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Wei Shi, Jingbo Yu, Zhijiang Jiang, Qiaoling Shao, Weike Su
In this paper, the synthesis of a cheap, reusable and ligand-free Pd catalyst supported on MgAl layered double hydroxides (Pd/MgAl-LDHs) by co-precipitation and reduction methods is described. The catalyst was used in Heck reactions under high-speed ball milling (HSBM) conditions at room temperature. The effects of milling-ball size, milling-ball filling degree, reaction time, rotation speed and grinding auxiliary category, which would influence the yields of mechanochemical Heck reactions, were investigated in detail...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
Johannah Linda Shergis, Xiaojia Ni, Jerome Sarris, Anthony Lin Zhang, Xinfeng Guo, Charlie C Xue, Chuanjian Lu, Helmut Hugel
BACKGROUND: In Chinese medicine, Ziziphus jujuba Mill. var. spinosa (Bunge) Hu ex H. F. Chou is widely used for the treatment of insomnia. PURPOSE/SECTIONS: This paper summarises the chemistry, psychopharmacology, and compares the pharmaceutical effects of the seeds of Ziziphus jujuba plant, Ziziphus spinosa (ZS) seeds, with benzodiazepines. Whole extracts and constituent compounds have been evaluated in preclinical and clinical studies. CONCLUSIONS: ZS secondary metabolites modulate GABAergic activity and the serotonergic system...
October 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
A Baldwin, J Mills, M Birks, L Budden
Role modelling by experienced nurses, including nurse academics, is a key factor in the process of preparing undergraduate nursing students for practice, and may contribute to longevity in the workforce. A grounded theory study was undertaken to investigate the phenomenon of nurse academics' role modelling for undergraduate students. The study sought to answer the research question: how do nurse academics role model positive professional behaviours for undergraduate students? The aims of this study were to: theorise a process of nurse academic role modelling for undergraduate students; describe the elements that support positive role modelling by nurse academics; and explain the factors that influence the implementation of academic role modelling...
September 5, 2017: Nurse Education Today
C Veluchamy, Ajay S Kalamdhad
Pulp and paper industry is one of the most polluting, energy and water intensive industries in the world. Produced pulp and paper mill sludge (PPMS) faces a major problem for handling and its management. An anaerobic digestion has become an alternative source. This review provides a detailed summary of anaerobic digestion of PPMS - An overview of the developments and improvement opportunities. This paper explores the different pretreatment methods to enhance biogas production from the PPMS. First, the paper gives an overview of PPMS production, and then it reviews PPMS as a substrate for anaerobic digestion with or without pretreatment...
September 1, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Natsima Tokhun, Chuleemas Boonthai Iwai, Barry N Noller
Pulp and paper mills (PPM) may discharge insufficiently treated waste into rivers and give rise to serious effects with aquatic life. This study investigated the biological response of the chironomid (Chironomus javanus, Kieffer) when exposed to PPM effluent. Effluent concentrations of BOD, COD, TKN, TS, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn were high. Cd and Cr concentrations in chironomid were the most accumulated. Whole effluent toxicity on the chironomid test organism was significant as expressed by the percent survival and decreased with increasing concentration...
September 8, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Tom Mills
This paper offers a defence of sociology through an engagement with Actor Network Theory (ANT) and particularly the critique of 'critical' and politically engaged social science developed by Bruno Latour. It argues that ANT identifies some weaknesses in more conventional sociology and social theory, and suggests that 'critical' and 'public' orientated sociologists can learn from the analytical precision and ethnographic sensibilities that characterize ANT as a framework of analysis and a research programme...
September 6, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
Xiaotang Du, Jeffery S Hsieh
Hydrophilic inks have been widely used due to higher printing speed, competitive cost and being healthy non-organic solvents. However, they cause problems in both product quality and process runnability due to their hydrophilic surface wettability, strong negative surface charge and sub-micron size. Electric treatment was shown to be able to increase the ink sizes from 60 nm to 700 nm through electrocoagulation and electrophoresis. In addition, electric treatment assisted flotation could reduce effective residual ink concentration (ERIC) by 90 ppm, compared with only 20 ppm by traditional flotation...
September 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Deepika Rajwar, Rashmi Paliwal, J P N Rai
The competence of novel fungal consortium, consisting of Nigrospora sp. LDF00204 (accession no. KP732542) and Curvularia lunata LDF21 (accession no. KU664593), was investigated for the treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent. Fungal consortium exhibited enhanced biomass production under optimized medium conditions, i.e., glucose as carbon (C), sodium nitrate as nitrogen (N), C/N 1.5:0.5, pH 5, temperature 30 °C, and agitation 140 rpm, and significantly reduced biochemical oxygen demand (85.6%), chemical oxygen demand (80%), color (82...
August 31, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Robert Koven, Matthew Mills, Richard Gale, Burak Aksak
Piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters often consist of a cantilevered beam composed of a support layer and one or two piezoelectric layers with a tip mass. While this configuration is advantageous for maximizing electromechanical coupling, the mechanical properties of the piezoelectric material can place limitations on harvester size and resonant frequency. Here, we present numerical and experimental results from a new type of piezoelectric energy harvester in which the mechanical properties and the resonant frequency of the cantilever beam resonator are effectively decoupled from the piezoelectric component...
August 14, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Vinod Kumar, Jogendra Singh, A K Chopra
Laboratory experiments were carried out to assess the phytoremediation potential of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solms) for the removal of different parameters of the paper mill effluent. The maximum removal efficiency of E. crassipes and phyto-kinetic removal rate was recorded at 50% concentration of the paper mill effluent followed by 60 days of phytoremediation experiments. The most percent reduction was observed in the contents of EC (62.23%), TDS (72.54%), BOD (79.93%), COD (85.66%), TKN (89...
August 9, 2017: Environmental Technology
A Bilbao-Guillerna, D A Axinte, J Billingham, G B J Cadot
In waterjet and laser milling, material is removed from a solid surface in a succession of layers to create a new shape, in a depth-controlled manner. The inverse problem consists of defining the control parameters, in particular, the two-dimensional beam path, to arrive at a prescribed freeform surface. Waterjet milling (WJM) and pulsed laser ablation (PLA) are studied in this paper, since a generic nonlinear material removal model is appropriate for both of these processes. The inverse problem is usually solved for this kind of process by simply controlling dwell time in proportion to the required depth of milling at a sequence of pixels on the surface...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Ratan K Mishra, Martin Weibel, Thomas Müller, Hendrik Heinz, Robert J Flatt
We present our research findings related to new formulations of the organic additives (grinding aids) needed for the efficient grinding of inorganic solids. Even though the size reduction phenomena of the inorganic solid particles in a ball mill is purely a physical process, the addition of grinding aids in milling media introduces a complex physicochemical process. In addition to further gain in productivity, the organic additive helps to reduce the energy needed for grinding, which in the case of cement clinker has major environmental implications worldwide...
August 9, 2017: Chimia
Zixin Yin, Yuxing Peng, Zhencai Zhu, Zhangfa Yu, Tongqing Li
The impact behavior between the charge and lifter has significant effect to address the mill processing, and is affected by various factors including mill speed, mill filling, lifter height and media shape. To investigate the multi-body impact load behavior, a series of experiments and Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations were performed on a laboratory-scale mill, in order to improve the grinding efficiency and prolong the life of the lifter. DEM simulation hitherto has been extensively applied as a leading tool to describe diverse issues in granular processes...
July 31, 2017: Materials
Francesco Aggogeri, Alberto Borboni, Angelo Merlo, Nicola Pellegrini, Raffaele Ricatto
The dynamic behaviour of a machine tool (MT) directly influences the machining performance. The adoption of lightweight structures may reduce the effects of undesired vibrations and increase the workpiece quality. This paper aims to present and compare a set of hybrid materials that may be excellent candidates to fabricate the MT moving parts. The selected materials have high dynamic characteristics and capacity to dampen mechanical vibrations. In this way, starting from the kinematic model of a milling machine, this study evaluates a number of prototypes made of Al foam sandwiches (AFS), Al corrugated sandwiches (ACS) and composite materials reinforced by carbon fibres (CFRP)...
March 15, 2017: Materials
Zhenyu Shi, Zhanqiang Liu, Yuchao Li, Yang Qiao
Cutting tool geometry should be very much considered in micro-cutting because it has a significant effect on the topography and accuracy of the machined surface, particularly considering the uncut chip thickness is comparable to the cutting edge radius. The objective of this paper was to clarify the influence of the mechanism of the cutting tool geometry on the surface topography in the micro-milling process. Four different cutting tools including two two-fluted end milling tools with different helix angles of 15° and 30° cutting tools, as well as two three-fluted end milling tools with different helix angles of 15° and 30° were investigated by combining theoretical modeling analysis with experimental research...
January 28, 2017: Materials
Tsitsi Mutasa-Apollo, Nathan Ford, Matthew Wiens, Maria Eugenia Socias, Eyerusalem Negussie, Ping Wu, Evan Popoff, Jay Park, Edward J Mills, Steve Kanters
INTRODUCTION: Expanding and sustaining antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage may require simplified HIV service delivery strategies that concomitantly reduce the burden of care on the health system and patients while ensuring optimal outcomes. We conducted a systematic review to assess the impact of reduced frequency of clinic visits and drug dispensing on patient outcomes. METHODS: As part of the development process of the World Health Organization antiretroviral (ARV) guidelines, we systematically searched medical literature databases for publications up to 30 August 2016...
July 21, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
William N Dowd, Jeremy W Bray, Carolina Barbosa, Krista Brockwood, David J Kaiser, Michael J Mills, David A Hurtado, Brad Wipfli
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost and return on investment (ROI) of an intervention targeting work-family conflict (WFC) in the extended care industry. METHODS: Costs to deliver the intervention during a group-randomized controlled trial were estimated, and data on organizational costs-presenteeism, health care costs, voluntary termination, and sick time-were collected from interviews and administrative data. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the intervention's impact on organizational costs...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Angela L Turner-Wilson, Anne M Mills, Karen Rees
This paper raises the problem of how improvements in health outcomes, a key component in many governments' strategies, can be achieved. The work highlights a novel undergraduate educational approach which offers solutions to public health challenges within nursing. Against the backdrop of one UK university institution it discusses approaches that can guide nursing students towards a deeper understanding and engagement within the principles of public health. It then proposes how nurses can use their learning to become leaders of health improvement...
July 12, 2017: Nurse Education Today
Shuaiqi Zhao, Ding Chen, Fuhua Wei, Nini Chen, Zhao Liang, Yun Luo
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were successfully synthesized by ultrasonic wave-assisted ball milling. In the absence of organic solvent, the coupling effect of ultrasonic wave and mechanical force played an significant role in the synthesis of MOFs. Adsorption of Congo red (CR) was studied in view of adsorption kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamics. The adsorbent was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM) methods...
November 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Tamara Llano, Natalia Quijorna, Ana Andrés, Alberto Coz
Waste from pulp and paper mills consist of sugar-rich fractions comprising hemicellulose derivatives and cellulose by-products. A complete characterisation of the waste streams is necessary to study the possibilities of an existing mill. In this work, four chromatographic methods have been developed to obtain the most suitable chromatographic method conditions for measuring woody feedstocks, lignocellulosic hydrolysates and cellulose pulp in sulphite pulping processes. The analysis of major and minor monosaccharides, aliphatic carboxylic acids and furfurals has been optimised...
September 2017: Biotechnology Reports
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