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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626990/exhaled-breath-profiles-in-the-monitoring-of-loss-of-control-and-clinical-recovery-in-asthma
#1
Paul Brinkman, Marianne A van de Pol, Marije G Gerritsen, Lieuwe D Bos, Tamara Dekker, Barbara S Smids, Anirban Sinha, Christof J Majoor, Marlous M Sneeboer, Hugo H Knobel, Teunis J Vink, Frans H de Jongh, René Lutter, Peter J Sterk, Niki Fens
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease, associated with episodes of exacerbations. Therapy with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) targets airway inflammation, which aims to maintain and restore asthma control. Clinical features are only modestly associated with airways inflammation. Therefore, we hypothesized that exhaled volatile metabolites identify longitudinal changes between clinically stable episodes and loss of asthma control. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as measured by gas-chromatography / mass-spectrometry (GC/MS) and electronic nose (eNose) technology discriminate between clinically stable and unstable episodes of asthma...
June 19, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626631/chronic-eosinophilic-pneumonia-adjunctive-therapy-with-inhaled-steroids
#2
Christopher Chan, David DeLapp, Perry Nystrom
Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (ICEP) is a rare form of diffuse parenchymal lung disease first identified by Carrington et al. in 1969. It is characterized by the presence of constitutional and respiratory symptoms with associated peripheral opacities on imaging and elevated serum and/or bronchoalveolar eosinophilia. Although data is limited regarding etiology or prevalence, it is known that ICEP has a 2:1 female: male predominance and typically affects non-smokers. Diagnosis rests on the clinical constellation of respiratory symptoms of at least 2-4 weeks duration, the presence of diffuse pulmonary alveolar consolidation, classically described as the "photographic negative of pulmonary edema", the presence of eosinophils ≥40% on bronchoalveolar lavage or ≥1000/mm(3) eosinophils on peripheral blood and the exclusion of other known causes of eosinophilic lung diseases such as drugs, toxins, fungi, parasites, and collagen-vascular disorders...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619969/tension-enterothorax-and-hepatothorax-due-to-a-diaphragmatic-hernia-successful-emergency-repair-of-a-life-threatening-condition
#3
Eirini Martinou, Piers Gatenby
A 70-year-old female patient presented with acute severe respiratory distress at a district general hospital. Medical history included type 2 diabetes, recurrent pulmonary embolisms and pre-existing diaphragmatic hernia containing part of the liver. Despite initial treatment with steroid inhalers, her clinical picture rapidly deteriorated requiring emergency intubation and positive pressure ventilation. Imaging investigations revealed tension enterothorax and hepatothorax with tracheal deviation. The patient was transferred and underwent an emergency laparotomy at the Regional Oesophagogastric Unit...
June 14, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618875/implementation-of-guideline-based-therapy-for-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-differences-between-men-and-women-veterans
#4
Seppo T Rinne, A Rani Elwy, Chuan-Fen Liu, Renda Soylemez Wiener, Lisa Thayer, Alexandra Gerity, Lori A Bastian
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is common among both men and women, and guidelines recommend the same therapy for both sexes. While previous studies have identified gender differences in other chronic disease management, few studies have examined how implementation of COPD guidelines differs between men and women. We performed a cross-sectional study of veterans admitted to Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals for COPD during October 1, 2008, to September 30, 2011. We collected information on baseline COPD medications during the 6 months prior to hospitalization and categorized therapies as "appropriate" or "inappropriate" based on current guidelines...
January 1, 2017: Chronic Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616442/human-coronavirus-hku1-infection-among-adults-in-cleveland-ohio
#5
Anubhav Kanwar, Suresh Selvaraju, Frank Esper
BACKGROUND: Human coronaviruses (CoV) have been long recognized as a common cause of respiratory tract disease including severe respiratory tract illness. Coronavirus-HKU1 has been described predominantly among children less than 5 years of age in the United States with few studies characterizing the disease spectrum among adults. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal specimens of patients with respiratory symptoms were analyzed for CoV-HKU1 by NxTAG Respiratory Pathogen Panel multiplex assay from February 7, 2016 to April 30, 2016...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576975/route-of-administration-affects-corticosteroid-sensitivity-of-a-combined-ovalbumin-and-lipopolysaccharide-model-of-asthma-exacerbation-in-guinea-pigs
#6
Alexander P P Lowe, Rhian S Thomas, Anthony T Nials, Emma J Kidd, Kenneth J Broadley, William R Ford
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contributes to asthma exacerbations and development of inhaled corticosteroid insensitivity. Complete resistance to systemic corticosteroids is rare and most patients lie on a continuum of steroid responsiveness. The objective of this study was to examine the sensitivity of combined ovalbumin- (Ova) and LPS-induced functional and inflammatory responses to inhaled and systemic corticosteroid in conscious guinea-pigs, to test the hypothesis that the route of administration affects its sensitivity...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571199/an-unusual-case-of-eosinophilia
#7
Aashika Sunil Janwadkar, Jitendra Rajendra Ingole
Various inflammatory markers have been used to show an association between welding and respiratory tract disorders due to inhalation of fumes. We hereby present a case of 19-year-old male, welder by occupation who presented with upper respiratory tract infection and was documented to have persistent moderate eosinophilia on serial Complete Blood Count (CBC) examination. This was also confirmed by bone marrow examination which was suggestive of increased eosinophilic precursors. Eosinophils are an inflammatory marker and are increased most commonly in respiratory tract of welders due to inhalation of metal fumes...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559881/rodent-models-of-invasive-aspergillosis-due-to-aspergillus-fumigatus-still-a-long-path-toward-standardization
#8
REVIEW
Guillaume Desoubeaux, Carolyn Cray
Invasive aspergillosis has been studied in laboratory by the means of plethora of distinct animal models. They were developed to address pathophysiology, therapy, diagnosis, or miscellaneous other concerns associated. However, there are great discrepancies regarding all the experimental variables of animal models, and a thorough focus on them is needed. This systematic review completed a comprehensive bibliographic analysis specifically-based on the technical features of rodent models infected with Aspergillus fumigatus...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543931/severe-asthma-in-children
#9
REVIEW
Andrew Bush, Louise Fleming, Sejal Saglani
Most children with asthma have their disease easily controlled if low-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) are regularly and correctly administered. If a child presents with asthma which is apparently resistant to therapy with high-dose ICS and other controllers, then they have problematic severe asthma. However, in light of the UK National Review of Asthma Deaths, definitions of severe asthma based solely on the levels of prescribed treatment are too narrow. A detailed assessment of all such children should be performed...
May 25, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542286/clinical-impact-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-on-non-cystic-fibrosis-bronchiectasis-a-study-on-1-790-patients-from-the-spanish-bronchiectasis-historical-registry
#10
David De la Rosa, Miguel-Angel Martínez-Garcia, Rosa Maria Giron, Montserrat Vendrell, Casilda Olveira, Luis Borderias, Luis Maiz, Antoni Torres, Eva Martinez-Moragon, Olga Rajas, Francisco Casas, Rosa Cordovilla, Javier de Gracia
BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated the coexistence of bronchiectasis (BE) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in series of patients diagnosed primarily with BE. The aim of this study was to analyse the characteristics of patients with BE associated with COPD included in the Spanish Bronchiectasis Historical Registry and compare them to the remaining patients with non-cystic fibrosis BE. METHODS: We conducted a multicentre observational study of historical cohorts, analysing the characteristics of 1,790 patients who had been included in the registry between 2002 and 2011...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538237/update-on-postnatal-steroids
#11
Henry L Halliday
Antenatal steroid treatment to enhance fetal lung maturity and surfactant treatment to prevent or treat respiratory distress syndrome have been major advances in perinatal medicine in the past 40 years contributing to improved outcomes for preterm infants. Use of postnatal steroids to prevent or treat chronic lung disease in preterm infants has been less successful and associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Although early (in the first week of life) postnatal steroid treatment facilitates earlier extubation and reduces the risk of chronic lung disease, it is associated with adverse effects, such as hyperglycemia, hypertension, gastrointestinal bleeding and perforation, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, growth failure, and cerebral palsy, and cannot be recommended...
2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528221/bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-and-perinatal-characteristics-predict-1-year-respiratory-outcomes-in-newborns-born-at-extremely-low-gestational-age-a-prospective-cohort-study
#12
Roberta L Keller, Rui Feng, Sara B DeMauro, Thomas Ferkol, William Hardie, Elizabeth E Rogers, Timothy P Stevens, Judith A Voynow, Scarlett L Bellamy, Pamela A Shaw, Paul E Moore
OBJECTIVE: To assess the utility of clinical predictors of persistent respiratory morbidity in extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGANs). STUDY DESIGN: We enrolled ELGANs (<29 weeks' gestation) at ≤7 postnatal days and collected antenatal and neonatal clinical data through 36 weeks' postmenstrual age. We surveyed caregivers at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months' corrected age to identify postdischarge respiratory morbidity, defined as hospitalization, home support (oxygen, tracheostomy, ventilation), medications, or symptoms (cough/wheeze)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513515/relationship-between-knowledge-and-quality-of-asthma-care-among-physicians-in-south-west-nigeria
#13
B Adeniyi, O Ilesanmi, D Obaseki, O Desalu, B Betiku, G Erhabor
INTRODUCTION: Adequate knowledge of asthma management and adherence to international guidelines are known to increase the quality of care offered by Physicians. We conducted this study to assess the level of asthma knowledge and quality of care among physicians practicing in Ondo State. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional survey of 96 physicians from various specialties participating in a continuous professional development (CPD) lecture using adapted questionnaires...
May 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506728/-the-effects-of-inhaled-steroids-withdrawal-in-copd
#14
G Jebrak, I Honore, P Serrier, J Dumoulin, P Terrioux, F Soyez, C Maurer, G Mangiapan, M Febvre, L-J Couderc, J-M Braun, T Chinet
The key pathophysiological feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an abnormal inflammatory bronchial reaction after inhalation of toxic substances. The priority is the avoidance of such toxic inhalations, but the use of anti-inflammatory drugs also seems appropriate, especially corticosteroids that are the sole anti-inflammatory drug available for this purpose in France. The risks associated with the prolonged use of these parenteral drugs are well known. Inhalation is therefore the optimal route, but inhaled drugs may also lead to adverse consequences...
May 12, 2017: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503097/asthma-management-among-allergists-in-italy-results-from-a-survey
#15
M S Magnoni, M Caminati, G W Canonica, F Arpinelli, A Rizzi, G Senna
BACKGROUND: In Europe more than 50% of asthmatic treated patients have not well-controlled asthma. Asthma affects about 2.5 million of patients in Italy. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The present survey aims at investigating how Italian allergists approach asthmatic patients, in order to highlight pitfalls and unmet needs concerning real-life asthma management. METHODS: An anonymous 16 item web questionnaire was available (April-October 2015) to all allergists who visited the web site of SIAAIC (Società Italiana di Allergologia, Asma Immunologia Clinica)...
2017: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493984/nasal-airway-epithelial-cell-il-6-and-fkbp51-gene-expression-and-steroid-sensitivity-in-asthmatic-children
#16
Michael Fayon, Aurelie Lacoste-Rodrigues, Pascal Barat, Jean-Christophe Helbling, Fabienne Nacka, Patrick Berger, Marie-Pierre Moisan, Jean-Benoit Corcuff
BACKGROUND: Many asthmatic patients exhibit uncontrolled asthma despite high-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). Airway epithelial cells (AEC) have distinct activation profiles that can influence ICS response. OBJECTIVES: A pilot study to identify gene expression markers of AEC dysfunction and markers of corticosteroid sensitivity in asthmatic and non-asthmatic control children, for comparison with published reports in adults. METHODS: AEC were obtained by nasal brushings and primary submerged cultures, and incubated in control conditions or in the presence of 10 ng/ml TNFalpha, 10-8M dexamethasone, or both...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475082/angina-bullosa-hemorrhagica-report-of-7-cases-and-analysis-of-199-cases-from-the-literature
#17
Kelly B Dias, Anacláudia Pc Flores, Márcia G Oliveira, Vinicius C Carrard, Laura C Hildebrand, Manoel Sant'Ana Filho
Angina bullosa hemorrhagica (ABH) is a condition characterized by blood blisters in the oral or oropharyngeal mucosa. Typically, the first presentation of ABH is acute, and rupture of the blisters occurs after a few hours or days. Although its etiology is unclear, ABH is assumed to be associated with predisposing factors such as local trauma or chronic use of inhaled steroids. The diagnosis is defined clinically, based on the presentation and evolution of the lesions. The recommended treatment is symptomatic, but extensive lesions may present a risk of airway obstruction and may require surgical excision...
May 2017: General Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474411/a-trial-of-oral-corticosteroids-for-persistent-systemic-and-airway-inflammation-in-severe-asthma
#18
Keiji Oishi, Tsunahiko Hirano, Ryo Suetake, Syuichiro Ohata, Yoshikazu Yamaji, Kosuke Ito, Nobutaka Edakuni, Kazuto Matsunaga
INTRODUCTION: The fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and blood eosinophils, markers of local and systemic eosinophilic inflammation, respectively, are increased in asthmatic patients. Little is known concerning the relationship between the FeNO levels and blood eosinophils in asthmatics. METHODS: Twenty severe asthmatics with persistent FeNO elevation (≥40 ppb) and blood eosinophilia (≥3%) despite maintenance therapy including high-daily-dose inhaled corticosteroids were analyzed...
May 4, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425979/factors-leading-to-rehospitalization-for-tracheostomized-and-ventilator-dependent-infants-through-2-years-of-age
#19
G Akangire, W Manimtim, M Nyp, N Townley, H Dai, M Norberg, J B Taylor
OBJECTIVE: To identify factors leading to readmission for tracheostomized, ventilator-dependent infants <2 years of age. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of 117 tracheostomized, ventilator-dependent infants followed through 2 years of age. RESULTS: Home ventilator use (at hospital discharge, 6 and 12 months of age), inhaled steroid use (at 12 and 24 months of age), oxygen dependence (at 6 and 12 months of age) and tracheostomy (at discharge, 6 and 12 months of age) were increased risks for rehospitalization...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422515/allergen-induced-increases-in-sputum-levels-of-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-asthmatic-subjects
#20
Ruchong Chen, Steven G Smith, Brittany Salter, Amani El-Gammal, John Paul Oliveria, Caitlin Obminski, Rick Watson, Paul M O'Byrne, Gail M Gauvreau, Roma Sehmi
RATIONALE: Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), a major source of type 2 cytokines, initiate eosinophilic inflammatory responses in murine models of asthma. OBJECTIVES: Investigate the role of ILC2 in allergen-induced airway eosinophilic responses in atopic asthmatics. METHODS: Using a diluent-controlled allergen challenge cross-over study, where all subjects (n=10) developed allergen-induced early and late responses , airway eosinophilia and increased methacholine airway responsiveness, bone marrow, blood and sputum samples were collected pre- and post-inhalation challenge...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
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