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K Doe, R Mroz, K-L Tay, J Burley, S Teh, S Chen
From 1861 to the 1940s, gold was produced from 64 mining districts in Nova Scotia, where mercury amalgamation was the dominant method for the extraction of gold from ore until the 1880s. As a result, wastes (tailings) from the milling process were contaminated by mercury and were high in naturally occurring arsenic. In 2004 and 2005, sediments, water and mollusc tissues were collected from 29 sampling stations at nine former gold mining areas along the Atlantic coastline and were analysed for arsenic and mercury...
October 1, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Wenqing Zhang, Janusz J Zwiazek
Low phosphorus (P) availability and high pH inhibit plant growth in calcareous soils and some oil sands reclamation sites in northeastern Alberta, Canada. In this study, we used a split-root hydroponic setup to test the effects of supplemental P with different calcium (Ca) concentrations and root-zone pH conditions on the growth and physiological response of trees commonly found in the region: paper birch ( Marsh.), trembling aspen ( Michx.), green alder [ (Chaix) DC.], and black spruce [ (Mill.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Xiaolei Shi, Chunhua Xu, Hongying Hu, Fang Tang, Lijuan Sun
Meeting the regulatory discharge standards for pulp and paper mill wastewater has become ever more difficult because of its recalcitrant and colored dissolved organic matter (DOM). In this study, the variation of DOM from the secondary effluent of pulp and paper mill wastewater before and after coagulation was investigated based on hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity, apparent molecular weight (MW) and fluorescence. DOM fractions of the secondary effluent were all with the apparent MW <20 kDa. Particularly, the hydrophobic acids (HOA) fraction, mainly composed of humic-like materials, was the major component, and it also had the highest color and SUVA254 (UV254 to dissolved organic carbon ratio)...
September 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Nicola Beresford, Alice Baynes, Rakesh Kanda, Matthew R Mills, Karla Arias-Salazar, Terrence J Collins, Susan Jobling
Endocrine Disrupting Compounds pose a substantial risk to the aquatic environment. Ethinylestradiol (EE2) and estrone (E1) have recently been included in a watch list of environmental pollutants under the European Water Framework Directive. Municipal wastewater treatment plants are major contributors to the estrogenic potency of surface waters. Much of the estrogenic potency of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents can be attributed to the discharge of steroid estrogens including estradiol (E2), EE2 and E1 due to incomplete removal of these substances at the treatment plant...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Teresa Fresno, Eduardo Moreno-Jiménez, Jesús M Peñalosa
The efficiency of combining iron sulfate and organic amendments (paper mill sludge, olive mill waste compost and olive tree pruning biochar) for the remediation of an As- and Cu-contaminated soil was evaluated. Changes in As and Cu fractionation and solubility due to the application of the amendments was explored by leachate analysis, single and sequential extractions. Also, the effects on Arrhenatherum elatius growth, germination of Lactuca sativa and toxicity to the bacteria Vibrio fischeri were assessed...
December 2016: Chemosphere
Rupa Iyer, Juhi Aggarwal, Brian Iken
The San Jacinto River (SJR) waste pits that lie just under the 1-10 overpass in eastern Harris County east of Houston, Texas, USA, were created in the 1960s as dumping grounds for paper mill waste. The deposition of this waste led to accumulation of highly toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCCDDs/PCDFs) over the course of several decades. After abandonment, the waste material eventually became submerged under the waters of the SJR, resulting in widespread environmental contamination that currently constitutes a significant health concern for eastern Harris County communities...
September 24, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Manel Ghribi, Fatma Meddeb-Mouelhi, Marc Beauregard
This study is the first comprehensive investigation of enzyme-producing bacteria isolated from four sludge samples (primary, secondary, press and machine) collected in a Kraft paper mill. Overall, 41 strains encompassing 11 different genera were identified by 16S rRNA gene analysis and biochemical testing. Both biodiversity and enzymatic activities were correlated with sludge composition. Press sludge hosted the largest variety of bacterial strains and enzymatic activities, which included hydrolytic enzymes and ligninolytic enzymes...
2016: SpringerPlus
Huina Dong, Deliang Chen, Kai Wang, Rui Zhang
Cost-effective and scalable preparation of two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has been the bottleneck that limits their applications. This paper reports a novel coupled ultrasonication-milling (CUM) process to exfoliate natural molybdenite powders to achieve few-layer MoS2 (FL-MoS2) nanosheets in the solvent of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) molecules. The synergistic effect of ultrasonication and sand milling highly enhanced the exfoliation efficiency, and the precursor of natural molybdenite powders minimizes the synthetic cost of FL-MoS2 nanosheets...
December 2016: Nanoscale Research Letters
L Notari, O Burman, D S Mills
Possible side effects of exogenous corticosteroids have been described in both humans and laboratory animals, with recent studies highlighting this issue in dogs. In this paper the behaviour of 345 dogs drawn from the caseload of a behaviour clinic based in the north of Italy between February 2012 and November 2014 were analysed. Possible relationships between dogs that received treatment with corticosteroids versus dogs that received treatment with drugs other than corticosteroids and positive or negative affective states, aggression towards people, other behaviour problems apart from aggression, occurrence of severe bites, and prescription of psychoactive drugs were initially assessed using a Pearson's chi-squared test...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Record
Andrew S Bell, Joseph Bradley, Jeremy R Everett, Jens Loesel, David McLoughlin, James Mills, Marie-Claire Peakman, Robert E Sharp, Christine Williams, Hongyao Zhu
High-throughput screening (HTS) is an effective method for lead and probe discovery that is widely used in industry and academia to identify novel chemical matter and to initiate the drug discovery process. However, HTS can be time consuming and costly and the use of subsets as an efficient alternative to screening entire compound collections has been investigated. Subsets may be selected on the basis of chemical diversity, molecular properties, biological activity diversity or biological target focus. Previously, we described a novel form of subset screening: plate-based diversity subset (PBDS) screening, in which the screening subset is constructed by plate selection (rather than individual compound cherry-picking), using algorithms that select for compound quality and chemical diversity on a plate basis...
November 2016: Molecular Diversity
Temesgen Eliku, Seyoum Leta
Heavy metals are among the major contaminants of vegetables. A study was conducted at Wonji Gefersa farms where paper wastewater is used for cultivation of vegetable crops. Four vegetable samples, namely Swiss chard, carrot, tomato, green pepper, as well as paper wastewater were examined for heavy metal [Lead (Pb), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd), Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu), Chromium (Cr) and Cobalt (Co)] contamination using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The levels of Pb, Cd and Cr in paper wastewater were all above the safe limit for FAO standards for wastewater quality for irrigation...
September 8, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Damjan Balabanič, Metka Filipič, Aleksandra Krivograd Klemenčič, Bojana Žegura
Paper mill effluents are complex mixtures containing different toxic compounds including endocrine-disrupting (EDCs) and genotoxic compounds. In the present study non-concentrated raw and biologically treated wastewaters from two paper mill plants with different paper production technologies i) Paper mill A uses virgin fibres, and ii) Paper mill B uses recycled fibres for paper production and the corresponding receiving surface waters, were assessed for their cytotoxic/genotoxic activity with SOS/umuC, Ames MPF 98/100 Aqua, and comet assay with human hepatoma HepG2 cells...
September 10, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Cátia V T Mendes, Jorge M S Rocha, Fabrícia F Menezes, Maria Graça V S Carvalho
Primary sludge from a Portuguese pulp and paper mill, containing 60% of carbohydrates, and unbleached pulp (as reference material), with 93% of carbohydrates, were used to produce ethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). SSF was performed in batch or fed-batch conditions without the need of a pretreatment. Cellic(®) CTec2 was the cellulolytic enzymatic complex used and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast or ATCC 26602 strain) or the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus NCYC 1426 were employed...
September 9, 2016: Environmental Technology
Jujun Ruan, Xiaohong Chen, Mingzhi Huang, Tao Zhang
This paper presents the development and evaluation of three fuzzy neural network (FNN) models for a full-scale anaerobic digestion system treating paper-mill wastewater. The aim was the investigation of feasibility of the approach-based control system for the prediction of effluent quality and biogas production from an internal circulation (IC) anaerobic reactor system. To improve FNN performance, fuzzy subtractive clustering was used to identify model's architecture and optimize fuzzy rule, and a total of 5 rules were extracted in the IF-THEN format...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Lauren Ball, Patricia Lee, Gina L Ambrosini, Kyra Hamilton, Haitham Tuffaha
Supporting patients to have healthy dietary behaviours contributes significantly to preventing and managing lifestyle-related chronic diseases. 'Nutrition care' refers to any practice provided by a health professional to support a patient to improve their dietary behaviours and subsequent health outcomes. Approximately 3% of consultations by Australian general practitioners (GPs) involve the provision of nutrition care. The aim of the present paper was to forecast the potential implications of a higher frequency of nutrition care by GPs...
September 5, 2016: Australian Journal of Primary Health
Abdur-Rasheed Alao, Richard Stoll, Xiao-Fei Song, Takashi Miyazaki, Yasuhiro Hotta, Yo Shibata, Ling Yin
This paper studied the surface quality (damage, morphology, and phase transformation) of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) in CAD/CAM milling, and subsequent polishing, sintering and sandblasting processes applied in dental restorations. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to scan all processed surfaces to determine phase transformations and analyse surface damage morphology, respectively. The average surface roughness (Ra) and maximum roughness (Rz) for all processed surfaces were measured using desk-top SEM-assisted morphology analytical software...
August 20, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Cátia V T Mendes, Crispin H G Cruz, Diana F N Reis, M Graça V S Carvalho, Jorge M S Rocha
Primary sludge, from different pulp and paper mills, was used as feedstock in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) processes to produce ethanol. SSF was carried out with Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 26602 yeast and NS 22192 enzymatic extract using 150gL(-1) of carbohydrates (CH) from primary sludge. The effect of sterilization, reduction of enzyme dosage and fed-batch vs. batch conditions were studied. The removal of sterilization can be considered since no contamination or atypical by-products were observed, although SSF efficiency slightly decreased...
November 2016: Bioresource Technology
Kamila Przybysz Buzała, Piotr Przybysz, Halina Kalinowska, Małgorzata Derkowska
Samples of bleached kraft pine cellulosic pulp, either treated with an enzyme preparation (a Thermomyces lanuginosus xylanase, an Aspergillus sp. cellulase, and a multienzyme preparation NS-22086 containing both these activities) or untreated, were refined in a laboratory PFI mill. The treatment with cellulases contained in the last two preparations significantly improved the pulp's susceptibility to refining (the target freeness value of 30°SR was achieved in a significantly shorter time), increased water retention value (WRV) and fines contents while the weighted average fiber length was significantly reduced...
2016: PloS One
Lesley Sibner, Robert Sibner, Yisong Yang
Recent work of Harland shows that the SO(3)-symmetric, dimensionally reduced, charge-N self-dual Yang-Mills calorons on the hyperbolic space [Formula: see text] may be obtained through constructing N-vortex solutions of an Abelian Higgs model as in the study of Witten on multiple instantons. In this paper, we establish the existence of such minimal action charge-N calorons by constructing arbitrarily prescribed N-vortex solutions of the Witten type equations.
April 8, 2015: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Márcio L A E Silva, Ana C Pereira, Daniele S Ferreira, Viviane R Esperandim, Guilherme V Símaro, Thaís C Lima, Ana H Januário, Patrícia M Pauletti, Vera L G Rehder, Eduardo J Crevelin, Wilson R Cunha, Antônio E M Crotti, Jairo K Bastos
This paper reports on the in vitro activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of P. glomerata roots, its hydrolyzed fractions, and pfaffic acid against Trypanosoma cruzi. The hydroalcoholic extract obtained from dried, milled P. glomerata roots was submitted to acid hydrolysis followed by partition with chloroform. The concentrated chloroform fraction was suspended in MeOH/H2 O and partitioned with hexane (F1), chloroform (F2), and ethyl acetate (F3), in this sequence. The trypanocidal activity of the hydrolyzed extract and its fractions was evaluated in vitro...
August 22, 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
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