N K Clarkson
Until now, the fossil record has not been capable of revealing any details of the mechanisms of complex vision at the beginning of metazoan evolution. Here, we describe functional units, at a cellular level, of a compound eye from the base of the Cambrian, more than half a billion years old. Remains of early Cambrian arthropods showed the external lattices of enormous compound eyes, but not the internal structures or anything about how those compound eyes may have functioned. In a phosphatized trilobite eye from the lower Cambrian of the Baltic, we found lithified remnants of cellular systems, typical of a modern focal apposition eye, similar to those of a bee or dragonfly...
December 4, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182506/opsins-and-their-expression-patterns-in-the-xiphosuran-limulus-polyphemus
#5
Barbara-Anne Battelle
The American horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus (Linnaeus, 1758) is one of four extant species of xiphosuran chelicerates, the sister group to arachnids. Because of their position in the arthropod family tree and because they exhibit many plesiomorphic characteristics, Xiphosura are considered a proxy for the euchelicerate ancestor and therefore important for understanding the evolution and diversification of chelicerates and arthropods. Limulus polyphemus is the most extensively studied xiphosuran, and its visual system has long been a focus of studies critical for our understanding of basic mechanisms of vision and the evolution of visual systems in arthropods...
August 2017: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182503/molecular-evolution-of-spider-vision-new-opportunities-familiar-players
#6
Nathan I Morehouse, Elke K Buschbeck, Daniel B Zurek, Mireille Steck, Megan L Porter
Spiders are among the world's most species-rich animal lineages, and their visual systems are likewise highly diverse. These modular visual systems, composed of four pairs of image-forming "camera" eyes, have taken on a huge variety of forms, exhibiting variation in eye size, eye placement, image resolution, and field of view, as well as sensitivity to color, polarization, light levels, and motion cues. However, despite this conspicuous diversity, our understanding of the genetic underpinnings of these visual systems remains shallow...
August 2017: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181449/transcriptome-sequencing-reveals-novel-candidate-genes-for-cardinium-hertigii-caused-cytoplasmic-incompatibility-and-host-cell-interaction
#7
Evelyne Mann, Corinne M Stouthamer, Suzanne E Kelly, Monika Dzieciol, Martha S Hunter, Stephan Schmitz-Esser
Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) is an intriguing, widespread, symbiont-induced reproductive failure that decreases offspring production of arthropods through crossing incompatibility of infected males with uninfected females or with females infected with a distinct symbiont genotype. For years, the molecular mechanism of CI remained unknown. Recent genomic, proteomic, biochemical, and cell biological studies have contributed to understanding of CI in the alphaproteobacterium Wolbachia and implicate genes associated with the WO prophage...
November 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161110/biotechnological-applications-of-an-insect-specific-alphavirus
#8
Jesse H Erasmus, Scott C Weaver
The coupling of viral and arthropod host diversity, with evolving methods of virus discovery, has resulted in the identification and classification of a growing number of novel insect-specific viruses (ISVs) that appear to be evolutionarily related to many human pathogens but have either lost or have yet to gain the ability to replicate in vertebrates. The discovery of ISVs has raised many questions as to the origin and evolution of many human pathogenic viruses and points to the role that arthropods may play in this evolutionary process...
November 21, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154857/astakines-in-arthropods-phylogeny-and-gene-structure
#9
Lena Ericsson, Irene Söderhäll
Astakine1 was isolated as a hematopoietic cytokine in the freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus. In this study we detect and compare 79 sequences in GenBank, which we consider to be possible astakine orthologs, among which eleven are crustacean, sixteen are chelicerate and 52 are from insect species. Available arthropod genomes are searched for astakines, and in conclusion all astakine sequences in the current study have a similar exon containing CCXX(X), thus potentially indicating that they are homologous genes with the structure of this exon highly conserved...
November 14, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127737/genomic-data-from-arthropods-reveal-high-conservation-but-divergent-evolutionary-pattern-of-polycomb-trithorax-group-genes-in-arthropods
#10
Feng Jiang, Qing Liu, Xiang Liu, Xian-Hui Wang, Le Kang
Epigenetic gene control is maintained by chromatin-associated Polycomb group (PcG) and Trithorax group (TrxG) genes, which act antagonistically via the interplay between PcG and TrxG regulation to generate silenced or permissive transcriptional states. In this study, we searched for PcG/TrxG genes in 180 arthropod genomes, covering all the sequenced arthropod genomes at the time of conducting this study, to perform a global investigation of PcG/TrxG genes in a phylogenetic frame. Results of ancestral state reconstruction analysis revealed that the ancestor of arthropod species has an almost complete repertoire of PcG/TrxG genes, and most of these genes were seldom lost above order level...
November 11, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108008/insights-into-the-molecular-evolution-of-peptidase-inhibitors-in-arthropods
#11
Joaquin Alonso, Manuel Martinez
Peptidase inhibitors are key proteins involved in the control of peptidases. In arthropods, peptidase inhibitors modulate the activity of peptidases involved in endogenous physiological processes and peptidases of the organisms with which they interact. Exploring available arthropod genomic sequences is a powerful way to obtain the repertoire of peptidase inhibitors in every arthropod species and to understand the evolutionary mechanisms involved in the diversification of this kind of proteins. A genomic comparative analysis of peptidase inhibitors in species belonging to different arthropod taxonomic groups was performed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105878/introgression-between-divergent-corn-borer-species-in-a-region-of-sympatry-implications-on-the-evolution-and-adaptation-of-pest-arthropods
#12
Yangzhou Wang, Kyung Seok Kim, Wenchao Guo, Qiyun Li, Yunyue Zhang, Zhenying Wang, Brad S Coates
The Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis, and European corn borer, O. nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), cause damage to cultivated maize in spatially distinct geographies, and have evolved divergent hydrocarbons as the basis of sexual communication. The Yili area of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in China represents the only known region where O. furnacalis has invaded a native O. nubilalis range, and these two corn borer species have made secondary contact. Genetic differentiation was estimated between Ostrinia larvae collected from maize plants at 11 locations in Xinjiang Province, and genotyped using high throughput SNP and microsatellite markers...
November 6, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103997/metagenomics-reshapes-the-concepts-of-rna-virus-evolution-by-revealing-extensive-horizontal-virus-transfer
#13
REVIEW
Valerian V Dolja, Eugene V Koonin
Virus metagenomics is a young research filed but it has already transformed our understanding of virus diversity and evolution, and illuminated at a new level the connections between virus evolution and the evolution and ecology of the hosts. In this review article, we examine the new picture of the evolution of RNA viruses, the dominant component of the eukaryotic virome, that is emerging from metagenomic data analysis. The major expansion of many groups of RNA viruses through metagenomics allowed the construction of substantially improved phylogenetic trees for the conserved virus genes, primarily, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRp)...
November 8, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091872/the-relevance-of-folkloric-usage-of-plant-galls-as-medicines-finding-the-scientific-rationale
#14
REVIEW
Seema Patel, Abdur Rauf, Haroon Khan
Galls, the abnormal growths in plants, induced by virus, bacteria, fungi, nematodes, arthropods, or even other plants, are akin to cancers in fauna. The galls which occur in a myriad of forms are phytochemically-distinct from the normal plant tissues, for these are the sites of tug-of-war, just like the granuloma in animals. To counter the stressors, in the form of the effector proteins of the invaders, the host plants elaborate a large repertoire of metabolites, which they normally will not produce. Perturbation of the jasmonic acid pathway, and the overexpression of auxin, and cytokinin, promote the tissue proliferation and the resultant galls...
October 26, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069493/horizontal-transfer-of-non-ltr-retrotransposons-from-arthropods-to-flowering-plants
#15
Dongying Gao, Ye Chu, Han Xia, Chunming Xu, Karolina Heyduk, Brian Abernathy, Peggy Ozias-Akins, James H Leebens-Mack, Scott A Jackson
Even though lateral movements of transposons across families and even phyla within multicellular eukaryotic kingdoms have been found, little is known about transposon transfer between the kingdoms Animalia and Plantae. We discovered a novel non-LTR retrotransposon, AdLINE3, in a wild peanut species. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that AdLINE3 is a member of the RTE clade, originally identified in a nematode and rarely reported in plants. We identified RTE elements in 82 plants, spanning angiosperms to algae, including recently active elements in some flowering plants...
October 23, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053401/are-we-prepared-for-emerging-flaviviruses-in-europe-challenges-for-vaccination
#16
Patricia Kaaijk, Willem Luytjes
Tick-borne encephalitis and West Nile fever are endemic flavivirus diseases in Europe. Climate change, virus evolution, and social factors may increase the risk of these flavivirus infections and may lead to the emergence of other flaviviruses in Europe that are endemic in (sub)tropical regions of the world. Control of the spread of flaviviruses is very difficult considering the cycling of flaviviruses between arthropod vectors and animal reservoir hosts. The increasing threat of flavivirus infections emphasizes the necessity of a sustainable vector surveillance system, an active animal health surveillance system and an adequate human surveillance system for early detection of flavivirus infections...
October 20, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051595/a-virus-carries-a-gene-encoding-juvenile-hormone-acid-methyltransferase-a-key-regulatory-enzyme-in-insect-metamorphosis
#17
Jun Takatsuka, Madoka Nakai, Tetsuro Shinoda
Microbial parasitism, infection, and symbiosis in animals often modulate host endocrine systems, resulting in alterations of phenotypic traits of the host that can have profound effects on the ecology and evolution of both the microorganisms and their hosts. Information about the mechanisms and genetic bases of such modulations by animal parasites is available from studies of steroid hormones. However, reports involving other hormones are scarce. We found that an insect virus, a betaentomopoxvirus, encodes a juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase that can synthesize an important insect hormone, the sesquiterpenoid juvenile hormone...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048274/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-new-iflavirus-from-armigeres-spp-mosquitoes-in-the-philippines
#18
Daisuke Kobayashi, Haruhiko Isawa, Ryosuke Fujita, Katsunori Murota, Kentaro Itokawa, Yukiko Higa, Yukie Katayama, Toshinori Sasaki, Tetsuya Mizutani, Shiroh Iwanaga, Nobuo Ohta, Arlene Garcia-Bertuso, Kyoko Sawabe
During an entomological surveillance for arthropod-borne viruses in the Philippines, we isolated a previously unrecognized virus from female Armigeres spp. mosquitoes. Whole-genome sequencing, genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolated virus, designated Armigeres iflavirus (ArIFV), is a novel member of the iflaviruses (genus Iflavirus, family Iflaviridae) and phylogenetically related to Moku virus, Hubei odonate virus 4, slow bee paralysis virus and Graminella nigrifrons virus 1...
November 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042606/population-genomics-of-wolbachia-and-mtdna-in-drosophila-simulans-from-california
#19
Sarah Signor
Wolbachia pipientis is an intracellular endosymbiont infecting many arthropods and filarial nematodes. Little is known about the short-term evolution of Wolbachia or its interaction with its host. Wolbachia is maternally inherited, resulting in co-inheritance of mitochondrial organelles such as mtDNA. Here I explore the evolution of Wolbachia, and the relationship between Wolbachia and mtDNA, using a large inbred panel of Drosophila simulans. I compare this to the only other large population genomic Wolbachia dataset from D...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041914/analysis-of-the-genome-of-the-new-zealand-giant-collembolan-holacanthella-duospinosa-sheds-light-on-hexapod-evolution
#20
Chen Wu, Melissa D Jordan, Richard D Newcomb, Neil J Gemmell, Sarah Bank, Karen Meusemann, Peter K Dearden, Elizabeth J Duncan, Sefanie Grosser, Kim Rutherford, Paul P Gardner, Ross N Crowhurst, Bernd Steinwender, Leah K Tooman, Mark I Stevens, Thomas R Buckley
BACKGROUND: The New Zealand collembolan genus Holacanthella contains the largest species of springtails (Collembola) in the world. Using Illumina technology we have sequenced and assembled a draft genome and transcriptome from Holacanthella duospinosa (Salmon). We have used this annotated assembly to investigate the genetic basis of a range of traits critical to the evolution of the Hexapoda, the phylogenetic position of H. duospinosa and potential horizontal gene transfer events. RESULTS: Our genome assembly was ~375 Mbp in size with a scaffold N50 of ~230 Kbp and sequencing coverage of ~180×...
October 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
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