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Apnea of prematurity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346141/caffeine-controversies
#1
Samuel J Gentle, Colm P Travers, Waldemar A Carlo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Caffeine use in preterm infants has endured several paradigms: from standard of care to possible neurotoxin to one of the few medications for which there is evidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) risk reduction. The purpose of the review is to analyze this dynamic trajectory and discuss controversies that still remain after decades of caffeine use. RECENT FINDINGS: Following concerns for caffeine safety in preterm infants, a large randomized controlled trial demonstrated a reduction in BPD and treatment for patent ductus arteriosus...
January 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336924/immunization-of-preterm-infants-with-gsk-s-hexavalent-combined-diphtheria-tetanus-acellular-pertussis-hepatitis-b-inactivated-poliovirus-haemophilus-influenzae-type-b-conjugate-vaccine-a-review-of-safety-and-immunogenicity
#2
Felix Omeñaca, Liliana Vázquez, Pilar Garcia-Corbeira, Narcisa Mesaros, Linda Hanssens, Jan Dolhain, Ivonne Puente Gómez, Johannes Liese, Markus Knuf
BACKGROUND: Infants with history of prematurity (<37 weeks gestation) and low birth weight (LBW, <2500 g) are at high risk of infection due to functional immaturity of normal physical and immunological defense mechanisms. Despite current recommendations that infants with history of prematurity/LBW should receive routine immunization according to the same schedule and chronological age as full-term infants, immunization is often delayed. METHODS: Here we summarize 10 clinical studies and 15 years of post-marketing safety surveillance of GSK's hexavalent vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib), a combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular-pertussis-hepatitis-B-inactivated-poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae-type-b (Hib) conjugate vaccine, when administered alone, or co-administered with pneumococcal conjugate, rotavirus, and meningococcal vaccines and respiratory syncytial virus IgG to infants with history of prematurity/LBW in clinical trials...
January 11, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328889/respiratory-phenotypes-for-preterm-infants-children-and-adults-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-and-more
#3
Joseph M Collaco, Sharon A McGrath-Morrow
Ongoing advancements in neonatal care since the late 1980's have led to increased numbers of premature infants surviving well beyond the neonatal period. As a result of increased survival, many individuals born preterm manifest chronic respiratory symptoms throughout infancy, childhood and adult life. The archetypical respiratory disease of prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), is the second most common chronic pediatric respiratory disease after asthma. However, there are several commonly held misconceptions...
January 12, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317568/comparative-efficacy-and-safety-of-caffeine-and-aminophylline-for-apnea-of-prematurity-few-concerns-author-s-reply
#4
M Shivakumar, Leslie Edward Simon Lewis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317567/comparative-efficacy-and-safety-of-caffeine-and-aminophylline-for-apnea-of-prematurity-few-concerns
#5
Uday Kumar Chalwadi, N K Kalappanavar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295636/caffeine-prevents-bilirubin-induced-cytotoxicity-in-cultured-newborn-rat-astrocytes
#6
Mehmet Deliktaş, Hacer Ergin, Aydın Demiray, Hakan Akça, Özmert M A Özdemir, Mehmet Bülent Özdemir
OBJECTIVE: Unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) may cause neurotoxicity in preterm neonates due to immaturity of UGT1A1 leading to bilirubin accumulation in the brain. Caffeine used in the treatment of apnea of prematurity was reported to decrease mechanical ventilation requirement, the frequencies of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, patent ductus arteriosus, cerebral palsy and neurodevelopmental disorders in very low birth weight infants. However, the effect of caffeine on hyperbilirubinemia was not yet clarified...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286928/long-term-neurodevelopment-outcome-of-caffeine-versus-aminophylline-therapy-for-apnea-of-prematurity
#7
S Khurana, M Shivakumar, G V Sujith Kumar Reddy, P Jayashree, Y Ramesh Bhat, L E S Lewis
OBJECTIVE: Methylxanthines are the most commonly prescribed drug in neonatal setups. However, Clinicians show indecision in choosing the right agent for Apnea of Prematurity in most of the developing countries. Present study aimed to compare rate of mortality and survival with normal neurodevelopment outcome at 18 to 24 months of corrected age, between Caffeine- and Aminophylline-treated infants for apnea of prematurity. METHODS: 240 infants were randomly allocated to caffeine and aminophylline for apnea of prematurity during February 2012 to January 2015...
2017: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278628/perinatal-complications-in-two-cohort-groups-of-preterm-newborns-in-intensive-care-unit-for-children-s-diseases-of-university-clinical-hospital-mostar
#8
Vedran Bjelanović, Marjana Jerković Raguž, Matea Galić, Ana Čuljak, Ivana Bjelanović, Vajdana Tomić
AIM: To determine the frequency and type of complications in two cohort groups of preterm newborns. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The research involved 100 preterm newborns divided into two groups according to their gestational age: newborns from 24 to 33+6/7 weeks GA and newborns from 34 to 36+6/7 weeks GA. Parameters which were observed with mother were: age, number of births, course and complications in pregnancy. Parameters with infant: gestational age, weight, newborn small for gestational age (IUGR), asphyxia, respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, hyperbilirubinemia, apnea, anemia, intracranial hemorrhage and metabolic disorder (hypoglycaemia, hypocalcaemia)...
December 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246449/contribution-of-relative-leptin-and-adiponectin-deficiencies-in-premature-infants-to-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-exploring-a-new-hypothesis
#9
REVIEW
Estelle B Gauda, Zankhana Master
Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) occurs frequently in premature infants who have apnea of prematurity. Immaturity of the respiratory network from low central respiratory drive and the greater contribution of the carotid body on baseline breathing leads to respiratory instability in premature infants presenting as apnea and periodic breathing. During the 2nd week after birth, the smallest and the youngest premature infants have increased frequency of apnea and periodic breathing and associated oxygen desaturations that can persist for weeks after birth...
December 12, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237534/-research-advances-in-neonatal-nasal-intermittent-positive-pressure-ventilation
#10
Zhi-Cheng Zhu, Jian-Guo Zhou, Chao Chen
Nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) can augment nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) by delivering intermittent positive pressure ventilation in a noninvasive way and can provide a new option for neonatal noninvasive respiratory support. NIPPV has an advantage over nCPAP in primary and post-extubation respiratory support. Moreover, it can reduce severe apnea of prematurity. Synchronized NIPPV has promising application prospects. This review article summarizes the advances in the application of NIPPV in neonatal respiratory support to promote the understanding and standardization of this technique...
December 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219889/the-value-of-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-and-platelet-to-lymphocyte-ratio-for-detecting-early-onset-neonatal-sepsis
#11
Emrah Can, Şahin Hamilcikan, Ceren Can
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between neonate early-onset sepsis (EOS) and the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) of term neonates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective observational study was conducted with term neonates diagnosed with EOS compared with 44 healthy controls. Exclusion criteria were prematurity, postmaturity, small or large for gestational age according to week of pregnancy, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, chorioamnionitis, congenital major anomalies, and cyanotic congenital heart disease...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190622/classifying-apnea-of-prematurity-by-transcutaneous-electromyography-of-the-diaphragm
#12
Juliette V Kraaijenga, Gerard J Hutten, Cornelia G de Waal, Frans H de Jongh, Wes Onland, Anton H van Kaam
BACKGROUND: Treatment of apnea is highly dependent on the type of apnea. Chest impedance (CI) has inaccuracies in monitoring respiration, which compromises accurate apnea classification. Electrical activity of the diaphragm measured by transcutaneous electromyography (EMG) is feasible in preterm infants and might improve the accuracy of apnea classification. OBJECTIVES: To compare the accuracy of apnea classification based on diaphragmatic EMG (dEMG) and CI tracings in preterm infants...
December 1, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120450/apnea-bradycardia-and-desaturation-spells-in-premature-infants-impact-of-a-protocol-for-the-duration-of-spell-free-observation-on-interprovider-variability-and-readmission-rates
#13
P Chandrasekharan, M Rawat, A M Reynolds, K Phillips, S Lakshminrusimha
OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of implementing a protocol to standardize the duration of observation in preterm infants with apnea/bradycardia/desaturation spells before hospital discharge on length of stay (LOS) and readmission rates. STUDY DESIGN: A protocol to standardize the duration of in-hospital observation for preterm infants with apnea, bradycardia and desaturation spells who were otherwise ready for discharge was implemented in December 2013. We evaluated the impact of this protocol on the LOS and readmission rates of very low birth weight infants (VLBW)...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065963/neurodevelopmental-outcomes-at-two-years-of-age-for-premature-infants-diagnosed-with-neonatal-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#14
Anuja Bandyopadhyay, Heidi Harmon, James E Slaven, Ameet S Daftary
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Neurocognitive deficits have been shown in school-aged children with sleep apnea. The effect of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on the neurodevelopmental outcome of preterm infants is unknown. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed for all preterm infants (< 37 weeks) who had neonatal polysomnography (PSG) and completed neurodevelopmental assessment with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd Edition, between 2006 to 2015 at Riley Hospital...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064170/sleep-disordered-breathing-in-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia
#15
Luis E Ortiz, Sharon A McGrath-Morrow, Laura M Sterni, Joseph M Collaco
BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the effect of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) on sleep disordered breathing (SDB). We hypothesized that both the severity of prematurity and BPD would increase the likelihood of SDB in early childhood. Our secondary aim was to evaluate the association of demographic factors on the development of SDB. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of patient factors and overnight polysomnogram (PSG) data of children enrolled in our BPD registry between 2008 and 2015...
December 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976322/medical-devices-for-paediatric-apnea-monitoring-and-therapy-past-and-new-trends
#16
Salvatore A Pullano, Ifana Mahbub, Maria Giovanna Bianco, Samira Shamsir, Syed K Islam, Mark S Gaylord, Vichien Lorch, Antonino S Fiorillo
Apnea in the paediatric population is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in a large number of developed as well as developing countries. It is even more prominent in preterm newborn infants and is commonly referred to as apnea of prematurity. Its current diagnosis and therapy involve the use of traditional technologies which often result in discomfort to the infants due to the use of invasive devices attached to their sensitive skin, especially in overnight clinical sleep analysis (for over 12- or 24-hour period)...
September 29, 2017: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953055/predictors-of-persistent-infant-car-seat-challenge-failure
#17
Laura Mandell, Lawrence M Rhein, Henry A Feldman, Emily Bergling, Courtney Porter, Michele DeGrazia
BACKGROUND: Premature and other at-risk infants can experience cardiorespiratory problems when positioned in their car seats. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all premature and at-risk infants undergo a period of observation in their car seat to monitor for apnea, bradycardia, and oxygen desaturation before hospital discharge. This Infant Car Seat Challenge (ICSC) is used to determine readiness for infant travel in a car seat. Infants failing the ICSC are discharged home in car beds and referred for a follow-up screen in the outpatient clinic...
December 2017: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892549/pediatric-obstructive-sleep-apnea-in-high-risk-populations-clinical-implications
#18
Mai El Mallah, Evan Bailey, Michelle Trivedi, Ted Kremer, Lawrence M Rhein
Certain common medical conditions are associated with a higher risk of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A lower threshold for screening is therefore indicated for such patient cohorts. In this article, we briefly discuss the high prevalence of OSA in children born prematurely, and in those with Down syndrome, craniofacial disorders, and neuromuscular disorders. Primary care providers should have an increased index of suspicion for OSA in these children, considering the neurocognitive disability that occurs in these high-risk groups when OSA is left untreated...
September 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875061/impact-of-caffeine-boluses-and-caffeine-discontinuation-on-apnea-and-hypoxemia-in-preterm-infants
#19
Christa R Tabacaru, Suk Young Jang, Manisha Patel, Faranek Davalian, Santina Zanelli, Karen D Fairchild
Background: Apnea of prematurity often occurs during and following caffeine therapy. We hypothesized that number of apnea events would be impacted by adjustments in caffeine therapy. Materials and Methods: An automated algorithm was used in all infants ≤32 weeks gestation admitted to a level IV Neonatal Intensive Care Unit from 2009 to 2014 to analyze chest impedance, electrocardiogram, and oxygen saturation data around the time of serum caffeine levels, caffeine boluses while on maintenance therapy, and caffeine discontinuation...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Caffeine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729348/a-new-target-for-caffeine-in-the-developing-lung-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#20
Philipp Rath, Claudio Nardiello, Rory E Morty
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
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