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Apnea of prematurity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899304/caffeine-for-apnea-of-prematurity-effects-on-the-developing-brain
#1
REVIEW
Anzari Atik, Richard Harding, Robert De Matteo, Delphi Kondos-Devcic, Jeanie Cheong, Lex W Doyle, Mary Tolcos
Caffeine is a methylxanthine that is widely used to treat apnea of prematurity (AOP). In preterm infants, caffeine reduces the duration of respiratory support, improves survival rates and lowers the incidence of cerebral palsy and cognitive delay. There is, however, little evidence relating to the immediate and long-term effects of caffeine on brain development, especially at the cellular and molecular levels. Experimental data are conflicting, with studies showing that caffeine can have either adverse or benefical effects in the developing brain...
November 26, 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865065/how-do-we-recognize-the-child-with-osas
#2
Koen F Joosten, Helena Larramona, Silvia Miano, Dick Van Waardenburg, Athanasios G Kaditis, Nele Vandenbussche, Refika Ersu
Obstructive sleep-disordered breathing includes a spectrum of clinical entities with variable severity ranging from primary snoring to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The clinical suspicion for OSAS is most often raised by parental report of specific symptoms and/or abnormalities identified by the physical examination which predispose to upper airway obstruction (e.g., adenotonsillar hypertrophy, obesity, craniofacial abnormalities, neuromuscular disorders). Symptoms and signs of OSAS are classified into those directly related to the intermittent pharyngeal airway obstruction (e...
November 16, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849235/randomized-controlled-trial-comparing-nasal-intermittent-positive-pressure-ventilation-and-nasal-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-in-premature-infants-after-tracheal-extubation
#3
Daniela Franco Rizzo Komatsu, Edna Maria de Albuquerque Diniz, Alexandre Archanjo Ferraro, Maria Esther Jurvest Rivero Ceccon, Flávio Adolfo Costa Vaz
Objective: To analyze the frequency of extubation failure in premature infants using conventional mechanical ventilation (MV) after extubation in groups subjected to nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (nIPPV) and continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP). Method: Seventy-two premature infants with respiratory failure were studied, with a gestational age (GA) ≤ 36 weeks and birth weight (BW) > 750 g, who required tracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation...
September 2016: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760427/doxapram-treatment-for-apnea-of-prematurity-a-systematic-review
#4
Roseanne J S Vliegenthart, Christine H Ten Hove, Wes Onland, Anton H L C van Kaam
BACKGROUND: Apnea of prematurity (AOP) is a common complication of preterm birth, for which caffeine is the first treatment of choice. In case of persistent AOP, doxapram has been advocated as an additional therapy. OBJECTIVE: To identify and appraise all existing evidence regarding efficacy and safety of doxapram use for AOP in infants born before 34 weeks of gestational age. METHODS: All studies reporting on doxapram use for AOP were identified by searching electronic databases, references from relevant studies, and abstracts from the Societies for Pediatric Research...
October 20, 2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749633/etiology-and-outcome-of-severe-apparent-life-threatening-events-in-infants
#5
Tanja Radovanovic, Slobodan Spasojevic, Vesna Stojanovic, Aleksandra Doronjski
INTRODUCTION: An apparent life-threatening event (ALTE) is defined as "an episode that is frightening to the observer and is characterized by some combination of apnea, color change, marked change of muscle tone, choking, or gagging." OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to determine etiology and outcome of severe ALTE (requiring resuscitation measures) and to review diagnostic approaches in infants hospitalized after such an episode of ALTE. METHODS: Retrospective analysis included patients hospitalized at the Intensive Care Unit, Institute of Child and Youth Healthcare of Vojvodina, after an episode of severe ALTE over a 4-year period...
September 30, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746740/moderate-hyperbilirubinemia-alters-neonatal-cardiorespiratory-control-and-induces-inflammation-in-the-nucleus-tractus-solitarius
#6
Marie-Laure Specq, Mélisande Bourgoin-Heck, Nathalie Samson, François Corbin, Christian Gestreau, Maxime Richer, Hazim Kadhim, Jean-Paul Praud
Hyperbilirubinemia (HB) occurs in 90% of preterm newborns. Moderate HB can induce acute neurological disorders while severe HB has been linked to a higher incidence of apneas of prematurity. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that even moderate HB disrupts cardiorespiratory control in preterm lambs. Two groups of preterm lambs (born 14 days prior to term), namely control (n = 6) and HB (n = 5), were studied. At day 5 of life, moderate HB (150-250 μmol/L) was induced during 17 h in the HB group after which cardiorespiratory control as well as laryngeal and pulmonary chemoreflexes were assessed during baseline recordings and during hypoxia...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725928/association-between-apnea-of-prematurity-and-respiratory-distress-syndrome-in-late-preterm-infants-an-observational-study
#7
François Olivier, Sophie Nadeau, Georges Caouette, Bruno Piedboeuf
BACKGROUND: Late preterm infants (34-36 weeks' gestation) remain a population at risk for apnea of prematurity (AOP). As infants affected by respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) have immature lungs, they might also have immature control of breathing. Our hypothesis is that an association exists between RDS and AOP in late preterm infants. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to assess the association between RDS and AOP in late preterm infants. The secondary objective was to evaluate if an association exists between apparent RDS severity and AOP...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712960/passive-myofunctional-therapy-applied-on-children-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-a-6-month-follow-up
#8
Li-Chuan Chuang, Yun-Chia Lian, Michèle Hervy-Auboiron, Christian Guilleminault, Yu-Shu Huang
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Myofunctional therapy is one of the recommended treatments for obstructive sleep apnea, but the level of compliance has often been low in children. This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effect of passive myofunctional therapy using an oral appliance during sleep in children suffering from obstructive sleep apnea. METHODS: Twenty-nine children who suffered from obstructive sleep apnea were divided into two groups: premature children and full-term children...
October 3, 2016: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684421/clinically-significant-cardiopulmonary-events-and-the-effect-of-definition-standardization-on-apnea-of-prematurity-management
#9
M B F Powell, C R Ahlers-Schmidt, M Engel, B T Bloom
OBJECTIVE: To define the impact of care standardization on caffeine and cardiorespiratory monitoring at neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) discharge. STUDY DESIGN: Electronic records were abstracted for infants aged 24-36 weeks gestation with birth weights appropriate for gestational age. Infants who died, transferred prior to discharge, had major pulmonary anomalies, required a home monitor for mechanical ventilation or had a family history of sudden infant death syndrome were excluded...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642150/-pulmonary-complications-of-sickle-cell-disease-in-children
#10
T Pincez, L Calamy, Z Germont, A Lemoine, A-A Lopes, A Massiot, J Tencer, C Thivent, A Hadchouel
Acute and chronic pulmonary complications are frequent in sickle cell disease (SCD), with different spectrum and characteristics in children and adults. Chronic hypoxia is frequent and plays a role in several respiratory complications in SCD. Furthermore, hypoxia has been associated with a higher risk of cerebral ischemia. Despite differing oxygen affinity between hemoglobin A and S, standard pulse oximetry was shown to be accurate in diagnosing hypoxia in SCD patients. Whereas acute hypoxia management is similar to non-SCD patients, chronic hypoxia treatment is mainly based on a transfusion program rather than long-term oxygen therapy...
October 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612991/doxapram-dosing-for-apnea-of-prematurity-based-on-postmenstrual-age-and-gender-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
E Greze, M Benard, I Hamon, C Casper, F E Haddad, M-J Boutroy, J-M Hascoët
INTRODUCTION: Doxapram is used as a third-line treatment for apnea unresponsive to caffeine and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in preterm infants. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of dosing adjusted for gender and postmenstrual age (PMA) (GrA) versus infants' weight alone (GrW) on doxapram plasma levels, clinical efficacy, and side effects. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind study, including premature infants for whom optimized caffeine and CPAP therapy for apnea of prematurity had failed...
December 2016: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588270/systemic-changes-and-adverse-effects-induced-by-retinopathy-of-prematurity-screening
#12
Jing-Bo Jiang, Zhi-Wei Zhang, Jia-Wen Zhang, Yan-Li Wang, Chuan Nie, Xian-Qiong Luo
AIM: To estimate the potential systemic events during and after retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening. METHODS: A prospective and descriptive designed study was conducted to detect the physiologic and pathological changes 24h before, during, and 72h after ROP screening. Control blood pressure (BP), saturation, pulse rate, and body temperature were routinely taken at various time internals before and after screening. Adverse effects pertain to cardiovascular system, respiratory system, gastric system, urinary system and nervous system were retrospect 0-72h after ROP screening at a 24-hour interval...
2016: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482086/leaky-ryr2-channels-unleash-a-brainstem-spreading-depolarization-mechanism-of-sudden-cardiac-death
#13
Isamu Aiba, Xander H T Wehrens, Jeffrey L Noebels
Cardiorespiratory failure is the most common cause of sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Genetic autopsies have detected "leaky" gain-of-function mutations in the ryanodine receptor-2 (RyR2) gene in both SUDEP and sudden cardiac death cases linked to catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia that feature lethal cardiac arrhythmias without structural abnormality. Here we find that a human leaky RyR2 mutation, R176Q (RQ), alters neurotransmitter release probability in mice and significantly lowers the threshold for spreading depolarization (SD) in dorsal medulla, leading to cardiorespiratory collapse...
August 16, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477858/influence-of-developmental-nicotine-exposure-on-glutamatergic-neurotransmission-in-rhythmically-active-hypoglossal-motoneurons
#14
Marina Cholanian, Gregory L Powell, Richard B Levine, Ralph F Fregosi
Developmental nicotine exposure (DNE) is associated with increased risk of cardiorespiratory, intellectual, and behavioral abnormalities in neonates, and is a risk factor for apnea of prematurity, altered arousal responses and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Alterations in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor signaling (nAChRs) after DNE lead to changes in excitatory neurotransmission in neural networks that control breathing, including a heightened excitatory response to AMPA microinjection into the hypoglossal motor nucleus...
July 29, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462274/effects-of-gestational-and-postnatal-exposure-to-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-on-diaphragm-muscle-contractile-function-in-the-rat
#15
Fiona B McDonald, Eugene M Dempsey, Ken D O'Halloran
Alterations to the supply of oxygen during early life presents a profound stressor to physiological systems with aberrant remodeling that is often long-lasting. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is a feature of apnea of prematurity, chronic lung disease, and sleep apnea. CIH affects respiratory control but there is a dearth of information concerning the effects of CIH on respiratory muscles, including the diaphragm-the major pump muscle of breathing. We investigated the effects of exposure to gestational CIH (gCIH) and postnatal CIH (pCIH) on diaphragm muscle function in male and female rats...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418689/lipopolysaccharide-exposure-during-the-early-postnatal-period-adversely-affects-the-structure-and-function-of-the-developing-rat-carotid-body
#16
Zankhana R Master, Andrea Porzionato, Kalpashri Kesavan, Ariel Mason, Raul Chavez-Valdez, Machiko Shirahata, Estelle B Gauda
The carotid body (CB) substantially influences breathing in premature infants by affecting the frequency of apnea and periodic breathing. In adult animals, inflammation alters the structure and chemosensitivity of the CB, yet it is not known if this pertains to neonates. We hypothesized that early postnatal inflammation leads to morphological and functional changes in the developing rat CB, which persists for one week after the initial provoking insult. To test our hypothesis, we exposed rat pups at postnatal day 2 (P2) to lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 µg/kg) or saline (SAL) intraperitoneally (IP)...
July 14, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27398705/apnea-after-routine-eye-examinations-in-premature-infants
#17
Brittany Reid, Hongyue Wang, Ronnie Guillet
Objective To determine the frequency of cardiorespiratory events following routine exams for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Study Design This is a retrospective review of 79 premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit at the University of Rochester Medical Center. The baseline for each infant (mean cardiorespiratory events in the 72 hours before the exam) was compared with the number of cardiorespiratory events during the subsequent 24 hours using generalized estimating equation and the Mantel-Haenszel chi-square test to determine if there was an association between cardiorespiratory events and potential risk factors...
July 11, 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27388444/predictive-factors-for-efficacy-and-safety-of-prophylactic-theophylline-for-extubation-in-infants-with-apnea-of-prematurity
#18
Tomoko Kondo, Yuki Kondo, Yuji Orita, Fumi Mitarai, Yoichi Ishitsuka, Mitsuru Irikura, Yoshihiro Shimodozono, Tsutomu Douchi, Yasuo Takeda, Tetsumi Irie
PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate predictive factors involved in efficacy and safety in Japanese infants who received theophylline therapy to prevent apnea of prematurity (AOP) after weaning from mechanical ventilation. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of infants who were administered intravenous aminophylline (theophylline ethylenediamine) for AOP at the neonatal intensive care unit, Kagoshima University Hospital, Japan, between January 2009 and June 2013...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27375739/bowel-perforation-in-premature-infants-with-necrotizing-enterocolitis-risk-factors-and-outcomes
#19
Lingling Yu, Jianmei Tian, Xingli Zhao, Ping Cheng, Xiaoqian Chen, Yun Yu, Xiaochun Ding, Xueping Zhu, Zhihui Xiao
We aim to determine risk factors and clinical outcomes for bowel perforation in premature infants with NEC. We analyzed clinical data of 57 cases of premature infants with NEC at our NICU between January 2010 and December 2012. Based on the presence of bowel perforation, we divided these infants into two groups: perforated NEC group (n = 10) and nonperforated NEC group (n = 47). We compared general information, clinical characteristics, and laboratory findings between groups. The perforated NEC group, compared to the nonperforated NEC group, had significantly lesser gestational age, lower birth weight, higher prevalence of apnea, mechanical ventilation, sepsis and shock, lower blood pH, higher levels of blood glucose, abnormal WBC count and thrombocytopenia, and elevated CRP (all P < 0...
2016: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27307960/comparison-of-complications-and-efficacy-of-nippv-and-nasal-cpap-in-preterm-infants-with-rds
#20
Tahereh Esmaeilnia, Fatemeh Nayeri, Roya Taheritafti, Mamak Shariat, Faezeh Moghimpour-Bijani
BACKGROUND: Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is one of the most common diseases in neonates admitted to NICU. For this important cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm neonates, several treatment methods have been used. To date, non-invasive methods are preferred due to fewer complications. OBJECTIVES: Herein, two non-invasive methods of ventilation support are compared: NCPAP vs. NIPPV. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a randomized clinical trial...
April 2016: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
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