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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343378/adipose-derived-stem-cells-suppress-inflammation-induced-by-il-1beta-through-down-regulation-of-p2x7r-mediated-by-mir-373-in-chondrocytes-of-osteoarthritis
#1
Rilong Jin, Miaoda Shen, Liedao Yu, Xuanwei Wang, Xiangjin Lin
Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) were previously considered to have an anti-inflammatory effect, and Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) was found to be a pro-inflammatory factor in chondrocytes, but the mechanism underlying ADSCs and IL-1beta is unclear. In this study, we investigate whether P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) signalling, regulated by microRNA 373 (miR-373), was involved in the ADSCs and IL-1beta mediated inflammation in osteoarthritis (OA). Chondrocytes were collected from 20OA patients and 20 control participants, and ADSCs were collected from patients who had undergone abdominal surgery...
March 27, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343377/protein-kinase-c-mediates-the-corticosterone-induced-sensitization-of-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons-innervating-the-rat-stomach
#2
Meng Li, Lu Xue, Hong-Yan Zhu, Hongjun Wang, Xue Xu, Geping Wu, Guang-Yin Xu
Background/Aims: Gastric hypersensitivity contributes to abdominal pain in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). Recent studies showed that hormones induced by stress are correlated with visceral hypersensitivity. However, the precise mechanisms underlying gastric hypersensitivity remain largely unknown. The aim of the present study was designed to investigate the roles of corticosterone (CORT) on excitability of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons innervating the stomach. Methods: DRG neurons innervating the stomach were labeled by DiI injection into the stomach wall...
March 26, 2017: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343295/identification-of-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-subtype-1-s1p1-as-a-pathogenic-factor-in-transient-focal-cerebral-ischemia
#3
Bhakta Prasad Gaire, Chi-Ho Lee, Arjun Sapkota, Sang Yeul Lee, Jerold Chun, Hee Jun Cho, Tae-Gyu Nam, Ji Woong Choi
Medically relevant roles of receptor-mediated sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) signaling have become a successful or promising target for multiple sclerosis or cerebral ischemia. Animal-based proof-of-concept validation for the latter is particularly through the neuroprotective efficacy of FTY720, a non-selective S1P receptor modulator, presumably via activation of S1P1. In spite of a clear link between S1P signaling and cerebral ischemia, it remains unknown whether the role of S1P1 is pathogenic or neuroprotective...
March 25, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343271/protein-degradation-systems-in-the-skeletal-muscles-of-parr-and-smolt-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l-and-brown-trout-salmo-trutta-l
#4
Nadezda P Kantserova, Liudmila A Lysenko, Alexey E Veselov, Nina N Nemova
Although protein degradation limits the rate of muscle growth in fish, the role of proteolytic systems responsible for degrading myofibrillar proteins in skeletal muscle is not well defined. The study herein aims to evaluate the role of calpains (calcium-activated proteases) and proteasomes (ATP-dependent proteases) in mediating muscle protein turnover at different life stages in wild salmonids. Protease activities were estimated in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) parr and smolts from the Indera River (Kola Peninsula, Russia)...
March 26, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343256/spatiotemporal-deep-imaging-of-syncytium-induced-by-the-soybean-cyst-nematode-heterodera-glycines
#5
Mina Ohtsu, Yoshikatsu Sato, Daisuke Kurihara, Takuya Suzaki, Masayoshi Kawaguchi, Daisuke Maruyama, Tetsuya Higashiyama
Parasite infections cause dramatic anatomical and ultrastructural changes in host plants. Cyst nematodes are parasites that invade host roots and induce a specific feeding structure called a syncytium. A syncytium is a large multinucleate cell formed by cell wall dissolution-mediated cell fusion. The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, is a major soybean pathogen. To investigate SCN infection and the syncytium structure, we established an in planta deep imaging system using a clearing solution ClearSee and two-photon excitation microscopy (2PEM)...
March 25, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343214/moderate-grade-germinal-matrix-haemorrhage-activates-cell-division-in-the-neonatal-mouse-subventricular-zone
#6
William J Dawes, Xinyu Zhang, Stephen P J Fancy, David Rowitch, Silvia Marino
Precise temporal and spatial control of the neural stem/progenitor cells within the subventricular zone (SVZ) germinal matrix of the brain is important for normal development in the third trimester and the early postnatal period. The high metabolic demands of proliferating germinal matrix precursors, coupled with the flimsy structure of the germinal matrix cerebral vasculature, are thought to account for the high rates of haemorrhage in extremely- and very-low-birth-weight preterm infants. Germinal matrix haemorrhage can commonly extend to intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH)...
March 25, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343149/%C3%AE-adrenergic-stimulation-induces-histone-deacetylase-5-hdac5-nuclear-accumulation-in-cardiomyocytes-by-b55%C3%AE-pp2a-mediated-dephosphorylation
#7
Kate L Weeks, Antonella Ranieri, Agnieszka Karaś, Bianca C Bernardo, Alexandra S Ashcroft, Chris Molenaar, Julie R McMullen, Metin Avkiran
BACKGROUND: Class IIa histone deacetylase (HDAC) isoforms such as HDAC5 are critical signal-responsive repressors of maladaptive cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, through nuclear interactions with transcription factors including myocyte enhancer factor-2. β-Adrenoceptor (β-AR) stimulation, a signal of fundamental importance in regulating cardiac function, has been proposed to induce both phosphorylation-independent nuclear export and phosphorylation-dependent nuclear accumulation of cardiomyocyte HDAC5...
March 25, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343145/effects-of-tiletamine-on-the-adenosine-monophosphate-activated-protein-kinase-signaling-pathway-in-the-rat-central-nervous-system
#8
Li-Xue Su, Xing-Xing Shi, Peng Yang, Hao Chen, Xin Li, Hong-Gang Fan, Hong-Bin Wang
OBJECTIVE: The dissociative anesthetic tiletamine, which acts on the central nervous system (CNS), is widely used in veterinary medicine and animal experiments. Recent studies indicate that adenosine 5'-monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a key role in the analgesic action of tiletamine. In the present study, the effects of tiletamine on the AMPK signaling pathway in rats were investigated. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally with tiletamine and executed at 10, 20, 40 and 60min post injection...
March 21, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343135/monodisperse-ag-pd-core-shell-nanoparticles-assembled-on-reduced-graphene-oxide-as-highly-efficient-catalysts-for-the-transfer-hydrogenation-of-nitroarenes
#9
Önder Metin, Hasan Can, Kıvılcım Şendil, Mehmet Serdar Gültekin
Addressed herein is a facile seed-mediated synthesis of Ag/Pd core/shell nanoparticles (NPs) and their assembly on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) to catalyze the transfer hydrogenation of nitroarenes to anilines using ammonia borane (AB) as a hydrogen donor under ambient conditions. Monodisperse Ag/Pd core/shell NPs with controllable Pd shell-thickness were synthesized by the means of thermal decomposition of palladium(II) bromide over as-prepared Ag NPs in the mixture of oleylamine and oleic acid at 220°C. As-synthesized Ag/Pd core/shell NPs were characterized by TEM, HR-TEM, XRD, XPS, UV-Vis spectroscopy and ICP-MS and then they were assembled on reduced graphene oxide (rGO)...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343126/pi3k-signaling-in-cancer-beyond-akt
#10
REVIEW
Evan C Lien, Christian C Dibble, Alex Toker
The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway is one of the most frequently altered pathways in human cancer and has a critical role in driving tumor initiation and progression. Although PI3K and its lipid product phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) have been shown to activate multiple downstream signaling proteins, the vast majority of studies have focused on the protein kinase AKT as the dominant effector of PI3K signaling. However, recent studies have demonstrated many contexts under which other PIP3-dependent signaling proteins critically contribute to cancer progression, illustrating the importance of understanding AKT-independent signaling downstream of PI3K...
March 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343125/structural-modeling-of-human-organic-cation-transporters
#11
Tikam Chand Dakal, Rajender Kumar, Dindial Ramotar
Human organic cation transporters (hOCTs) belong to solute carriers (SLC) 22 family of membrane proteins that play a central role in transportation of chemotherapeutic drugs for several clinical and pathological conditions, including cancer and diabetes. These transporters mediate drug transport; however, the precise mechanism of drug-binding and transport by them is not fully uncovered yet, partly due to unavailability of any crystal structure record. In this work, we performed a multi-phasic approach to compute the 3D structural models of seven human organic cation transporters (hOCTs) starting from primary protein sequence...
March 18, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343104/localized-surface-plasmon-resonance-mediated-fluorescence-signals-in-plasmonic-nanoparticle-quantum-dot-hybrids-for-ultrasensitive-zika-virus-rna-detection-via-hairpin-hybridization-assays
#12
Oluwasesan Adegoke, Masahiro Morita, Tatsuya Kato, Masahito Ito, Tetsuro Suzuki, Enoch Y Park
The current epidemic caused by the Zika virus (ZIKV) and the devastating effects of this virus on fetal development, which result in an increased incidence of congenital microcephaly symptoms, have prompted the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare the ZIKV a public health issue of global concern. Efficient probes that offer high detection sensitivity and specificity are urgently required to aid in the point-of-care treatment of the virus. In this study, we show that localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) signals from plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) can be used to mediate the fluorescence signal from semiconductor quantum dot (Qdot) nanocrystals in a molecular beacon (MB) biosensor probe for ZIKV RNA detection...
March 22, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343084/role-of-pterostilbene-in-attenuating-immune-mediated-devastation-of-pancreatic-beta-cells-via-nrf2-signaling-cascade
#13
Dornadula Sireesh, Munuswamy-Ramanujam Ganesh, Umapathy Dhamodharan, Murugesan Sakthivadivel, Srinivasan Sivasubramanian, Palani Gunasekaran, Kunka Mohanram Ramkumar
Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2) is a transcription factor that regulates oxidative/xenobiotic stress response and also suppress inflammation. Nrf2 signaling is associated with an increased susceptibility to various kinds of stress. Nrf2 has been shown as a promising therapeutic target in various human diseases including diabetes. Our earlier studies showed Pterostilbene (PTS) as a potent Nrf2 activator, and it protects the pancreatic β-cells against oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated PTS confer protection against cytokine-induced β-cell apoptosis and its role on insulin secretion in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343076/repression-of-dok7-mediated-by-dnmt3a-promotes-the-proliferation-and-invasion-of-kyse410-and-te-12-escc-cells
#14
Shou-Mei Yang, Su-Yi Li, Hao-Bin Yu, Jie-Ru Li, Lei-Lei Sun
Increasing evidence shows that aberrant epigenetic regulation of tumor suppressor genes is a contributing factor to their altered expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In the current study, we investigate the role of DOK7 in ESCC cells. We found that enforced expression of DOK7 inhibited the proliferation and invasion of ESCC cells. We also found that treatment of ESCC cells with the DNA methylation inhibitor, 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-azadC), induced the demethylation of DOK7 in promoter and DOK7 expression...
March 23, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343019/a-new-opportunity-for-nanomedicines-micellar-cytochrome-p450-inhibitors-to-improve-drug-efficacy-in-a-cancer-therapy-model
#15
Marion Paolini, Laurence Poul, Audrey Darmon, Matthieu Germain, Agnès Pottier, Laurent Levy, Eric Vibert
Nanomedicines are mainly used as drug delivery systems; here we evaluate a new application - to inhibit a drug's metabolism thereby enhancing its effective dose. Micelles containing the natural furanocoumarin 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB), a known CYP450 inhibitor, were developed to transiently block hepatic CYP450-mediated drug metabolism and increase the bioavailability of the oncology drug docetaxel. Administered in mice 24hours prior to the drug, DHB-micelles enhanced antitumor efficacy in the tumor xenograft models HT-29 and MDA-MB-231, when compared to the drug alone...
March 22, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342991/transformation-of-17%C3%AE-ethinylestradiol-by-simultaneous-photo-enzymatic-process-in-humic-water
#16
Yun Yang, Jianhua Li, Kun Lu, Huanhuan Shi, Shixiang Gao
The fate of estrogens in surface water is mainly dependent on two processes, i.e. photodegradation and biotransformation. Each of the separate process is invariably of interest, but research on the combination of the two processes has rarely been explored. In the present work, the transformation of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) by simultaneous photochemical and enzymatic process in water was systematically investigated. The combined transformation rate of EE2 (0.057 h(-1)) in the presence of natural organic matter (NOM) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) under simulated sunlight irradiation was markedly faster than that in the presence of NOM only (0...
March 23, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342987/circular-rnas-and-cancer
#17
Jun He, Qichao Xie, Hailin Xu, Jiantian Li, Yongsheng Li
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a type of non-coding RNA molecules that lack a 5'-terminal cap and 3'-terminal poly A tail. A large number of circRNAs have been identified through biological experiments, computational methods and high-throughput sequencing. CircRNA sequence composition determines if a given circRNA is exonic, intronic or retained-intronic. CircRNAs are more abundant and stable than linear mRNAs, and their expression is both step- and location-specific. CircRNAs mediate transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene and protein expression...
March 22, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342985/mast-cells-are-directly-activated-by-contact-with-cancer-cells-by-a-mechanism-involving-autocrine-formation-of-adenosine-and-autocrine-paracrine-signaling-of-the-adenosine-a3-receptor
#18
Yaara Gorzalczany, Eyal Akiva, Ofir Klein, Ofer Merimsky, Ronit Sagi-Eisenberg
Mast cells (MCs) constitute an important part of the tumor microenvironment (TME). However, their underlying mechanisms of activation within the TME remain poorly understood. Here we show that recapitulating cell-to-cell contact interactions by exposing MCs to membranes derived from a number of cancer cell types, results in MC activation, evident by the increased phosphorylation of the ERK1/2 MAP kinases and Akt, in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase dependent fashion. Activation is unidirectional since MC derived membranes do not activate cancer cells...
March 22, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342984/hdac4-and-hdac6-sustain-dna-double-strand-break-repair-and-stem-like-phenotype-by-promoting-radioresistance-in-glioblastoma-cells
#19
Francesco Marampon, Francesca Megiorni, Simona Camero, Clara Crescioli, Heather P McDowell, Roberta Sferra, Antonella Vetuschi, Simona Pompili, Luca Ventura, Francesca De Felice, Vincenzo Tombolini, Carlo Dominici, Roberto Maggio, Claudio Festuccia, Giovanni Luca Gravina
The role of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 4 and 6 in glioblastoma (GBM) radioresistance was investigated. We found that tumor samples from 31 GBM patients, who underwent temozolomide and radiotherapy combined treatment, showed HDAC4 and HDAC6 expression in 93.5% and 96.7% of cases, respectively. Retrospective clinical data analysis demonstrated that high-intensity HDAC4 and/or HDAC6 immunostaining was predictive of poor clinical outcome. In vitro experiments revealed that short hairpin RNA-mediated silencing of HDAC4 or HDAC6 radiosensitized U87MG and U251MG GBM cell lines by promoting DNA double-strand break (DSBs) accumulation and by affecting DSBs repair molecular machinery...
March 22, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342980/muscarinic-receptor-mediated-signaling-pathways-in-hepatocytes-from-ccl4-induced-liver-fibrotic-rat
#20
Lin Luo, Chenghao Xi, Tingting Xu, Gaoshan Zhang, E Qun, Wei Zhang
The pathological changes of parasympathetic nerves are considered as an independent prognostic factor of the survival rate for patients with chronic liver disease. The non-selective muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAchR) agonists and antagonists can affect the proliferation of hepatocytes, but little is known about the role of mAChR in hepatocytes and hepatic fibrosis and the signaling pathway of this receptor in regulation of hepatocytes remains elusive. Here, 3ml/kg 40% carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) was given to induce hepatic fibrosis in rats and the hepatocytes were isolated to investigate the expression of mAchR and the cell signaling pathways which were involved in...
March 22, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
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